Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract out a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy, it is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron and other base metals. Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind; the reducing agent is a source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal. The carbon removes oxygen from the ore; the carbon thus oxidizes in two stages, producing first carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. As most ores are impure, it is necessary to use flux, such as limestone, to remove the accompanying rock gangue as slag. Plants for the electrolytic reduction of aluminium are generally referred to as aluminium smelters. Labourers working in the smelting industry have reported respiratory illnesses inhibiting their ability to perform the physical tasks demanded by their jobs. Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore.
Most ores are the chemical compound of the metal and other elements, such as oxygen, sulfur, or carbon and oxygen together. To extract the metal, workers must make these compounds undergo a chemical reaction. Smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal. In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called "roasting" drives out the unwanted carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide, which can be directly reduced. Roasting is carried out in an oxidizing environment. A few practical examples: Malachite, a common ore of copper, is copper carbonate hydroxide Cu22; this mineral undergoes thermal decomposition to 2CuO, CO2, H2O in several stages between 250 °C and 350 °C. The carbon dioxide and water are expelled into the atmosphere, leaving copper oxide, which can be directly reduced to copper as described in the following section titled Reduction. Galena, the most common mineral of lead, is lead sulfide; the sulfide is oxidized to a sulfite, which thermally decomposes into lead oxide and sulfur dioxide gas.
The sulfur dioxide is expelled, the lead oxide is reduced as below. Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting, in which the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal; the required temperature varies over a large range, both in absolute terms and in terms of the melting point of the base metal. Examples: Iron oxide becomes metallic iron at 1250 °C 300 degrees below iron's melting point of 1538 °C. Mercuric oxide becomes vaporous mercury near 550 °C 600 degrees above mercury's melting point of -38 °C. Flux and slag can provide a secondary service after the reduction step is complete: they provide a molten cover on the purified metal, preventing contact with oxygen while still hot enough to oxidize; this prevents impurities from forming in the metal. Metal workers use fluxes in smelting for several purposes, chief among them catalyzing the desired reactions and chemically binding to unwanted impurities or reaction products.
Calcium oxide, in the form of lime, was used for this purpose, since it could react with the carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide produced during roasting and smelting to keep them out of the working environment. Of the seven metals known in antiquity, only gold occurred in native form in the natural environment; the others – copper, silver, tin and mercury – occur as minerals, though copper is found in its native state in commercially significant quantities. These minerals are carbonates, sulfides, or oxides of the metal, mixed with other components such as silica and alumina. Roasting the carbonate and sulfide minerals in air converts them to oxides; the oxides, in turn, are smelted into the metal. Carbon monoxide was the reducing agent of choice for smelting, it is produced during the heating process, as a gas comes into intimate contact with the ore. In the Old World, humans learned to smelt metals in prehistoric times, more than 8000 years ago; the discovery and use of the "useful" metals — copper and bronze at first iron a few millennia — had an enormous impact on human society.
The impact was so pervasive that scholars traditionally divide ancient history into Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age. In the Americas, pre-Inca civilizations of the central Andes in Peru had mastered the smelting of copper and silver at least six centuries before the first Europeans arrived in the 16th century, while never mastering the smelting of metals such as iron for use with weapon-craft. In the Old World, the first metals smelted were lead; the earliest known cast lead beads were found in the Çatal Höyük site in Anatolia, dated from about 6500 BC, but the metal may have been known earlier. Since the discovery happened several millennia before the invention of writing, there is no written record about how it was made; however and lead can be smelted by placing the ores in a wood fire, leaving the possibility that the discovery may have occurred by accident. Lead is a common metal, but its discovery had little impact in the ancient world, it is too soft to use for structural elements or weapons, though its high density relative to other metals makes it ideal for sling projectiles.
However, since it was
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used for smelting iron from its oxides. The bloomery was the earliest form of smelter capable of smelting iron. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of slag called a bloom; this mix of slag and iron in the bloom is termed sponge iron, consolidated and further forged into wrought iron. The bloomery has now been superseded by the blast furnace, which produces pig iron. A bloomery consists of a chimney with heat-resistant walls made of earth, clay, or stone. Near the bottom, one or more pipes enter through the side walls; these pipes, called tuyeres, allow air to enter the furnace, either by natural draught, or forced with bellows or a trompe. An opening at the bottom of the bloomery may be used to remove the bloom, or the bloomery can be tipped over and the bloom removed from the top; the first step taken before the bloomery can be used is the preparation of the charcoal and the iron ore. The charcoal is produced by heating wood to produce the nearly pure carbon fuel needed for the smelting process.
