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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red; the iron is found in the form of magnetite, goethite, limonite or siderite. Ores containing high quantities of hematite or magnetite are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except oil". Metallic iron is unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths. Iron meteorites themselves are thought to have originated from stellar bodies larger than 1,000 km in diameter; the origin of iron can be traced to formation through nuclear fusion in stars and most of the iron is thought to have originated in dying stars that are large enough to collapse or explode as supernovae.

Although iron is the fourth-most abundant element in the Earth's crust, composing about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more carbonate minerals. The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy-intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals hematite. Prior to the industrial revolution, most iron was obtained from available goethite or bog ore, for example during the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Prehistoric societies used laterite as a source of iron ore. Much of the iron ore utilized by industrialized societies has been mined from predominantly hematite deposits with grades of around 70% Fe; these deposits are referred to as "direct shipping ores" or "natural ores". Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite.

Iron-ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. There are four main types of iron-ore deposits worked depending on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits; these are magnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks containing more than 15% iron composed predominantly of thinly bedded iron minerals and silica. Banded iron formations occur in Precambrian rocks, are weakly to intensely metamorphosed. Banded iron formations may contain iron in carbonates or silicates, but in those mined as iron ores, oxides are the principal iron mineral. Banded iron formations are known as taconite within North America; the mining involves moving tremendous amounts of waste. The waste comes in two forms, non-ore bedrock in the mine, unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself; the mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are the mineral quartz, chemically inert.

This material is stored in regulated water settling ponds. The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the banded iron formation host rock, the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate; the size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as a banded iron formation can be hundreds of meters thick, extend hundreds of kilometers along strike, can come to more than three billion or more tonnes of contained ore. The typical grade of iron at which a magnetite-bearing banded iron formation becomes economic is 25% iron, which can yield a 33% to 40% recovery of magnetite by weight, to produce a concentrate grading in excess of 64% iron by weight; the typical magnetite iron-ore concentrate has less than 0.1% phosphorus, 3–7% silica and less than 3% aluminium. Magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U. S. Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden. Magnetite-bearing banded iron formation is mined extensively in Brazil, which exports significant quantities to Asia, there is a nascent and large magnetite iron-ore industry in Australia.

Direct-shipping iron-ore deposits are exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America and Asia. Most large hematite iron-ore deposits are sourced from altered banded iron formations and igneous accumulations. DSO deposits are rarer than the magnetite-bearing BIF or other rocks which form its main source or protolith rock, but are cheaper to mine and process as they require less beneficiation due to the higher iron content. However, DSO ores can contain higher concentrations of penalty elements being higher in phosphorus, water content and aluminium. Export-grade DSO ores are in the 62–64% Fe range. Granite and ultrapotassic igneous rocks segregate magnetite crystals

Ali Taziev

Ali Musaevich Taziev known as Akhmed Yevloev, Magomet Yevloyev, Emir Magas, is the former leader of both the Ingushetia-based Ingush Jamaat as well as the military wing of the Caucasus Emirate. On 30 September 2006, Taziev was appointed to the post of commander of the Caucasian Front by the orders of Dokka Umarov. In July 2007, one year after Shamil Basayev’s death, Taziev became his official successor as the most high-ranking military commander in the rebel forces, he is believed to be responsible for the death of several local high-ranking security officials. Taziev is an ethnic Ingush, raised in Grozny, Chechnya, he participated in the First Chechen War. After the conclusion of the First Chechen War he entered the police. There he was promoted to the Ingush Interior Ministry Police forces where he attained the rank of Captain. At the start of the Second Chechen War he returned to Chechnya and became a sub-commander under Shamil Basayev before Basayev assigned him to use his family and clan ties to begin raising armed groups in Ingushetia.

In this position, he was among the commanders of the 2004 Nazran raid in which simultaneous nationwide raids on police stations killed over 70 security personnel in the capital Nazran. Taziev was listed by Russia as one of the dead terrorists of the 2004 Beslan hostage crisis, the person who led the negotiations on behalf of the hostage takers under the name Ali Taziyev and whose body was identified after he was killed during the storming of the school; those reports were proved incorrect two years when Taziev was declared wanted by Russia for the assassination of the Ingush deputy Interior Minister Dzhabrail Kostoyev in May 2006. Although the negotiator of the siege known as Ali had similar features as Taziev, his facial profile was much different. According to FSB information, Ali Taziyev was an Ingush Interior Ministry policeman who disappeared without a trace in 1998 and was declared dead in 2000, but instead might have joined forces of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. After the death of Ilyas Gorchkhanov during the 2005 Nalchik raid, Taziev was the next in line to assume leadership of the Ingush Jamaat.

In 2006, he was incorrectly reported as being killed by the FSB operation that killed Shamil Basayev. A month after Basayev's death Taziev was appointed military leader of the Caucasian Front by the President of Ichkeria Dokka Umarov. On July 19, 2007, Taziev was named the Military Amir of the ChRI Armed Forces by Umarov. On October 31, 2007, Umarov proclaimed the Caucasus Emirate and it is assumed he is now the Military Amir of the Caucasus Emirate, of which the Caucasian Front is still its military branch. Ingush authorities say Ali Taziev has been more effective in recruiting new rebels than any other previous commander in Ingushetia. Russian sources have repeatedly blamed him for some of the most deadly attacks on security forces in Ingushetia and neighbouring regions, including the raids of Nazran and Nalchik, in which he worked with Shamil Basayev, Dokka Umarov, Ilyas Gorchkhanov and Anzor Astemirov. In addition, he has been assigned responsibility for the June 2009 bombing attack against Ingush President Yunus-Bek Yevkourov which badly wounded the president.

