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Irish Volunteers

The Irish Volunteers, sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. It was ostensibly formed in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers in 1912, its declared primary aim was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland"; the Volunteers included members of the Gaelic League, Ancient Order of Hibernians and Sinn Féin, secretly, the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Increasing to a strength of nearly 200,000 by mid-1914, it split in September of that year over John Redmond's commitment to the British War effort, with the smaller group retaining the name of "Irish Volunteers". Home Rule for Ireland dominated political debate between the two countries since Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone introduced the first Home Rule Bill in 1886, intended to grant a measure of self-government and national autonomy to Ireland, but, rejected by the House of Commons.

The second Home Rule Bill, seven years having passed the House of Commons, was vetoed by the House of Lords. It would be the third Home Rule Bill, introduced in 1912, which would lead to the crisis in Ireland between the majority Nationalist population and the Unionists in Ulster. On 28 September 1912 at Belfast City Hall just over 450,000 Unionists signed the Ulster Covenant to resist the granting of Home Rule; this was followed in January 1913 with the formation of the Ulster Volunteers composed of adult male Unionists to oppose the passage and implementation of the bill by force of arms if necessary. The establishment of the Ulster Volunteers was instigated and financed by English Tories with the other major British party, the Liberals, not finding "itself distressed by that proceeding." The initiative for a series of meetings leading up to the public inauguration of the Irish Volunteers came from the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Bulmer Hobson, co-founder of the republican boy-Scouts, Fianna Éireann, member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, believed the IRB should use the formation of the Ulster Volunteers as an "excuse to try to persuade the public to form an Irish volunteer force".

The IRB could not move in the direction of a volunteer force themselves, as any such action by known proponents of physical force would be suppressed, despite the precedent established by the Ulster Volunteers. They therefore confined themselves to encouraging the view that nationalists ought to organise a volunteer force for the defence of Ireland. A small committee began to meet in Dublin from July 1913, who watched the growth of this opinion, they refrained however from any action until the precedent of Ulster should have first been established while waiting for the lead to come from a "constitutional" quarter. The IRB began the preparations for the open organisation of the Irish Volunteers in January 1913. James Stritch, an IRB member, had the Irish National Foresters build a hall at the back of 41 Parnell Square in Dublin, the headquarters of the Wolfe Tone Clubs. Anticipating the formation of the Volunteers they began to learn military movements; the drilling was conducted by Stritch together with members of Fianna Éireann.

They began by drilling a small number of IRB associated with the Dublin Gaelic Athletic Association, led by Harry Boland. Michael Collins along with several other IRB members claim that the formation of the Irish Volunteers was not a "knee-jerk reaction" to the Ulster Volunteers, supposed, but was in fact the "old Irish Republican Brotherhood in fuller force." The IRB knew they would need a regarded figure as a public front that would conceal the reality of their control. The IRB found in Eoin MacNeill, Professor of Early and Medieval History at University College Dublin, the ideal candidate. McNeill's academic credentials and reputation for integrity and political moderation had widespread appeal; the O'Rahilly, assistant editor and circulation manager of the Gaelic League newspaper An Claidheamh Soluis, encouraged MacNeill to write an article for the first issue of a new series of articles for the paper. The O'Rahilly suggested to MacNeill that it should be on some wider subject than mere Gaelic pursuits.

It was this suggestion which gave rise to the article entitled The North Began, giving the Irish Volunteers its public origins. On 1 November, MacNeill's article suggesting the formation of an Irish volunteer force was published. MacNeill wrote,There is nothing to prevent the other twenty-eight counties from calling into existence citizen forces to hold Ireland "for the Empire", it was with this object that the Volunteers of 1782 were enrolled, they became the instrument of establishing Irish self-government. After the article was published, Hobson asked The O'Rahilly to see MacNeill, to suggest to him that a conference should be called to make arrangements for publicly starting the new movement; the article "threw down the gauntlet to nationalists to follow the lead given by Ulster unionists." MacNeill was unaware of the detailed planning, going on in the background, but was aware of Hobson's political leanings. He knew the purpose as to why he was chosen. With MacNeill willing to take part, O'Rahilly and Hobson sent out invitations for the first meeting at Wynn's Hotel in Abbey Street, Dublin, on 11 November.