The ore is broken into small pieces and roasted in a fire to remove any moisture in the ore. Any large impurities in the ore can be removed. Since slag from previous blooms may have a high iron content, it can be broken up and recycled into the bloomery with the new ore. In operation, the bloomery is preheated by burning charcoal, once hot, iron ore and additional charcoal are introduced through the top, in a one-to-one ratio. Inside the furnace, carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of the charcoal reduces the iron oxides in the ore to metallic iron, without melting the ore; as the desired product of a bloomery is iron, forgeable, it requires a low carbon content. The temperature and ratio of charcoal to iron ore must be controlled to keep the iron from absorbing too much carbon and thus becoming unforgeable. Cast iron occurs when the iron absorbs 2 % to 4 % carbon; because the bloomery is self-fluxing the addition of limestone is not required to form a slag. The small particles of iron produced in this way fall to the bottom of the furnace, where they combine with molten slag consisting of fayalite, a compound of silicon and iron mixed with other impurities from the ore.
The mixed iron and slag cool to form a spongy mass referred to as the bloom. Because the bloom is porous, its open spaces are full of slag, the bloom must be reheated and beaten with a hammer to drive the molten slag out of it. Iron treated this way is said to be wrought, the resulting iron, with reduced amounts of slag is called wrought iron or bar iron, it is possible to produce blooms coated in steel by manipulating the charge of and air flow to the bloomery. As the era of modern commercial steelmaking began, the word bloom was extended to another sense referring to an intermediate-stage piece of steel, of a size comparable to many traditional iron blooms, ready to be further worked into billet; the onset of the Iron Age in most parts of the world coincides with the first widespread use of the bloomery. While earlier examples of iron are found, their high nickel content indicates that this is meteoric iron. Other early samples of iron may have been produced by accidental introduction of iron ore in bronze smelting operations.
Iron appears to have been smelted in the West as early as 3000 BC, but bronze smiths, not being familiar with iron, did not put it to use until much later. In the West, iron began to be used around 1200 BC. China has long been considered the exception to the general use of bloomeries, it was thought that the Chinese skipped the bloomery process starting with the blast furnace and the finery forge to produce wrought iron: by the 5th century BC, metalworkers in the southern state of Wu had invented the blast furnace and the means to both cast iron and to decarburize the carbon-rich pig iron produced in a blast furnace to a low-carbon, wrought iron-like material. Recent evidence, shows that bloomeries were used earlier in China, migrating in from the west as early as 800 BC, before being supplanted by the locally developed blast furnace. Supporting this theory was the discovery of'more than ten' iron digging implements found in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qin, whose tomb is located in Fengxiang County, Shaanxi.
Smelting in bloomery type furnaces in West Africa and forging of tools appeared in the Nok culture by 500 BC. The earliest records of bloomery-type furnaces in East Africa are discoveries of smelted iron and carbon in Nubia and Axum that dated to between 1,000–500 BC. In Meroe there are known to have been ancient bloomeries that produced metal tools for the Nubians and Kushites and produced a surplus for sale. Early European bloomeries were small, smelting less than 1 kg of iron with each firing. Progressively larger bloomeries were constructed in the late 14th century, with a capacity of about 15 kg on average, though exceptions did exist; the use of waterwheels to power the bellows allowed the bloomery to become hotter. European average bloom sizes rose to 300 kg, where they levelled off until the demise of the bloomery; as a bloomery's size is increased, the iron ore is exposed to burning charcoal for a longer time. When combined with the strong air blast required to penetrate the large ore and charcoal stack, this may cause part of the iron to melt and become saturated with carbon in the process, producing unforgeable pig iron which requires oxidation to be reduced into cast iron and iron.
This pig iron was considered
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
Třinec Iron and Steel Works
Třinec Iron and Steel Works is a producer of long rolled steel products in Třinec, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. TŽ produces over a third of all steel produced in the Czech Republic. Since its establishment, Třinecké železárny's plants have produced more than 150 million tons of crude steel. Moravia Steel is the major shareholder of TŽ, the biggest Czech steel company controlled by domestic capital; the area was rich in limestone, iron ore and had a source of energy. The area offered enough of a work force and it lies on a trade route from Slovakia, so a decision was taken to build an iron works at the location. In 1836 the construction of the first metallurgical furnace began; the iron mill began operating in 1839. At first, wood coal was used to heat the furnace; the Olza River was the most important means of transport until the 1870s, when the factories were modernized and a water canal was built to provide more water. The Olza River was used to flush out the waste from the iron works.
