A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Mother Mary Angelica of the Annunciation, PCPA known as Mother Angelica, was a Catholic American Poor Clare nun best known for her television personality. She was the founder of the internationally broadcast cable television network Eternal Word Television Network and the radio network WEWN. In 1981, Mother Angelica started broadcasting religious programs from a converted garage in Birmingham, Alabama. Over the next twenty years, she developed a media network that included radio, TV, internet channels as well as printed media. In 2009, Mother Angelica was a recipient of the Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice Award granted by Pope Benedict XVI for services to the Catholic Church. Mother Angelica hosted shows on EWTN until she had a stroke in 2001, she continued to live in the cloistered monastery in Hanceville, until her death at age 92 on March 27, 2016. Mother Angelica was born Rita Antoinette Rizzo on April 20, 1923, in Canton, Ohio, in a community of African-American and Italian immigrant mill workers.
Of Italian-American background, she was the only child of Mae Helen Rizzo. Her father, a tailor by trade, abandoned the family when Rizzo was only five, her parents divorced two years later. On March 10, 1931, her mother was granted custody of the young Rizzo, her father ordered to pay five dollars a week in child support, her mother only received "intermittent child-support payments from the father". While maintaining full custody, her mother struggled with chronic poverty; this was in part because being a divorcée carried a social stigma at the time and the opportunities for a woman to secure income were limited in the height of the Great Depression. Looking back at her childhood, Mother Angelica described herself and her mother as being "like a pair of refugees". "We were poor and surviving on odd jobs until Mother joined the dry cleaning business as an apprentice to a Jewish tailor in our area. We pinched pennies just to keep food on the table." The pair lived with her maternal grandparents, moving out for a time between 1933 and 1937, but were forced to return because of financial pressures.
Matters were complicated when her grandfather, Anthony Gianfancesco, suffered a stroke in their absence, which paralyzed him on one side and required him to use a cane. Rizzo attended a convent school, but disliked the nuns there, whom she recalled as being "the meanest people on earth" and treating her with harsh discipline due to her parents' divorce, she attended Canton McKinley High School, where she was one of the school's first drum majorettes. She told an interviewer, "I did poorly in school. I wasn’t interested in the capital of Ohio. I was interested in whether my mother had committed suicide that day." Rizzo developed no intimate friendships in high school because of her fear that it would further upset her mother, who might see other demands for attention as a threat. Rizzo never dated, recalling "I never had a date, never wanted one. I just didn't have any desire. I suppose having experienced the worst of married life, it was not at all attractive to me."In 1939, feeling overwhelmed by crowd noise and school chatter, began to leave McKinley High in the afternoons.
She was given nerve medication to treat what was deemed a nervous condition. When her mother's mental condition seemed to worsen, she made arrangements with her grandparents to have her sent to Philadelphia to be with a relative. A stomach ailment that Rizzo had from 1939 continued to cause severe abdominal pain, despite the extensive medical treatment she received, her mother took her to Rhoda Wise, hailed as a mystic and stigmatic and "who claimed to receive visions of St Thérèse of Lisieux." Wise instructed Rizzo to perform a novena and made the girl promise that she would spread devotion to the saint if she was cured."On the novena’s final day, January 18, 1943, Rizzo declared that she woke up with no pain and the abdominal lump causing it had vanished. This experience profoundly touched her, she told an interviewer " I knew that God knew me and loved me and was interested in me. All I wanted to do after my healing was give myself to Jesus."One evening in 1944, Rizzo stopped at a church to pray and felt that God was calling her to be a nun.
She sought guidance from a local parish priest. Her first visit was to the Sisters of St. Joseph in Buffalo, New York, but the active congregation felt that she was better suited to contemplative life, she visited Saint Paul's Shrine of Perpetual Adoration, a facility operated by an order of cloistered contemplative nuns, located in Cleveland, Ohio. When visiting this order, she felt; the order accepted her as a postulant, asking her to enter on August 15, 1944. She was 21 years old. On November 8, 1945, Rizzo was vested as a Poor Clare nun, she received a new name, which her mother had chosen for her, title, "Sister Mary Angelica of the Annunciation". Soon afterwards, the Cleveland monastery established a new monastery in her home town of Canton and she moved there. In 1946, as a young nun, Sister Angelica had an accident with an industrial floor-scrubbing machine that knocked her over and injured her spine, causing her ongoing pain and requiring her to wear leg braces for most of her life. Sister Angelica saw the occurrence as a divine sign and promised Jesus to build a new monastery deep in the Protestant-dominated Southern United States if she recovered.
