click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Irredentism

Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim or reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" territory from their nation's past. This wide definition, along with the possible lack of clarity of the borders of a nation or a people, allows the term to be used in a variety of situations, some of which are better described by other terms, such as expansionism; the word was coined in Italy from the phrase Italia irredenta. This referred to rule by Austria-Hungary over territories or inhabited by ethnic Italians, such as Trentino, Gorizia, Istria and Dalmatia during the 19th and early 20th centuries. An area that may be subjected to a potential claim is sometimes called an "irredenta". A common way to express a claim to adjacent territories on the grounds of historical or ethnic association is by using the adjective "Greater" as a prefix to the country name; this conveys the image of national territory at its maximum conceivable extent with the country "proper" at its core.

The use of "Greater" does not always convey an irredentistic meaning. Argentina has claimed land that used to be part of, or was associated with, the Spanish territory of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata; the viceroyalty began to dissolve into separate independent states in the early 19th century, one of which became Argentina. The claims included, amongst other areas, parts of what in 2019 were Chile, Brazil and Bolivia; some of these claims have been settled. The active claims include part of the land border with Chile, a section of the Antarctic continent, the British South Atlantic islands, including the Falklands. Argentina renews these claims periodically, it considers the Falkland archipelago to be part of the Tierra del Fuego Province, along with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Its claim is included in the transitional provisions of the Constitution of Argentina as amended in 1994: The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and non-prescribing sovereignty over the Malvinas, Georgias del Sur and Sandwich del Sur Islands and over the corresponding maritime and insular zones, as they are an integral part of the National territory.

The recovery of these territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respecting the way of life for its inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, constitute a permanent and unwavering goal of the Argentine people. The concept of a United Armenia refers to areas within the traditional Armenian homeland—the Armenian Highland—which are or have been populated by Armenians; this incorporates claims to Western Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh, the landlocked exclave Nakhichevan of Azerbaijan and the Javakheti region of Georgia. Nagorno-Karabakh and Javakhk are overwhelmingly inhabited by Armenians. Western Armenia and Nakhichevan had significant Armenian populations in the early 20th century, but no longer do; the Armenian population of eastern Turkey was completely exterminated during the genocide of 1915, when the millennia-long Armenian presence in the area ended and Armenian cultural heritage was destroyed by the Turkish government. The territorial claims to Turkey are seen as the ultimate goal of the recognition of the Armenian Genocide and the hypothetical reparations of the genocide.

The most recent Armenian irredentist movement, the Karabakh movement that began in 1988, sought to unify Nagorno-Karabakh with then-Soviet Armenia. As a result of the subsequent war with Azerbaijan, the Armenian forces have established effective control over most of Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding districts, thus succeeding in de facto unification of Armenia and Karabakh. United Bengal is a political ideology of a Unified Bengali-speaking Nation in South Asia; the ideology was developed by Bengali Nationalists after the First Partition of Bengal in 1905. The British-ruled Bengal Presidency was divided into Western Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam to weaken the Independence Movement; the second attempt by the British to partition Bengal along communal lines was in 1947. The United Bengal proposal was the bid made by Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Sarat Chandra Bose to found a united and independent nation-state of Bengal; the proposal was floated as an alternative to the partition of Bengal on communal lines.

The initiative failed due to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Bengali Muslims and Bengali Hindus that led to the Second Partition of Bengal. The 2009 constitution of Bolivia states that the country has an "unrenounceable right over the territory that gives it access to the Pacific Ocean and its maritime space"; this is understood as territory that Bolivia and Peru ceded to Chile after the War of the Pacific, which left Bolivia as a landlocked country. The preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China states, "Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China, it is the lofty duty of the entire Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland." The PRC claim to sovereignty over Taiwan is based on the theory of the succession of states, with the PRC claiming that it is the successor state to the Republic of China. However, the Communist Party of China has never controlled Taiwan.