The first water cleaning facility was built in 1927. Modern water cleaning systems ensure that the outflow from the factory is nearly as clean as the inflow. Since 1920, when Cieszyn Silesia was divided, it has been one of the most important industrial centers of Czechoslovakia. TŽ was nationalized in 1946 and its development continued during the Communist era, when heavy industry was important, it is the largest steel mill in the country and still has a major impact on the industrial town of Třinec and surrounding areas, on its character and air pollution, although the latter decreased since the fall of communism in 1989. From 1960s to 1980s it played major role in the life of the region. Iron and steel works helped to improve regional infrastructure, as well as the transport network. Many recreational centers in the Beskids were built, it is the main employer in the area, with the Iron and Steel Works employing 5,519 people in 2005. The number of permanently employed workers has been declining, numbering 9,276 people in 1998, while during the communist era more than 15,000 worked there.
The actual number of people working for TŽ is still somewhat higher, as many people are employed seasonally in brigade work and in affiliated facilities. The company is the main sponsor of the local ice hockey team HC Oceláři Třinec; the recent product portfolio of Třinecké železárny has been oriented to processing the steel produced in BOF converters to the wide range of long rolled products, such as rails, railway superstructure accessories, sections, wire rod, steel semis and special bars. The products are sold through the commercial network of the controlling company Moravia Steel at the domestic as well at the export markets; each year the half of production of the rolled products of TŽ is used by consumers in about 50 countries worldwide. Třinec Iron and Steel Works are colloquially known as Werk; the current chairman of Třinec Iron and Steel Works is Ing. Jan Czudek. Zaolzie Cicha, Irena. Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X. Kaszper, Kazimierz. "Kolos znad Olzy".
Zwrot: 2–4. Kaszper, Kazimierz. "Zakład przyjazny dla regionu". Zwrot: 5–7. Wawreczka, Henryk. Třinec a okolí: včera a dnes. Třinec - Nebory: Wart. ISBN 80-239-3819-3. Official website
A finery forge is a forge used to produce wrought iron, from pig iron by decarburization. The process involved liquifying cast iron in a fining hearth and removing carbon from the molten cast iron through oxidation. Finery forges were used as early as 3rd century BC, based on archaeological evidence found at a site in Tieshengguo, China; the finery forge process was replaced by the puddling process and the roller mill, both developed by Henry Cort in 1783-4, but not becoming widespread until after 1800. A finery forge was used to refine wrought iron at least by the 3rd century BC in ancient China, based on the earliest archaeological specimens of cast and pig iron fined into wrought iron and steel found at the early Han Dynasty site at Tieshengguo. Pigott speculates that the finery forge existed in the previous Warring States period, because of the wrought iron items from China dating to that period and there was no documented evidence of the bloomery being used in China. Wagner writes that in addition to the Han Dynasty hearths believed to be fining hearths, there is pictoral evidence of the fining hearth from a Shandong tomb mural dated 1st to 2nd century AD, as well as a hint of written evidence in the 4th century AD Daoist text Taiping Jing.
In Europe, the concept of the finery forge may have been evident as early as the 13th century. However, it was not capable of being used to fashion plate armor until the 15th century, as described in conjunction with the waterwheel-powered blast furnace by the Florentine Italian engineer Antonio Averlino; the finery forge process began to be replaced in Europe from the late 18th century by others, of which puddling was the most successful, though some continued in use through the mid-19th century. The new methods used mineral fuel, freed the iron industry from its dependence on wood to make charcoal. There were several types of finery forges; the dominant type in Sweden was the German forge, which had a single hearth, used for all processes. In Swedish Uppland north of Stockholm and certain adjacent provinces, another kind known as the Walloon forge was used for the production of a pure kind of iron known as oregrounds iron, exported to England to make blister steel, its purity depended on the use of ore from the Dannemora mine.
The Walloon forge was the only kind used in Great Britain. The forge had two kinds of hearths, the finery to finish the product and the chafery to reheat the bloom, the raw material of the process. In the finery, a workman known as the "finer" remelted pig iron so as to oxidise the carbon; this produced a lump of iron known as a bloom. This was returned to the finery; the next stages were undertaken by the "hammerman", who in some iron-making areas such as South Yorkshire was known as the "stringsmith", who heated his iron in a string-furnace. Because the bloom is porous, its open spaces are full of slag, the hammerman's or stringsmith's tasks were to beat the heated bloom with a hammer to drive the molten slag out of it, to draw the product out into a bar to produce what was known as anconies or bar iron. In order to do this, he had to reheat the iron; the fuel used in the finery had to be charcoal, as impurities in any mineral fuel would affect the quality of the iron. The waste product was allowed to cool in the hearth and removed as a "mosser".