On January 2, 1953, she made her solemn profession of v
Homewood is a city in southeastern Jefferson County, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, located on the other side of Red Mountain due south of the city center; as of the 2010 census its population was 25,167, in 2016 the estimated population was 25,613. The first settlers of the area which would become Homewood arrived in the early 1800s; the area's population, did not grow until Birmingham suffered a major cholera epidemic in 1873. Speculators soon began buying up land and developing communities in the countryside surrounding Birmingham. Many of the smaller communities which would become Homewood were developed during this time period, including Rosedale, Grove Park and Oak Grove. Edgewood saw the greatest amount of development; the community contained an Electric Railway leading to downtown Birmingham by 1911 and a man-made lake by 1915. The lake was created by the construction of a dam along Shades Creek near Columbiana Road. Two parallel roads were graded on either side of the lake with the intention of creating a race track around the lake, however these plans never came to fruition.
The roads became Lakeshore Drive and South Lakeshore Drive. In 1926, a local attorney named Charles Rice started a movement to merge several of the communities surrounding Birmingham. In September of the same year, Rosedale and Grove Park voted to incorporate under the name Homewood; the city of Hollywood, Alabama was annexed into Homewood in 1929. In 1955, Oak Grove was annexed into Homewood; the Great Depression and a polio epidemic, which sickened 80 children in Homewood damaged Homewood's economy and social landscape. The regional economy picked up after the outbreak of World War II and the accompanying steel boom in Birmingham, where production ramped up in order to contribute to the war effort. During the 1940s, Homewood's police and fire departments doubled in size to accommodate a 73.9 percent increase in the city's population from 1940 to 1950. In 1959, Homewood voters defeated a move by Birmingham to annex the city. A second attempt succeeded in July 1964, but voting irregularities and lawsuits prevented the outcome of that election in the courts until September 9, 1966, when the Alabama Supreme Court ruled the 1964 vote null and void.
In a special election on December 13, 1966, a vote for annexation failed with 65 percent of Homewood residents voting against the annexation. Homewood avoided the worst of the turmoil associated with the Civil Rights Movement and, more the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's 1963 Birmingham campaign. However, in September 1963, the Shades Valley Sun newspaper reported on a racially motivated bombing on Central Avenue in Rosedale. In 1970, Homewood created its own school system, breaking away from the Jefferson County school system; the new Homewood High School opened in December 1972. Hollywood is a former town annexed into Homewood, Alabama, in 1929. A historic district of much of the area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Hollywood Historic District; the district is bounded by U. S. Highway 31, U. S. Highway 280, Lakeshore Drive and is significant for the Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architectural style of surviving houses and other buildings. Clyde Nelson began developing Hollywood Boulevard as a residential subdivision in 1926.
He employed a sales force of 75, armed with the memorable slogan "Out of the Smoke Zone, Into the Ozone", to entice Birmingham residents over Red Mountain. Architect George P. Turner designed many of the new homes in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, which had become fashionably linked with the glamour of Hollywood, California in the early days of the motion picture industry there. Turner nodded to the English Tudor style, widespread in Birmingham and over the mountain; the Hollywood Country Club on Lakeshore Drive and the American Legion Post 134 were built at this time. In order to support his new development, Nelson created the area's first autobus line and extended the first natural gas pipeline into Shades Valley. Hollywood incorporated as a town on January 14, 1927 with Clarence Lloyd as its first and only mayor; the town was annexed into Homewood on October 14, 1929. The Great Depression ended development of the subdivision. In 2002, the Hollywood Historic District was registered with the National Register of Historic Places, is home to The American Institute of Architects -nominated houses like 11 Bonita Drive.