The Government of the Republic of China administered both mainland China and T

Bombing of Braunschweig (October 1944)

During World War II, Braunschweig was attacked by Allied aircraft in 42 bombing raids. On the night of 14/15 October 1944, the attack by No. 5 Group Royal Air Force marked the high point of the destruction of Henry the Lion's city during the war. The air raid was part of Operation Hurricane, designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the Allied bombing campaign; the attack caused a massive conflagration, that might have developed into a firestorm, resulted in Braunschweig burning continuously for two and a half days from 15 to 17 October. More than 90 percent of the mediaeval city centre was destroyed, changing the city's appearance to the present day; the RAF first bombed Braunschweig on 17 August 1940, killing seven people, the 94th BG earned a Distinguished Service Cross for an 11 January 1944 mission against the MIAG bomber components factory. As part of the Combined Bomber Offensive, Braunschweig was a regular target for RAF and American bombers, including two "Big Week" attacks on 20 and 21 February 1944.

The first major British raid against Braunschweig was on 14/15 January 1944, when nearly 500 Lancaster bombers attacked, in the face of strong defence by German fighters. Being a small target, most of the bombs missed the city. In an experimental raid, to see if bombing by radar alone was effective, nearly 400 heavy bombers raided Braunschweig on the night of 12/13 August 1944. No effective concentration of the bombs occurred, nearby towns were bombed by mistake. Between those dates, fast Mosquito bombers were sent on occasional nuisance raids and diversions against Braunschweig. On 14 October 1944, No. 106 Squadron RAF bombed Braunschweig, one of the last attacks was an attack on chemical plant in March 1945 as part of the campaign against synthetic oil production. Braunschweig was subjected to 42 air raids, the city was ringed by antiaircraft guns.. In January 1944, Bomber Command raids against "Stettin and Magdeburg" were suffering losses of 7.2 percent – more than in raids against Berlin that month.

The targets included machine and munitions works, research institutions, railway stations and railway maintenance works, the German Research Centre for Aviation. Targets near Braunschweig included the Reichswerke Hermann Göring in Salzgitter and the KdF-Stadt Volkswagen factory near Fallersleben; the nearby Oflag 79 prisoner-of-war camp was attacked on 24 August 1944. On 13 October, the RAF received orders to carry out Operation Hurricane, to demonstrate the Allied bomber force's destructive power, Allied air superiority; the orders included the following: "In order to demonstrate to the enemy in Germany the overwhelming superiority of the Allied Air Forces in this theatre... the intention is to apply within the shortest practical period the maximum effort of the Royal Air Force Bomber Command and the 8th United States Bomber Command against objectives in the densely populated Ruhr."Operation Hurricane foresaw Duisburg as the main goal for the RAF's thousand or so bombers, Cologne for the USAAF's 1,200 or so bombers.

A further 233 RAF bombers were detailed for Braunschweig, which had about 150,000 inhabitants in October 1944. Planning for the attack on Braunschweig was finalized by 15 August 1944. Darmstadt had been attacked on the night of 11 September 1944 using a new targeting technique: a fan-shaped flying formation, the staggering of the use of explosive and incendiary bombs. Being a unprepared town, the resulting fires caused about 11,500 deaths; the Allies turned their attention to Braunschweig. Braunschweig was to be destroyed, not only as an important centre of the armament industry and above all, as a living place, thereby making it uninhabitable and useless; the goal, namely the greatest possible destruction, was to be achieved through detailed attack plans and careful execution, making careful use of the attributes of the materiel, to be deployed. The means whereby the goal was to be reached would be the aforesaid firestorm, the production of, to be no accident. On 13 October, the chief meteorologist at RAF High Wycombe advised RAF Bomber Command headquarters of the weather forecast for the weekend of 14–15 October: slight cloudiness, good visibility throughout the night, moderate winds.

The next day, Air Marshal Arthur "Bomber" Harris issued the orders to carry out the attack on Braunschweig and other cities. Brunswick was codenamed Skate by RAF Bomber Command. All German cities were given names of fish, because the person responsible for the naming was a keen angler. For security reasons, the actual city names were never used in operational orders. RAF Bomber Command had sought in vain to inflict lasting destruction upon Braunschweig four times during 1944, failing each time as a result of, among other things, bad weather and strong defences. On Saturday 14 October 1944 at No. 5 Group's headquarters at Morton Hall, the preparations for the attack were finalized. The raid coincided with a British thousand-bomber raid on Duisburg, the second on that city within 24 hours, a previous British attack having been made in daylight. According to plan, the aircraft of No. 5 Group took off around 2300 hours local time on 14 October. The main force of the group was 233 four-engined Mark I and III Lancasters heavy bombers, each with a bomb load of about 6 tonnes.