Hobson himself did not attend this meeting, believing his standing as an "extreme nationalist" might prove problematical. The IRB, was well represented by, among others, Sean MacDermott and Eamonn Ceannt, who would prove to be more extreme than Hobson. Several others meetings were soon to follow, a

Manasu Mangalyam

Manasu Mangalyam is a 1971 Telugu drama film, produced by Koganti Kutumba Rao under the Uttama Chitra banner and directed by K. Pratyagatma, it stars Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Jamuna in the lead roles and with music composed by Pendyala Nageswara Rao. The film begins on, Ravi a poet suffers in a penniless situation unable to pay the house rent for which he hides his face from his house owner Perumalaiah and the minor source that he has is his best friend Shekar. Perumalaiah leads a happy family life with his wife Aandallu & son Kavi Kulashekara but sadly their only daughter Amurtha elopes. One night, a beautiful rich woman Manjula while escaping from Police lands at Ravi's room when everyone assumes her as his wife. There onwards, Ravi' life takes a U-turn and they are acquainted with each other. Manjula publishes his literary work and makes him a famous poet when Ravi starts loving her. After that, Ravi narrates his past, in his childhood, he has been missed from his elder sister Seeta & younger brother Madhu.

Right now, Seeta who grown at a prostitute house as Mumtaz who rears Madhu with a lot of affection & care without revealing her identity. Manjula Suddenly disappears, Ravi could not find her whereabouts and becomes a drunkard, in that state, he goes0 to Mehdi where Mumtaz recognizes him but maintains silence. Thereafter, Manjula returns her house where shockingly, it is revealed that she is married a person Murthy. Meanwhile, Kavi Kulashekara felicitates Ravi. During that time, Ravi gets surprised to see Manjula as Murthy's wife he seeks for the truth and she replies, she is grand-daughter of a multi-millionaire Parandhamaiah, Murthy used to work as their manager who posed himself as a wise person and married her. Soon after the marriage, she learned that he is a deceiver of a poor girl, none other than Amurtha that's why she has evaded and took shelter at Ravi's house. Parallelly, Manjula's younger sister. At present, Manjula decides to unite Murthy & Amurtha through Ravi she finds out Amurtha is under the guardianship of Shekar, so, Manjula takes her home but Murthy refuses to marry her.

On the other side, Madhu knows the truth regarding his sister he understands her virtue but Sarala accuses them when Madhu becomes furious and Murthy provokes his anger. Both of them plan to blast their factory when the combat erupts between brothers. At that point in time, Mumtaz arrives, reveals their birth secret and Amurtha protects Murthy from harm when he is aware of his mistake. At last, Murthy accepts Amrutha and divorces Manjula Madhu & Sarala are paired up; the movie ends Ravi continuing his journey and Manjula too accompanies him. Akkineni Nageswara Rao as Ravi Jamuna as Manjula Jaggayya as Murthy Chittor V. Nagaiah as Purushotham Ramana Reddy as Perumalaiah Padmanabham as Kavi Kula Shekaram Ramakrishna as Shekar Chandra Mohan as Madhu Anjali Devi as Muntaz Suryakantham as Aandallu Geetanjali as Geetha Anitha as Sarala Mani Maala as Amrutha Jhansi as Suramma Art: G. V. Subba Rao Choreography: Tangappa, Sampath Dialogues: Acharya Aatreya Lyrics: Acharya Aatreya, Appalachary Playback: Ghantasala, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalata Music: Pendyala Nageswara Rao Story: K. Srinivasa Rao Editing: P. Srihari Rao Cinematography: K. S. Rama Krishna Rao Producer: Koganti Kutumba Rao Screenplay - Director: K. Pratyagatma Banner: Uttama Chitra Release Date: 28 January 1971 Music composed by Pendyala Nageswara Rao.