In the Furness district they were left as the capstone of a wall near Spark Bridge and Nibthwaite forges. H. Schubert, History of British Iron and Steel Industry c.450 BC to AD 1775, 272–291. A. den Ouden, "The Production of Wrought Iron in Finery Hearths", Historical Metallurgy 15, 63–87 and 16, 29–33. K-G. Hildebrand, Swedish Iron in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Export Industry Before Industrialization. P. King,'The Cartel in Oregrounds Iron: Trading in the Raw Material for Steel During the 18th century", Journal of Industrial History 6, 25–48
Peder Severin Krøyer
Peder Severin Krøyer, professionally known as P. S. Krøyer, was a Danish painter. Krøyer was born in Norway, on 23 July 1851 to Ellen Cecilie Gjesdal, he was raised by Gjesdal's sister, Bertha Cecilie and brother-in-law, the Danish zoologist Henrik Nikolai Krøyer, after his mother was judged unfit to care for him. Krøyer moved to Copenhagen to live with his foster parents soon afterward. Having begun his art education at the age of nine under private tutelage, he was enrolled in Copenhagen's Technical Institute the following year. In 1870 at the age of 19 Krøyer completed his studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Art, where he had studied with Frederik Vermehren. In 1873 he was awarded the gold medal, as well as a scholarship, his official debut as a painter was in 1871 at Charlottenborg with a portrait of a friend, the painter Frans Schwartz. He exhibited at Charlottenborg throughout his life. In 1874 Heinrich Hirschsprung bought his first painting from Krøyer, establishing a long-standing patronage.
Hirschsprung's collection of art forms the basis of the Hirschsprung Museum in Copenhagen. Between 1877 and 1881, Krøyer travelled extensively in Europe, meeting artists, studying art, developing his skills and outlook, he stayed in Paris and studied under Léon Bonnat, undoubtedly came under the influence of contemporary impressionists – Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Édouard Manet. He continued to travel throughout his life drawing inspiration from foreign artists and cultures. Hirschsprung provided financial support during the early travels, Krøyer continued exhibiting in Denmark throughout this period. In 1882 he returned to Denmark, he spent June–October at Skagen a remote fishing village on the northern tip of Denmark, painting themes from local life, as well as depictions of the artistic community there. He would continue to be associated with literary scene at Skagen. Other artists at Skagen included writers Holger Drachmann, Georg Brandes and Henrik Pontoppidan, artists Michael Ancher and Anna Ancher.
Krøyer divided his time between rented houses in Skagen during the summer, a winter apartment in Copenhagen where he worked on his large commissioned portraits, travel outside of the country. On a trip to Paris in 1888 he ran into Marie Martha Mathilde Triepcke, whom he had known in Copenhagen, they fell in love and, after a whirlwind romance, married on 23 July 1889 at her parents' home in Germany. Marie Krøyer, a painter, became associated with the Skagen community, after their marriage was featured in Krøyer's paintings; the couple had one child, a daughter named Vibeke, born in January 1895. They were divorced in 1905 following a prolonged separation. Krøyer's eyesight failed him over the last ten years of his life until he was blind; the optimist, he painted to the end, in spite of health obstacles. In fact, he painted some of his last masterpieces while half-blind, joking that the eyesight in his one working eye had become better with the loss of the other eye. Krøyer died in 1909 in Skagen at 58 years of age after years of declining health.
He had been in and out of hospitals, suffering from bouts of mental illness. Krøyer's best known and best-loved work is entitled Summer Evening on Skagen's Southern Beach with Anna Ancher and Marie Krøyer, 1893, he painted many beach scenes featuring both recreation life on the beach, local fishermen. Another well-loved work is Midsummer Eve Bonfire on Skagen Beach, 1906; this large-scale work features a great crowd of the artistic and influential Skagen community gathered around a large bonfire on the beach on Saint John's Eve. Both of these works are in the permanent collection of the Skagens Museum, dedicated to that community of artists, including those who gathered around Krøyer, a great organizer and bon vivant. List of Danish painters List of paintings by Peder Severin Krøyer KID Kunst Index Danmark Danish Biographical Encyclopedia Halkier, Katrine. Krøyer: An International Perspective. Hirschsprung Collection. ISBN 978-87-90597-17-7. Hornung, Peter Michael. Peder Severin Krøyer. Fogtdal. ISBN 978-87-7248-551-5.
Krøyer, Peder Severin. P. S. Krøyer: Tradition, Modernity. Aarhus Kunstmuseum. ISBN 978-87-88575-31-6. Olsen, Claus. Krøyer and the artists' colony at Skagen. National Gallery of Ireland. Skagens Museum P. S. Krøyer in Hirschsprungske Samling Another selection of his paintings Media related to Peder Severin Krøyer at Wikimedia Commons