The Lancasters were accompanied by seven Mosquito fast light bombers. The bombers bound for Braunschweig took a course that ran to the south to avoid the Ruhr area, defended by anti-aircraft batteries and fighter aircraft. Near Paderborn, the force turned towards the north

Ed Hickox (umpire)

Edwin William Hickox is an umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the American League from 1990 to 1999 and throughout both major leagues beginning in 2005. He wears uniform number 15. Hickox has officiated in the 2007, 2010, 2012, 2019 National League Division Series, as well as the 2011 Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Hickox became an Eagle Scout in 1979, he graduated from DeLand High School and St. Johns River Community College, where he played baseball, he completed training at the Harry Wendelstedt Umpire School in 1983. Hickox went on to umpire for several of baseball's minor leagues, worked as a substitute in the AL before his formal promotion to the league's staff in 1999, he resigned his position following the 1999 season as part of a failed union bargaining strategy. He returned as a full member of the major league staff in 2007. Hickox worked the inaugural World Baseball Classic in 2006, he worked the 2009 and 2013 World Baseball Classics. Hickox is known for wearing his plate coat over his chest protector when he works the plate, forgoing the pullover shirt or pullover jacket.

He wears the new hockey-style mask, is one of the only two MLB umpires to wear a hat underneath it. The other being Kerwin Danley. A Hardball Times report listed Hickox as having one of the smallest strike zones in baseball during the 2011 season; as of 2018, Hickox had umpired 2,418 MLB regular season games and 12 MLB playoff games. Hickox sustained several significant injuries throughout his career, notably while serving as a home plate umpire. On May 14, 2005, Hickox suffered an "inner ear injury including concussion and several broken bones" while wearing a Wilson-manufactured "sample" mask that Hickox alleged was defective, filing a lawsuit against the manufacturer for failing to inform Hickox that his product had not been tested with the same stringency given to other hockey style face masks. Hickox won the lawsuit against Wilson Sporting Goods and the subsequent appeal on January 31, 2013, receiving a $775,000 award for lawyer's fees and medical bills based on the court's finding that Wilson had failed to manufacture a safe product that failed to protect Hickox from the aforementioned injuries.

On April 18, 2009, Hickox suffered another significant concussion and left ear injury after another foul ball to the face. The incident, which occurred at Yankee Stadium involved a Wilson umpire mask. Hickox filed another complaint against Wilson, alleging mental anguish following the mask having "cracked into pieces upon impact" and failure to "protect an umpire in the way it is designed to do."On July 12, 2013, while working the plate at Dodger Stadium, Hickox was struck by an eighth inning foul ball—a 99 miles-per-hour fastball—in the mask, though he remained in the game through its completion one inning later. The day following the incident, Hickox was replaced by fill-in umpire Lance Barrett due to a probable concussion. On September 4, 1993, Hickox was the third base umpire for New York Yankees pitcher Jim Abbott's no-hitter against the Cleveland Indians, he was at second base when Boston Red Sox pitcher Clay Buchholz no-hit the Baltimore Orioles on September 1, 2007. On April 16, 2009, Hickox was the second base umpire for the first game at the New Yankee Stadium.

On April 18, 2009, Hickox was struck in the helmet by a foul ball in the 6th inning of the Cleveland Indians–New York Yankees game. He remained in the game until the 8th inning, apparently went to the hospital. Following the incident, he was reported to be out for a week of recuperation; because this was the second serious concussion of Ed's career, he was placed on the disabled list for the remainder of the 2009 season and returned in 2010. He was the home plate umpire for Tampa Bay Rays pitcher Matt Garza's no hitter against the Detroit Tigers on July 26, 2010. On May 2, 2012, Hickox was the first base umpire. Hickox was behind the plate on August 24, 2012, when Adrián Beltré of the Texas Rangers hit for the cycle against the Twins, he was the plate umpire on September 28, 2012, when Homer Bailey of the Cincinnati Reds no-hit the Pittsburgh Pirates. Hickox was the plate umpire when Alex Rodriguez of the Yankees hit a home run for his 3,000th hit on June 19, 2015, he was the plate umpire for Alex Rodriguez's first MLB baseball hit at Fenway Park on July 9, 1994.