Music released on Audio Company

Townsville Grammar School

Townsville Grammar School is an independent, co-educational, International Baccalaureate and boarding school, located in Townsville Established in 1888, it is the northernmost member of the grammar school system in Queensland. During World War II the school was acquired by the Royal Australian Air Force for use as barracks accommodation for the No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF. The School Badge was designed in 1902 by a Sydney architect; the background represents the Southern Cross, with the Three Turrets set on the Rock of Christianity, surrounded by the sea of Plenty. The central turret symbolises spiritual values, while the two side turrets represent intellectual and sporting values; the Latin text on the badge reads "Bonus intra melior exi" "Come in good, go out better". P. F. Rowland is as of 2018 the longest serving headmaster. During his time,"Boss" Rowland taught the School's two Rhodes Scholars, Chester Parker and George Hall; the Junior School North Shore campus teaches from pre-kindy. This campus opened in 2015, continues to grow.

The Junior School Annandale campus teaches from pre-preparatory to grade 6. This campus opened in 1997; the North Ward campus is situated in the seaside suburb of North Ward in Townsville. It comprises the Middle Senior School; the School House building is now heritage-listed. The four sporting houses are named after former headmasters: Rowland - Red colour Miller - Blue colour Hodges - Green colour Whight - Purple colour Karen Andrews, current member of parliament for McPherson Charles Davidson and former Postmaster-General & Minister for the Navy Harriet Dyer, actress Ted Harding and rugby league player Harold Lowes and politician Micheal Luck, professional rugby league player Agnes McWhinney, first female solicitor in Australia Greg Norman, former Number 1 ranked golfer Frederick Perkins, teacher and minister Douglas Reye, first to study and namesake of Reye syndrome List of schools in Queensland Townsville Grammar School Official Website

Achnatherum aridum

Achnatherum aridum is a species of grass known by the common name Mormon needlegrass. It is native to the southwestern United States from the Mojave Desert in California east to Colorado and New Mexico. Achnatherum aridum woodland habitat at some elevation, it is a tuft-forming perennial bunchgrass without rhizomes. The bunches of stems reach a maximum height of around 85 centimetres; the inflorescence is a panicle partly enfolded in the narrow sheath of the uppermost leaf. The spikelets have hairlike awns 4–8 centimetres long. Jepson Manual Treatment - Achnatherum aridum USDA Plants Profile.

List of people pardoned by George W. Bush

This is a list of people pardoned by George W. Bush. Bush, a Republican, served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009; the pardon powers of the President are outlined in Article Two of the United States Constitution, which provides: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States. A pardon is an executive order granting clemency for a conviction, it may be granted "at any point after the...commission" of the crime. As per Justice Department regulations, convicted persons may only apply five or more years after their sentence has been completed. However, the President's power to pardon is not restricted by any temporal constraints except that the crime must have been committed, its practical effect is the restoration of civil rights and statutory disabilities associated with a past criminal conviction. In rarer cases, such as the pardon of Richard Nixon, a pardon can halt criminal proceedings and prevent an indictment.

A commutation is the mitigation of the sentence of someone serving a sentence for a crime pursuant to a conviction, without vacating the conviction itself. A list of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States, ordered by date of pardon or commutation, is available here: List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Department of Justice Immediate Release Bobby Mac Berry, May 20, 2004 Geraldine Gordon, May 20, 2004 Phillip Anthony Emmert, December 21, 2006 Lewis Libby, July 2, 2007 in connect to the Valerie Plame affair Michael Dwayne Short, December 10, 2007 Patricia Beckford, March 24, 2008 John Forté, November 24, 2008 James Russell Harris, November 24, 2008 Reed Raymond Prior of Des Moines, December 23, 2008 Ignacio Ramos, January 19, 2009 Jose Compean, January 19, 2009 Henry Lee Lucas – serial killer convicted of 11 homicides Federal pardons in the United States List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States List of people pardoned by George H. W. Bush List of people pardoned by Bill Clinton List of people granted executive clemency by Barack Obama "Constitutional Law of Pardons: Scope and Limits of President's Power" by Samuel T. Morison.

