The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world; the term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during late medieval times to include mental aspects of life. In modern times the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live" in a context separate from organized religious institutions, such as a belief in a supernatural realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension".
The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus and is related to spirare. In the Vulgate the Latin word spiritus is used to translate the Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah; the term "spiritual", matters "concerning the spirit", is derived from Old French spirituel, derived from Latin spiritualis, which comes from spiritus or "spirit". The term "spirituality" is derived from Middle French spiritualité, from Late Latin "spiritualitatem", derived from Latin spiritualis. There is no single agreed upon definition of spirituality. Surveys of the definition of the term, as used in scholarly research, show a broad range of definitions with limited overlap. A survey of reviews by McCarroll each dealing with the topic of spirituality gave twenty-seven explicit definitions, among which "there was little agreement." This impedes the systematic study of spirituality and the capacity to communicate findings meaningfully.
Furthermore, many of spirituality's core features are not unique to spirituality. According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there is Christ, for Buddhism, in Islam, Muhammad." Houtman and Aupers suggest that modern spirituality is a blend of humanistic psychology and esoteric traditions and Eastern religions. In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live," incorporating personal growth or transformation in a context separate from organized religious institutions. Words translatable as'spirituality' first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages. In a Biblical context the term means being animated by God, to be driven by the Holy Spirit, as opposed to a life which rejects this influence.
In the 11th century this meaning changed. Spirituality began to denote the mental aspect of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, "the ecclesiastical sphere of light against the dark world of matter". In the 13th century "spirituality" acquired a psychological meaning, it denoted the territory of the clergy: "The ecclesiastical against the temporary possessions, the ecclesiastical against the secular authority, the clerical class against the secular class" Psychologically, it denoted the realm of the inner life: "The purity of motives, intentions, inner dispositions, the psychology of the spiritual life, the analysis of the feelings". In the 17th and 18th century a distinction was made between higher and lower forms of spirituality: "A spiritual man is one, Christian'more abundantly and deeper than others'." The word was associated with mysticism and quietism, acquired a negative meaning. Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and elements of Asian Indian, religions.
Spirituality became disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. It is sometimes associated today with philosophical, social, or political movements such as liberalism, feminist theology, green politics. Ralph Waldo Emerson was a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field, he was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism, an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume, Neo-Platonism. The Transcendentalists emphasised an experiential approach of religion. Following Schleiermacher, an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were read by the Transcendentalists, influenced their thinking, they endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.
A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for'secret teach
Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic and empiricism, rather than authority, revelation, or dogma. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a freethinker is'a person who forms their own ideas and opinions rather than accepting those of other people in religious teaching.' In some contemporary thought in particular, freethought is tied with rejection of traditional social or religious belief systems. The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers". Modern freethinkers consider freethought as a natural freedom of all negative and illusive thoughts acquired from the society; the term first came into use in the 17th century in order to indicate people who inquired into the basis of traditional religious beliefs. In practice, freethinking is most linked with secularism, agnosticism, anti-clericalism, religious critique; the Oxford English Dictionary defines freethinking as, "The free exercise of reason in matters of religious belief, unrestrained by deference to authority.
Freethinkers hold that knowledge should be grounded in facts, scientific inquiry, logic. The skeptical application of science implies freedom from the intellectually limiting effects of confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, or sectarianism. Atheist author Adam Lee defines freethought as thinking, independent of revelation, established belief, authority, considers it as a "broader umbrella" than atheism "that embraces a rainbow of unorthodoxy, religious dissent and unconventional thinking."The basic summarizing statement of the essay The Ethics of Belief by the 19th-century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford is: "It is wrong always and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." The essay became a rallying cry for freethinkers when published in the 1870s, has been described as a point when freethinkers grabbed the moral high ground. Clifford was himself an organizer of freethought gatherings, the driving force behind the Congress of Liberal Thinkers held in 1878.