In the off-season, Hickox, a sworn police officer who received a 2004 degree in Criminal Justice from Seminole Community College and works in Florida as a part time detective with the Daytona Beach Shores Police Department. He is a licensed real estate agent. Hickox, a licensed pilot, volunteers for Angel Flight during the off-season, has been volunteering since 2009. After a flight in October 2018, Hickox told the Daytona Beach News-Journal that he tries "to do at least one every off-season." Gulf Coast League Florida State League Southern League Dominican Winter League International League Puerto Rican Winter League Pacific Coast League New York–Penn League South Atlantic League Source: List of Major League Baseball umpires Major league profile The Baseball Cube Retrosheet

WOVA-LD

WOVA-LD is a low-powered, dual Fox/CW+-affiliated television station licensed to Parkersburg, West Virginia, United States and serving the Mid-Ohio Valley. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on virtual and UHF channel 22 from a transmitter in Independence Township, Ohio. Owned by Gray Television, WOVA is sister to NBC affiliate WTAP-TV and low-powered CBS affiliate WIYE-LD; the three stations share studios on Market Street in downtown Parkersburg. The market's first-ever locally based Fox affiliate was seen on a second digital subchannel of WTAP. Prior to that launch, the Parkersburg–Marietta market did not have a Fox affiliate of its own. Cable systems on the West Virginia side of the market piped in WVAH-TV from Charleston, while cable systems on the Ohio side and satellite systems in the region carried WTTE from Columbus. On April 10, 2006, WTAP launched its Fox-affiliated second digital subchannel to serve as the area's first outlet for the network. To make the new service possible, the big three affiliate underwent a technical transformation.

It carved out a new digital, high-definition-ready master control room from space used for storage. WTAP installed an digital production room. Despite the market gaining its own Fox affiliate, WVAH and WTTE continue to be offered on area cable systems. WOVA was born out of then-license holder Wood Investments LLC's sale of two low-power station licenses on channel 22 and another station on UHF channel 47 to Gray Television on April 10, 2012 for $66,000. Gray filed an application with the Federal Communications Commission to change the callsign of WVEX-LP to WOVA-LP on July 18, 2012, changed its city of license from Marietta to Parkersburg. On September 3, 2012, Fox programming moved to this new low-powered station after which WTAP-DT2 was shut down; the move allowed Fox programming to be broadcast over the air in high definition. On October 1, 2012, the station changed its call sign to WOVA-LD. On September 1, 2018, a 720p HD feed of The CW's national CW Plus service was added to subchannel 22.2.

The stations' digital signals are multiplexed: Syndicated programming on WOVA-LD includes Family Guy, Judge Judy, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, The People's Court, among others. The station offers a weeknight prime time news broadcast known as Fox Parkersburg News at 10. Airing for thirty minutes from a secondary set, the show mirrors local news seen on WTAP except for different graphics and unique feature segments. WOVA-LP/LD "Fox Parkersburg" WOVA-LD2 "Parkersburg CW 15/21" WTAP-TV Query the FCC's TV station database for WOVA

Gujarati script

The Gujarati script is an abugida used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of the Devanagari script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a number of modifications to some characters. Gujarati numerical digits are different from their Devanagari counterparts; the Gujarati script was adapted from the Devanagari script to write the Gujarati language. Gujarati language and script developed in three distinct phases — 10th to 15th century, 15th to 17th century and 17th to 19th century; the first phase is marked by use of Prakrit and its variants such as Paisaci, Shauraseni and Maharashtri. In second phase, Old Gujarati script was in wide use; the earliest known document in the Old Gujarati script is a handwritten manuscript Adi Parva dating from 1591–92, the script first appeared in print in a 1797 advertisement. The third phase is the use of script developed for fast writing; the use of shirorekha was abandoned. Until the 19th century it was used for writing letters and keeping accounts, while the Devanagari script was used for literature and academic writings.