The listing includes one contributing site, over a 815 acres area. Homewood is located at 33°28′6″N 86°48′29″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.3 square miles, all land. The city, along with the rest of Jefferson County, lies atop iron and limestone deposits. Shades Creek, part of the Cahaba River system, runs through Homewood; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,043 people, 10,688 households, 5,878 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,014.7 people per square mile. There were 11,494 housing units at an average density of 1,383.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.75% White, 15.30% Black or African-American, 0.20% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,688 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female h
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
The Eternal Word Television Network, more known by its initialism EWTN, is an American basic cable television network which presents around-the-clock Catholic-themed programming. It was founded by Mother Angelica, PCPA, in 1980 and began broadcasting on August 15, 1981, from a garage studio at the Our Lady of the Angels Monastery in Irondale, which Mother Angelica founded in 1962, she hosted her own show, Mother Angelica Live, until suffering a major stroke and other health issues in September 2001. Repeats now air as either the Best of Mother Angelica Mother Angelica Live Classics. From until her death on Easter Sunday of 2016, she led a cloistered life at the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament in Hanceville, Alabama; the network, through diocesan television channels in other Catholic countries, advertises itself as the EWTN: The Global Catholic Network. Regular programs include a daily Holy Mass and sometimes Tridentine Mass format, the traditional Stations of the Cross, a taped daily recitation of the Rosary, daily and weekly news and Catechetical programs for both adults and children.
Christmas and Easter programming. EWTN has a presence on satellite and shortwave radio. Spanish language broadcasts are available on all platforms. On December 8, 2009, EWTN began broadcasting in high-definition; the network's current chairman of the board and chief executive officer is Michael P. Warsaw. While the network has trustees, it does not have owners. A majority of the network's funding is from viewer donations about which it advertises 100% viewer supported, which keeps it from advertising secular or non-Catholic programming, its traditional plea for donations is "Keep us between your gas and electric bill". EWTN contributes to the publication of the National Catholic Register newspaper, which it acquired in January 2011, to reports of Catholic News Agency, which it owns; the network maintains an online presence through its primary site, EWTN.com, it has a dedicated commercial site, EWTNReligiousCatalogue.com. As of 2017, Michael P. Warsaw, a consultor to the Vatican's Secretariat for Communications, leads EWTN.
Mother Angelica made her profession of vows in 1953. In 1962 she established Our Lady of the Angels monastery. During the 1970s, she was produced pamphlets and audio and video tapes, she had been a guest on local station WBMG, on shows on the Christian Broadcasting Network and the Trinity Broadcasting Network. After she gave an interview on then-Christian station WCFC in Chicago, she decided she wanted her own network. "I walked in, it was just a little studio, I remember standing in the doorway and thinking,'It doesn't take much to reach the masses'. I just stood there and said to the Lord,'Lord, I've got to have one of these'". Mother Angelica purchased satellite space and EWTN began broadcasting on August 15, 1981, with four hours of daily programming, which included her own show, Mother Angelica Live, a Sunday Mass, reruns of older Catholic programs such as Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen's Life Is Worth Living; the remainder of the time was filled with shows produced by dioceses across the country, shows from Protestant sources which Mother Angelica determined were in concert with Catholic teachings, children's shows such as Joy Junction and The Sunshine Factory.
About one-third of programming time consisted of secular content, such as re-runs of The Bill Cosby Show, public domain films, cooking and western-themed shows. EWTN increased its broadcast schedule to six hours per day and to eight hours per day by 1986. Secular content was reduced from 1986 to 1988, satellite distribution was expanded late in 1987, after which EWTN acquired a far more desirable satellite channel and began broadcasting around the clock. At this point, EWTN began broadcasting the praying of the rosary on a daily basis and added a number of educational shows. In-house production of original programming increased; the Mass became televised daily in 1991 from a chapel on the monastery grounds. Most shows from non-Catholic sources were eliminated and a more theological image developed. In 1992, EWTN established the largest owned shortwave radio station, WEWN, in the vicinity of Birmingham, Alabama. In 1996, Mother Angelica announced that EWTN would make its radio signal available via satellite to AM and FM stations throughout the United States at no cost.
In 1999, programs included "Life Is Worth Living" with Fulton J. Sheen. WGSN in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, was an affiliate. Current radio programs include Open Line in which callers can have their questions regarding the Catholic Faith answered. In 2004, EWTN announced an agreement with Sirius Satellite Radio, which thereafter merged with XM Radio to become Sirius XM Radio. EWTN broadcasts on Channel 130 on Sirius XM Radio; as of 2016, EWTN Radio is affiliated with more than 350 stations in the United States and more than 500 stations globally. In January 2011, EWTN acquired the National Catholic Register, a newspaper founded in Denver, Colorado, in 1924 as a periodical for local Catholics, which became a national publication three years later. EWTN assumed total control on February 1, 2011. EWTN owns ‘Catholic News Agency’, a Catholic news service with bureaus across America, Latin America and Europe; the EWTN news department produces a daily news service for television and radio, featuring news sources including Vatican Radio.
