Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Ottawa National Forest
The Ottawa National Forest is a national forest that covers 993,010 acres in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It includes much of Gogebic and Ontonagon counties, as well as slices of Iron, Houghton and Marquette counties; the forest is under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Forest Service; the headquarters are in Ironwood, Michigan, on the Wisconsin border, the principal visitor center is located in Watersmeet, Michigan, in the southern section of the Forest. These and other towns within and adjacent to the Forest are served by U. S. Highway 2, one of the principal highways of the Western Upper Peninsula. There are local ranger district offices in Bessemer, Iron River, Kenton and Watersmeet. Wooded slopes mark the south shore of Lake Superior within the Ottawa National Forest within the Black River country between Little Girl's Point and the Presque Isle River; as the Black River, a National Wild and Scenic River, falls from near Copper Peak down towards the lake, it tumbles over seven separate mapped and named waterfalls.
The Presque Isle river and its major tributary, Copper Creek, have eleven waterfalls, although four of the Presque Isle falls are outside the national forest and are located within the boundaries of the adjacent Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park. Underwood Hill, at 1,867 feet in altitude is the highest elevation in the Presque Isle River drainage area. However, this is not the highest point in the national forest; that honor belongs to an unnamed 1,900-foot hill north of Lac Vieux Desert in southeastern Gogebic County. Rain or snow that falls on the north side of this hill flows through the Ontonagon River towards Lake Superior; the Ottawa National Forest is an area of high precipitation in both winter and summer. Sections of the Forest receive more than 200 inches of snow annually. In winter, Lake Superior, which does not freeze over, is itself the source of much of the water vapor that falls in the area. In many of the summer months, moist air carried by southerly winds from the faraway Gulf does not fall below the dew point in temperature until it enters the Lake Superior basin.
The forested area is poor in topsoil. The glaciers of various Ice Ages, including the most recent Wisconsonian glaciation, scraped much of the forested area down to bare rock or sand; the result is a characteristic boreal forest ecosystem. The Ottawa National Forest is home to several clans of the Ojibwa people who coexisted with the Forest's numerous rocky wetlands, they harvested many of the region's mammals beaver, for their pelts, sold them to traders from Canada and the eastern United States, such as the traders of the American Fur Company. After the fur trade declined, the nation sold most of the forest in the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe. A part of the nation used some of the proceeds from their fur trapping to purchase lands around Lac Vieux Desert, where their descendants remain today as the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa; as a result of the construction of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway in 1892-1894, the forest was opened to logging. A few parcels of old-growth white pine and red pine remain.
After the logging era ended, the heavily-exploited forest was abandoned. The U. S. federal government established the Ottawa National Forest in 1931, but the forest did not reach its full size until after two large land purchases in 1933 and 1935. In 1935 the national forest reached its maximum size of 1,026,329 acres. After some privatizations, the Forest reached its current 1.0 million acre extent. During the years after World War II, growing automobile tourism made it possible for a wider variety of people to visit the forest. Ottawa National Forest is used for fishing and lake kayaking. In winter, the Forest welcomes cross-country snowmobilers; the Ottawa National Forest contains three designated U. S. wilderness areas, managed as such by the Forest Service. They are McCormick Wilderness and the Sturgeon River Gorge Wilderness near Kenton and the Sylvania Wilderness near Watersmeet, Michigan; as of 2006, the Ottawa National Forest operates under a Resource Management Plan promulgated in 1986.
Opened in 1971, the Ottawa Visitor Center offers interpretive programs and exhibits about the natural history and resources of the Forest. The center's mission is to guide visitors to safe and caring use of the Forest. Media related to Ottawa National Forest at Wikimedia Commons U. S. Forest Service - Ottawa National Forest Ottawa Visitor Center Lac Vieux Desert Band
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Crystal Falls, Michigan
Crystal Falls is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,469, it is the county seat of Iron County. The city is located within Crystal Falls Township, but is a separate municipal entity; the area first developed as a major center for the timber industry. Crystal Falls was platted in 1881, it was named for a nearby icy waterfall on the Paint River. A post office called Crystal Falls has been in operation since 1885. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.61 square miles, of which 3.47 square miles is land and 0.14 square miles is water. The city is hilly and the castle-like county courthouse sits on the highest point, overlooking the downtown business district. US 2 US 141 M-69 Indian Trails provides daily intercity bus service between St. Ignace and Ironwood, Michigan. Michigan State University's study of Crystal Falls weather concluded that precipitation was well distributed throughout the year with the crop season, April–September, receiving an average of 20.30 inches or 68% of the average annual total for the 1962-80 period.