"Begging Bush's Pardon" by George Lardner, Jr. opinion in the New York Times, February 4, 2008 "Begging Bush's pardon" by Margaret Colgate Love, opinion in the Los Angeles Times, June 7, 2006 President's Statement Upon Libby Commutation Text of Libby Clemency Grant


Tulsk is a village in County Roscommon, Ireland. It lies on the N5 national primary road between Bellanagare, it is 19 km north of Roscommon town. Cruachan may be one of the most important and best preserved Celtic Royal Sites in Europe, Tulsk is the setting for the interpretative centre which explores this complex and mysterious landscape. Cruachan was an Iron Age royal palace, the home of the Irish warrior Queen Medb, responsible for launching the Cattle raid of Cooley, as recounted in one of the best known works of early Irish literature, the Táin Bó Cuailnge. Modern science is shedding new light on the significance of this ancient landscape and the meaning of the 60 National Monuments to be found here; the results of Archaeological Surveys carried out by Prof. John Waddell, from National University of Ireland, are incorporated into the exhibition rooms at Cruachan Aí Heritage Centre; the book "Rathcroghan, Co Roscommon: archaeological and geophysical survey in a ritual landscape", by John Waddell, Joe Fenwick, Kevin Barton, details significant and unknown features and information about the Celtic Royal Site of Connacht.

The Discovery Programme has based its primary archaeological excavations and survey in the medieval village of Tulsk, surrounding areas, from 2003 to 2009. Archaeological research conducted by the Discovery Programme, Ireland’s archaeological research institute funded by the Heritage Council, has been examining the nature of Gaelic lordship and settlement in north Roscommon during the medieval period, c. 1170-1650 AD. Since 2003, elements of this work have focussed on the history and development of Tulsk, as the principal residence of the O’Conor Roe lords. Excavation on the ringfort in Tulsk village continues to reveal a sequence of unexpected and complex settlement horizons, which include a medieval castle-building phase and an Elizabethan-period occupation, when the mound was included as part of the works associated with the garrisoning of Tulsk by Sir Richard Bingham, the ‘Flail of Connacht’. In 2009, the archaeological team has focused on a series of critical strata that explain the dating and development of the site.

This year’s work considers the ringfort that underlies the medieval tower. The work shows ditch, it shows the levels of soil introduced at a date to build up the rignfort into a ‘platform’ of ‘raised rath’ form, sometime before the building of the medieval tower. The recent excavation has revealed prehistoric levels, that extend back into the Mesolithic period, before the time of farming and when hunting and gathering prevailed; the sequence of levels reveals the degree to which the medieval lords attached value to returning to known sites of habitation. Student volunteers from Ireland and from around the world have continued to contribute to the success of the excavation project, school groups and other visitors have availed of the opportunity to watch the progress of the work. Information on Finds and other images are presented in the Cruachan Aí Heritage Centre. Parliamentary borough Tulsk was a parliamentary borough, one of three in County Roscommon from the period 1663 to 1800 and was a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons.

Under the co-monarchs William III of England and Mary II of England Tulsk was first represented in the Commons by William Caulfeild and William Neave in 1692. The year marked what was to be the beginning of an extended period of dominance for the Protestant Ascendancy. One of the two seats was hereditary in the Caulfeild family. Visit of Gabriel Beranger 1779 In 1779 the artist Gabriel Beranger travelled throughout Ireland to paint the'antiquities’ of Ireland for the Hibernian Antiquarian Society. On his travels he passed through Rathcroghan, he noted that on May Day he witnessed a scene ‘peculiar to this locality’: It was that of ‘driving in all the black cattle from the surrounding plains to the great fort, bleeding them for the benefit of their health, while crowds of country people, having brought turf for firing, sat around and cooked the blood mixed with oaten meal, when they could be procured, onions or scallions.’ From A Memoir of Gabriel Beranger, available online. O'Conor Roe erected a castle here in 1406, during the same century a Dominican monastery was founded either by MacDuil or O'Dowell, or by Phelim, son of Phelim Cleary O'Conor, interred here in 1448.

The castle was for a long time one of the strongest in the province, was garrisoned by the Earl of Kildare when he led his forces into this province in 1499. The monastery continued to flourish till the reign of Elizabeth, but for some time prior to the dissolution its possessions were usurped by the Corporation of Galway. A Dominican abbey was founded at Toemonia, near the town, by O'Conor Roe which in the reign of Elizabeth was found to be in the occupation of Franciscans of the third order, on whose suppression it was granted by the Queen to Richard Kyndelinshe; the inhabitants were incorporated by Charles II. in the fourteenth year of his reign, by the designation of the "Portreeve, Free Burgesses, Commonalty of the Borough of Tulsk:" the charter con