It produces The World Over Live, which reports re
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional football franchise based in Jacksonville, Florida. The Jaguars compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference South division; the team plays its home games at TIAA Bank Field. The Jaguars and the Carolina Panthers joined the NFL as expansion teams for the 1995 season. Since their inception, the Jaguars have won division championships in 1998 and 1999 and 2017 and have qualified for the playoffs seven times, most in 2017 after a ten-season playoff drought. From their inception until 2011, the Jacksonville Jaguars' majority owner was Wayne Weaver; the team was purchased by Pakistani-born businessman Shahid Khan for an estimated $770 million. In 2015, Forbes estimated the team value at $1.48 billion. In 1989, the prospective ownership group Touchdown Jacksonville! was organized. The group included future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Jacksonville developer Tom Petway, came to be led by shoe magnate Wayne Weaver, founder of Nine West.
In 1991, the NFL announced plans to add two expansion teams in 1994, its first expansion since the 1976 addition of the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Touchdown Jacksonville! announced its bid for a team, Jacksonville was chosen as one of five finalists, along with Charlotte, St. Louis and Memphis. Jacksonville was considered the least expansion candidate for several reasons; the Jacksonville metropolitan area and television market were smaller than those of nearly every team in the league. Jacksonville was the 54th largest television market, only Green Bay had a smaller TV market Although Jacksonville was the 15th largest city in the nation at the time, it has always been a medium-sized market because the surrounding suburbs and rural areas are far smaller than the city itself. There were 635,000 people in Jacksonville proper according to the 1990 census, but only 900,000 people in the metropolitan area. Additionally, the Gator Bowl was outdated, the ownership group struggled to negotiate a lease with the city.
The troubled negotiations over the Gator Bowl lease led the ownership group to withdraw from the NFL expansion bidding in July 1993. Charlotte was awarded the first franchise – the Carolina Panthers – in October 1993; the naming of the second expansion city was delayed a month. Most pundits speculated. At the time, St. Louis was considered the favorite for the second franchise, with Baltimore's three bids considered strong. However, in a surprising move, the NFL owners voted 26–2 in favor of awarding the 30th franchise to Jacksonville. After the Gator Bowl game on December 31, 1993, the old stadium was demolished and replaced with a reinforced concrete superstructure. All that remained of the old stadium was the west upper concourse and a portion of the ramping system. To accommodate construction, the 1994 and 1995 games of "The World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party" were split between the home fields of Florida and Georgia, the 1994 Gator Bowl was played at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium in Gainesville.
In January 1994 Wayne Weaver chose Tom Coughlin as the first-ever head coach of the Jaguars. Coughlin had worked in the NFL as a position coach, but he had been neither a head coach nor a coordinator in the NFL; the Jaguars' hiring of Coughlin contrasted with the hiring moves made by their fellow expansion team. The same month that Weaver hired Coughlin as his head coach, Carolina Panthers owner Jerry Richardson went a more conventional route and hired former Buffalo Bills general manager Bill Polian as the Panthers' first GM; as it emerged that Weaver had no intention of hiring a general manager, it became apparent that Coughlin would have most of the authority regarding hiring decisions. Coughlin spent his year as "head coach without a team" preparing for the personnel moves that would come from the expansion draft, free agency, the rookie draft in the spring of 1995. Along with the Carolina Panthers, the Jacksonville Jaguars entered the NFL as the first expansion teams in 20 years. Both teams participated in the 1995 NFL expansion draft, with the Jaguars taking Steve Beuerlein with the first pick.
Beuerlein lost his starting job to former Green Bay Packers backup Mark Brunell. The Jaguars finished their inaugural season with a record of 4–12. Both the Jaguars and the Panthers broke the previous record for most wins by an expansion team set by the Cincinnati Bengals in 1968; the inaugural season featured many of the players who would lead Jacksonville into the playoffs in the team's next four seasons, including quarterback Mark Brunell, offensive lineman Tony Boselli running back James Stewart, wide receiver Jimmy Smith. The team played its first regular season game at home in front of a crowd of 72,363 on September 3, 1995, a 10–3 loss against the Houston Oilers; the team picked up its first win in Week 4 as the Jaguars defeated the Oilers 17–16 on October 1 in Houston. The next week against the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Jaguars earned their first home win by defeating the eventual AFC Champions 20–16; the team's other two wins came in a season sweep of the Cleveland Browns including a Week 17 24–21 victory sealed by a Mike Hollis 34-yard field goal in the Browns' f
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi