Irish Rebellion of 1798

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 was an uprising against British rule in Ireland. The United Irishmen, a republican revolutionary group influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions, were the main organising force behind the rebellion, led by Presbyterians angry at being shut out of power by the Anglican establishment and joined by Catholics, who made up the majority of the population. A French army which landed in County Mayo in support of the rebels was overwhelmed by British and loyalist forces; the uprising was suppressed by British Crown forces with a death toll of between 10,000 and 30,000. Since 1691 and the end of the Williamite War, Ireland had chiefly been controlled by the minority Anglican Protestant Ascendancy constituting members of the established Church of Ireland loyal to the British Crown, it governed through a form of institutionalised sectarianism codified in the Penal Laws which discriminated against both the majority Irish Catholic population and Dissenters.

In the late 18th century, liberal elements among the ruling class were inspired by the example of the American Revolution and sought to form common cause with the Catholic populace to achieve reform and greater autonomy from Britain. As in England, the majority of Protestants, as well as all Catholics, were barred from voting because they did not pass a property threshold. Despite Ireland nominally being a sovereign kingdom governed by the monarch and Parliament of the island, due to a series of laws enacted by the English, such as Poynings' law of 1494 and the Declaratory Act 1719, Ireland in reality had less independence than most of Britain's North American colonies, adding to the list of grievances; when France joined the Americans in support of their Revolutionary War, London called for volunteers to join militias to defend Ireland against the threat of invasion from France. Many thousands joined the Irish Volunteers. In 1782 they used their newly powerful position to force the Crown to grant the landed Ascendancy self-rule and a more independent parliament.

The Irish Patriot Party, led by Henry Grattan, pushed for greater enfranchisement. In 1793 Parliament passed laws allowing Catholics with some property to vote, but they could neither be elected nor appointed as state officials. Liberal elements of the Ascendancy seeking a greater franchise for the people, an end to religious discrimination, were further inspired by the French Revolution, which had taken place in a Catholic country; the prospect of reform inspired a small group of Protestant liberals in Belfast to found the Society of United Irishmen in 1791. The organisation crossed the religious divide with a membership comprising Roman Catholics, Methodists, other Protestant "dissenters" groups, some from the Protestant Ascendancy; the Society put forward policies of further democratic reforms and Catholic emancipation, reforms which the Irish Parliament had but reluctantly granted in 1793. The outbreak of war with France earlier in 1793, following the execution of Louis XVI, forced the Society underground and toward armed insurrection with French aid.

The avowed intent of the United Irishmen was to "break the connection with England". However, only a small proportion of them took part in the 1798 rebellion, suggesting that most members supported its aims, but not to the extent of violence unless provoked, it linked up with Catholic agrarian resistance groups, known as the Defenders, who had started raiding houses for arms in early 1793. To augment their growing strength, the United Irish leadership decided to seek military help from the French revolutionary government and to postpone the rising until French troops landed in Ireland. Theobald Wolfe Tone, leader of the United Irishmen, travelled in exile from the United States to France in 1796 to press the case for intervention. By this stage the dominant Roman Catholic Hierarchy was opposed to the United Irish, having seen the results of the "Dechristianization" policy in France since 1789, this led to a reduction of support. In 1796–97 the French armies had opposed the Papacy in Italy, in February 1798 the French republican system set up a short-lived "Roman Republic".

The hierarchy was concerned that a republican rebellion led by protestant nationalists, would, if successful, be governed as yet another "Sister republic" of France. Tone's efforts succeeded with the dispatch of the Expédition d'Irlande, he accompanied a force of 14,000 French veteran troops under General Hoche which arrived off the coast of Ireland at Bantry Bay in December 1796 after eluding the Royal Navy; the despairing Wolfe Tone remarked, "England has had its luckiest escape since the Armada." The French fleet was forced to return home and the veteran army intended to spearhead the invasion of Ireland split up and was sent to fight in other theatres of the French Revolutionary Wars. The Establishment responded to widespread disorder by launching a counter-campaign of martial law from 2 March 1797, it used tactics including house burnings, torture of captives and murder in Ulster as it was the one area of Ireland where large numbers of Catholics and Protestants had effected common cause.