Regarding religion, freethinkers hold that there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural phenomena. According to the Freedom from Religion Foundation, "No one can be a freethinker who demands conformity to a bible, creed, or messiah. To the freethinker and faith are invalid, orthodoxy is no guarantee of truth." And "Freethinkers are convinced that religious claims have not withstood the tests of reason. Not only is there nothing to be gained by believing an untruth, but there is everything to lose when we sacrifice the indispensable tool of reason on the altar of superstition. Most freethinkers consider religion to be not only untrue, but harmful."However, philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote the following in his 1944 essay "The Value of Free Thought:" What makes a freethinker is not his beliefs but the way in which he holds them. If he holds them because his elders told him they were true when he was young, or if he holds them because if he did not he would be unhappy, his thought is not free.
The whole first paragraph of the essay makes it clear that a freethinker is not an atheist or an agnostic, as long as he or she satisfies this definition: The person, free in any respect is free from something. To be worthy of the name, he must be free of two things: the force of tradition, the tyranny of his own passions. No one is free from either, but in the measure of a man's emancipation he deserves to be called a free thinker. Fred Edwords, former executive of the American Humanist Association, suggests that by Russell's definition, liberal religionists who have challenged established orthodoxies can be considered freethinkers. On the other hand, according to Bertrand Russell, atheists and/or agnostics are not freethinkers; as an example, he mentions Stalin, whom he compares to a "pope": what I am concerned with is the doctrine of the modern Communistic Party, of the Russian Government to which it owes allegiance. According to this doctrine, the world develops on the lines of a Plan called Dialectical Materialism, first discovered by Karl Marx, embodied in the practice of a great state by Lenin, now expounded from day to day by a Church of which Stalin is the Pope.
Free discussion is to be prevented. In the 18th and 19th century, many thinkers regarded as freethinkers were deists, arguing that the nature of God can only be known from a study of nature rather than from religious revelation. In the 18th century, "deism" was as much of a'dirty word' as "atheism", deists were stigmatized as either atheists or at least as freethinkers by their Christian opponents. Deists today regard themselves as freethinkers, but are now arguably less prominent in the freethought movement than atheists. Among freethinkers, for a notion to be considered true it must be testable, verifiable and logical. Many freethinkers tend to be humanists, where they basing morality on human needs and would find meaning in human compassion, social progress, personal happiness and the furtherance of knowledge
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Svend Robinson is a Canadian politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1979 to 2004, representing the suburban Vancouver-area constituency of Burnaby for the New Democratic Party; when he chose not to run again in the June 2004 election, he was one of the longest-serving members in the House of Commons, having been elected and re-elected for seven consecutive terms. He is noted as the first member of Parliament in Canadian history to come out as gay while in office. Robinson was born in Minneapolis, United States, of Danish descent, to Edith Jensen and Wayne Robinson, his father brought his family to live in Canada. Robinson attended high school at Burnaby North Secondary, he obtained a law degree from the University of British Columbia, completed post-graduate work in international law at the London School of Economics. He was awarded the highest overall honour at the University of British Columbia in 1972, the Sherwood Lett Memorial Scholarship, he was active in university politics, serving on the Senate and the first student to be elected to the university's board of governors.
He was called to the British Columbia Bar as a barrister and solicitor in 1978, practised law with Robert Gardner and Associates until his election to the House of Commons in May 1979. Prior to coming out as gay, Robinson was married to Patricia Fraser, his high-school girlfriend, from 1972 to 1975. Robinson was the New Democratic Party Member of Parliament for ridings in the Vancouver suburb of Burnaby, British Columbia, the third-largest city in British Columbia; as the longest-serving British Columbia MP of his time, in office from 1979 to 2004, Robinson is notable for having been the first Canadian MP to come out as gay, in the spring of 1988. He was the only LGBT member of the Canadian House of Commons until Bloc Québécois MP Réal Ménard came out in 1994. Robinson is known for his negative views on American foreign policy towards Cuba, his challenge of corporate power, his criticism of Israel, his strong support for Palestinian leaders. Party leader McDonough removed Robinson's portfolio over Middle East issues in 2002 for comments he made criticizing the Israeli government for alleged war crimes in Jenin.