It is known as the śarāphī, vāṇiāśāī or mahājanī script. This script became the basis of the modern script; the same script was adopted by writers of manuscripts. Jain community promoted its use for copying religious texts by hired writers; the Gujarati writing system is an abugida, in which each base consonantal character possesses an inherent vowel, that vowel being a. For postconsonantal vowels other than a, the consonant is applied with diacritics, while for non-postconsonantal vowels, there are full-formed characters. With a being the most frequent vowel, this is a convenient system in the sense that it cuts down on the width of writing. Following out of the aforementioned property, consonants lacking a proceeding vowel may condense into the proceeding consonant, forming compound or conjunct letters; the formation of these conjuncts follows a system of rules depending on the consonants involved. In accordance with all the other Indic scripts, Gujarati is written from left to right, is not case-sensitive.

The Gujarati script is phonemic, with a few exceptions. First out of these is the written representation of non-pronounced as. Word-final as, thus ઘર "house" is not ghara. The as remain unpronounced before postpositions and before other words in compounds: ઘરપર "on the house" is gharpar and not gharapar; this non-pronunciation is not always the case with conjunct characters: મિત્ર "friend" is mitra. Elided as through the combination of morphemes; the root પકડ઼ pakaṛ "hold" when inflected as પકડ઼ે "holds" remains written as pakaṛe though pronounced as pakṛe. See Gujarati phonology#ə-deletion. as whose non-pronunciation follows the above rule, but which are in single words not resultant of any actual combination. Thus વરસાદ "rain", written as varasād but pronounced as varsād. Secondly and most being of Sanskrit-based Devanagari, Gujarati's script retains notations for the obsolete, lacks notations for innovations. Contemporary Gujarati uses European punctuation, such as the question mark, exclamation mark and full stop.

Apostrophes are used for the written clitic. Quotation marks are not as used for direct quotes; the full stop replaced the traditional vertical bar, the colon obsolete in its Sanskritic capacity, follows the European usage. The Zoroastrians of India, who represent one of the largest surviving Zoroastrian communities worldwide, would transcribe Avestan in Nagri script-based scripts as well as the Avestan alphabet; this is a recent development first seen in the ca. 12th century texts of Neryosang Dhaval and other Parsi Sanskritist theologians of that era, which are contemporary with the oldest surviving manuscripts in Avestan script. Today, Avestan is most typeset in Gujarati script; some Avestan letters with no corresponding symbol are synthesized with additional diacritical marks, for example, the /z/ in zaraθuštra is written with /j/ + dot below. Miller presented a theory that the indigenous scripts of Sumatra and the Philippines are descended from an early form of the Gujarati script. Historical records show that Gujaratis played a major role in the archipelago, where they were manufacturers and played a key role in introducing Islam.

Tomé Pires reported a presence of a thousand Gujaratis in Malacca prior to 1512. Vowels, in their conventional order, are grouped into "short" and "long" classes, based on the "light" and "heavy" syllables they create in traditional verse; the historical long vowels ī and ū are no longer distinctively long in pronunciation. Only in verse do syllables containing them assume the values required by meter. A practice of using inverted mātras to represent English and's has gained ground. ર r, જ j and હ h form the irregular forms of રૂ rū, જી jī and હૃ hṛ. Consonants are grouped in accordance with the traditional, linguistically based Sanskrit scheme of arrangement, which considers the usage and position of the tongue during their pronunciation. In sequence, these categories are: velar, retroflex, labial and fricative. Among the first five groups, which contain the stops, the ord

Rani Bagh, Delhi

Rani Bagh is a residential area located in the northwest part of Delhi, India. It is situated quite near to Pitam Pura, Saraswati Vihar, Engineer’s enclave, Lok Vihar, Sant Nagar, Rani Bagh, Punjabi Bagh, it is well connected to various parts of Delhi, it connects with both inner and outer ring roads of Delhi. It's an urban area where you will find Rani Bagh Market, commercial complex, shopping malls like M2K PitamPura, More Superstore, restaurants such as Dominos, BTW, many more. Rani Bagh Market is one of the big markets of Delhi; the various neighborhoods included inside Rani Bagh are Mahindra Park, Multani Mohalla, Raja Park, Saraswati Vihar, Rishi Nagar. It is located near the Rohini zone and famous for its Rani-Bagh market. Metro feeder bus facilities connects with Pitampura, Netaji Subhash Palace, Kirti Nagar Metro Stations