It is believed that Ali Taziev's tactical successes on the battlefield are fruits of his time spent as an Ingush Interior Ministry Policeman, from 1996 to 1998 before he disappeared with his partner, the wife of a local politician they were tasked with protecting. The woman was released in Grozny, Chechnya in February 2000 unharmed, Taziev's partner turned up dead and Taziev joined the North Caucasus Insurgency. On 9 June 2010, the Russian authorities announced that Taziev had been captured after voluntarily giving himself up to Ingush police. Russian state media reported that subsequent successes in eliminating prominent insurgent commanders in the spring of 2011 were due to Taziev's knowledge of the Caucasus Emirate's leadership being tapped by his FSB interrogators. 3 years after the announcement of his capture, Taziev's trial began on 13 May 2013 in front of a Russian court in Rostov-na-Donu. On 21 June 2013, the head of Ingushetia, Yunus-bek Yevkurov, appeared at the trial as a victim and a witness.

Russian media showed footage of Taziev and Yevkurov debating with each other, with Taziev refusing to ask for forgiveness for anything he is accused of, saying instead that he would only ask for pardon from God. In October 2013, he was sentenced to life imprisonment on terrorism charges. Magas: Shamil Basaev’s Ingush Successor The Jamestown Foundation

Hai Hai Nayaka

Hai Hai Nayaka is a 1989 Telugu language dramedy film and directed by Jandhayala, starring Naresh and Sri Bharati in the lead roles. Madhavapeddi Suresh composed the music for this film; this is the story of a school teacher transforming an abusive and ill-mannered student into a good student. A love track is interwoven in the main story. Ramakrishna, grandson of Suryakantamma loses his job as a Telugu school teacher and is in search of a new job. However, his grandmother thinks that he keep boasting about it, he gets marriage proposals. He tries to make a living by doing odd jobs, but is asked to leave as he tries to teach correct Telugu to his customers also. Suryakantamma is affectionate towards his grandson, he faces a lot of difficulties with her pampering. During his college days, he falls in love with his classmate Radha Rani and she accepts it. Once Suryakantamma comes to visit him and she feels sorry for his situation, she tries to arrange his job by linking it to his marriage. However, he rejects it because he wants to marry Radha Rani, whom he loved sincerely, though they had gotten separated because of some misunderstanding.

He wants to get a job on his own. In a school, son of Pedda Rayudu behaves rudely and uses abusive language with his teachers, but the school teachers are afraid of controlling him because Rayudu uses abusive language. Whenever Rayudu asks them how his son is studying, they try to cover it up by saying he is a good student. Once a D. E. O asks some questions to the students, he gets an abusive reply from Gopi. The DEO gets angry. Infuriated, Rayudu gives an ultimatum to the teachers that his son should be educated properly within 6 months, otherwise he would sack them; as none of the existing school teachers dare to teach him, they look for another teacher, unaware of the situation. At the same time, Suryakantamma arranges an interview for Ramakrishna in that school, they ask him easy questions, gives several allowances to stay in their village. Ramakrishna teaches discipline to all the students, but he is shocked by his abusive language and beats him. All the teachers are shocked by this behavior, they explain to him that the school is run by Pedda Rayudu and if he gets angry, all of them would lose their jobs.

Ramakrishna is afraid of Rayudu and tries to flee from the village, but Rayudu's followers asks him to visit Rayudu once. He finds Radha Rani. Radha Rani still hates him because of some reason. Rayudu abuses him because he beat his son. After listening to his language, Ramakrishna opposes his behavior and explains to him that kids learn their manners by imitating their elders, he is the reason for his son's behavior. Rayudu gives Ramakrishna full permission to change his son. Ramakrishna chooses an innovative method to teach Gopi by playing along with him. Rayudu is now confident that he would mend his son's behavior. Gopi obliges Ramakrishna and learns good manners; the school teachers try to find the reason. She confesses that because of an unfortunate incident in her friend's life, she thinks that she will face the same fate, but after knowing about his sincerity, she agrees to marry him. After some funny incidents to tease Rayudu and his daughter by hiding Ramakrishna, Ramakrishna escapes from them with the help of Gopi and gets united with Radha Rani.

Naresh as Ramakrishna, a school teacher Sri Bharati as Radha Rani Kota Srinivasa Rao as Pedda Rayudu Suryakantam as Suryakantamma Master Vinnakota Kiran as Bulli Rayudu Brahmanandam as Patel master Suthivelu as Sarabhalingam master Potti Prasad as Avadhanulu master Srilakshmi as Oorvasi Subbaraya Sharma as Social studies teacher Mallikarjuna Rao as School worker Ashok Kumar Chitti Babu Gundu Hanumantha Rao Sandhya Rambabu Hai Hai Nayaka on IMDbTemplate:Jandhyala