In May 1797 the military in Belfast violently suppressed the newspaper of the United Iri

1790 United States House of Representatives elections in New York

The 1790 United States House of Representatives elections in New York were held from April 27 to 29, 1790, to elect six U. S. Representatives to represent the State of New York in the United States House of Representatives; the first U. S. Representatives under the United States Constitution had been elected in March 1789, had taken their seats in the 1st United States Congress for a term ending on March 3, 1791. State elections in New York were at that time held during the last week of April, which meant that the State election preceding the beginning of the next congressional term was held more than ten months in advance, although the regular session of Congress was scheduled to convene only on the first Monday in December; the New York politicians chose to have the seats filled, in case there might be a special session to convene at an earlier date. On January 27, 1789, the New York State Legislature divided the State of New York into six congressional districts which were not numbered; the districts remained the same as for the previous elections in March 1789.

One district comprising Kings, Queens and Suffolk counties. One district comprising New York City, Westchester County except the towns of Salem, North Salem, Cortland and Stephentown. One district comprising Dutchess County and the abovementioned towns in Westchester. One district comprising Orange and Ulster counties. One district comprising Albany County east of the Hudson River, Columbia and Washington counties. One district comprising Albany County west of the Hudson River, Montgomery and Ontario counties. Note: There are now 62 counties in the State of New York; the counties which are not mentioned in this list had not yet been established, or sufficiently organized, the area being included in one or more of the abovementioned counties. Five Federalists and one Anti-Federalist were elected; the incumbents Laurance and Silvester were re-elected, the incumbents Floyd and Van Rensselaer were defeated. Note: At this time political parties were still new in the United States. Politicians aligned in two opposing groups: Those supporting the federal government and those opposing it.

The first group are known as the Federalists, or the "Pro-Administration Party." The second group at first were called the Anti-Federalists, or the "Anti-Administration Party", but soon called themselves "Republicans." However, at the same time, the Federalists called them "Democrats", meant to be pejorative. After some time both terms got more and more confused, sometimes used together as "Democratic Republicans" which historians have adopted to describe the party from the beginning, to avoid confusion with both the established and still existing Democratic and Republican parties. Representative-elect James Townsend died on May 24, 1790, just a month after his election, well before the congressional term began. A special election to fill the vacancy was held at the time of the annual state election, from April 26 to 28, 1791, was won by Anti-Federalist Thomas Tredwell, thus four Federalists and two Anti-Federalists represented New York in the House of Representatives of the 2nd U. S. Congress.

The House of Representatives of the 2nd United States Congress convened for its first session at Congress Hall in Philadelphia on October 24, 1791, Gordon, Laurance and Tredwell took their seats on this day. Benson took his seat on November 4; the New York Civil List compiled in 1858 Members of the Second United States Congress Election result 1st D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Election result 2nd D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Election result 3rd D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Election result 4th D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Election result 5th D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Election result 6th D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" Special election result 1st D. at Tufts University Library project "A New Nation Votes" (

Ilias Botaitis

Ilias Botaitis is a Greek former footballer, last played for Aiginiakos F. C. in the Greece Football League as a midfielder. Born in Greece, Botaitis began playing professional football with the Pierikos F. C. in the Gamma Ethniki. During his career, he appeared in 36 Alpha Ethniki, 110 Beta Ethniki and 67 Gamma Ethniki matches with Pierikos, Ethnikos Asteras, Panelefsiniakos F. C. Paniliakos, Panserraikos F. C. Panthrakikos F. C. Proodeftiki F. C. and Ag. Dimitrios F. C. before retiring from professional football in February 2012. Myplayer Profile Profile at Profile at Profile at Guardian Football