During this same period the average wettest month was June with 3.96 inches, while the average driest month was February with 1.02 inches. The National Weather Service's 1971–2000 data shows a 30-year normal annual precipitation of 29.65 inches. The following precipitation extremes, based on the time period of this station's published record, are: greatest observation-day total, 3.86 inches, recorded June 14, 1981. Summer precipitation comes in the form of afternoon showers and thundershowers. Annually, thunderstorms will occur on an average of 33 days. There are 139.2 days with measurable precipitation. The 1950-51 through 1979-80 average seasonal snowfall was 70.6 inches. During this period, 143 days per season averaged 1-inch or more of snow on the ground, but varied from season to season; the following snowfall extremes, based on the time period of this station's published record, are: greatest observation-day total, 18.0 inches, recorded March 7, 1926. Although there are no longer official temperature observations in Crystal Falls, Michigan State University concluded that temperatures are similar to those at the National Weather Service office in Marquette, Michigan.
Temperature records kept from 1962 to 1989 by the National Climatic Data Center show a record high of 99 degrees on June 30, 1963, July 20, 1977. The record low was -42 degrees on February 17, 1979. Annually, there were an average of 4.4 days with highs of higher. Freezing temperatures were recorded in every month except July, which had a record low of 33 degrees on July 6, 1965; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,469 people, 700 households, 402 families residing in the city. The population density was 423.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 893 housing units at an average density of 257.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 700 households of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.6% were non-families.
39.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.73. The median age in the city was 48.3 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,791 people, 795 households, 470 families residing in the city; the population density was 530.6 per square mile. There were 913 housing units at an average density of 270.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.05% White, 0.06% African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.23% of the population. 17.1% were of Finnish, 15.5% Italian, 11.5% German, 9.4% Polish, 9.4% Swedish, 6.6% English and 5.3% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.5 % spoke 1.1 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 795 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.8% were non-families.
36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 28.7% who were 65 years
Michigan's 1st congressional district
Michigan's 1st congressional district is a United States Congressional district containing the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan and 16 counties of Northern Michigan in the Lower Peninsula. The district is represented by Republican Jack Bergman; the district is the second-largest congressional district east of the Mississippi River by land area, behind Maine's 2nd congressional district. Its boundaries contain much of the northeastern part of the Lower Peninsula in addition to the entire Upper Peninsula. Altogether, the district makes up about 44% of the land area of the state of Michigan, it contains the second-longest shoreline of any district in the United States, behind Alaska's At-large congressional district. Of the 83 counties in Michigan, 31 lie within the district, it contains a portion of another, Mason County. Prior to 1992 the 1st Congressional District was a Detroit-based congressional district. From the election of Republican John B. Sosnowski in 1925 until 1964 the former 1st district was represented by only one non-Polish-American politician, Robert H. Clancy.
Along with Sosnowski, 6 Polish-Americans served as the 1st district's representatives elected 7 times, since 1925. The other strong Polish Michigan congressional districts were the 15th district and the dissolved 16th district. In 1964 the 1st Congressional district was drawn as a new, African-American majority district reflecting the changing demographics of Detroit, while enough of the old 1st district was moved to the 14th district that that district retained the 1st's old congressman. John Conyers was elected to congress from the 1st district, a position he would hold until the 1st was removed from Detroit. After 1992, the 1st district covered land in the UP and Northern Michigan. Most of this territory had been in the 11th District from 1892 to 1992; the 1st from 1992–2002 was similar to the present district, except that it did not extend nearly as far south along Lake Michigan, while it took in Traverse City and some surrounding areas on the west side of the state. Alpena Calumet Cheboygan Escanaba Gaylord Iron Mountain Ironwood Ishpeming Hancock Houghton Kingsford Manistee Marquette Menominee Petoskey Sault Ste.
Marie Traverse City In the 1932 primary election for the Democratic Party, George G. Sadowski won, defeating a field of nine other candidates including Alfred Niezychowski. Michigan's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Superior Govtrack.us for the 1st District - Lists current Senators and representative, map showing district outline The Political graveyard: U. S. Representatives from Michigan, 1807–2003 U. S. Representatives 1837–2003, Michigan Manual 2003–2004 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Jack Bergman's official House of Representatives website
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com