One of his earliest political activities was leading a group of NDP MPs who heckled former US President Ronald Reagan while he was speaking at the House of Commons in support of the Strategic Defense Initiative and aid to the Contras. He was a long-time activist in the anti-apartheid movement and was a member of the official Canadian delegation to the 1994 South African election. Robinson has been critical of the Chinese government for its treatment of political dissidents and for its policies in Tibet, he was a founder of the Canadian wing of Parliamentarians for East Timor. He was active in international parliamentary groups, including serving as rapporteur and chair of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe's Parliamentary Assembly Human Rights and Development Committee. Robinson was a leader in the movement for the right to physician-assisted death, fighting for the right of well-known ALS patient Sue Rodriguez to choose when to end her life with the assistance of a physician.
He was present at her bedside at the time of her physician-assisted death. A strong environmentalist, he engaged in peaceful civil disobedience to block logging of old-growth forests at Lyell Island in Haida Gwaii in 1985 and at Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1993. For the latter action, he was sentenced to 14 days of imprisonment. Robinson was an outspoken advocate of the rights of aboriginal peoples both in Canada and internationally, he stood at barricades with the Penan people in Sarawak and was condemned by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. He was adopted into the Haida Nation, given the Haida name "White Swan" by Haida elder Ada Yovanovich. Robinson ran to succeed Audrey McLaughlin as leader of the NDP at the 1995 NDP leadership convention, he won the first ballot, had won regional primaries in Ontario and British Columbia. However, he felt that he could not win on the second ballot as last-place candidate Lorne Nystrom's delegates were moving disproportionately to Alexa McDonough rather than Robinson.
Realizing that McDonough would pick up enough support from Nystrom's delegates to eliminate any realistic chance of him winning, Robinson pulled out of the race and conceded to McDonough before the second ballot. On a motion by Robinson, McDonough was acclaimed as leader. On December 31, 1997, Robinson was injured in a hiking accident on Galiano Island, breaking his jaw and ankle. Robinson was involved in the New Politics Initiative, an effort to build a new progressive political party in Canada linked with social movements and labour, the NDP's renewal process, although he remained committed to the party after the NPI's defeat at the 2001 general convention in Winnipeg, he was an strong supporter of former national NDP Leader Jack Layton. In 2003, Liberal Senator Jerry Grafstein suggested that September 11 be designated as "America Day" to commemorate the American victims of September 11, 2001. Robinson proposed that the day be designated as "Chile Day", to mark the overthrow of Chilean president Salvador Allende's democratically elected government on September 11, 1973.
Neither proposal was accepted. Robinson sponsored legislation in parliament in 2004 to include sexual orientation in federal hate crimes legislation, he was active on HIV/AIDS issues from the start of the epidemic in the early 1980s. In April 2004, shortly before 2004 election, Robinson admitted to the theft of an expensive ring from a public auction site, he turned himself in to the Royal Canadian
Nunavut is the newest and most northerly territory of Canada. It was separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been drawn in 1993; the creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland in 1949. Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America's second-largest. The capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Cambridge Bay. Nunavut includes Ellesmere Island to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west, all islands in Hudson and Ungava Bays, including Akimiski Island far to the southeast of the rest of the territory.
It is Canada's only geo-political region, not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the second-least populous of Canada's provinces and territories. One of the world's most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944 Inuit, spread over a land area of just over 1,750,000 km2, or smaller than Mexico. Nunavut is home to the world's northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. Eureka, a weather station on Ellesmere Island, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means "our land" in the native language Inuktitut. Nunavut covers 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada; the territory includes part of the mainland, most of the Arctic Archipelago, all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, Ungava Bay, including the Belcher Islands, all of which belonged to the Northwest Territories from which Nunavut was separated. This makes it the fifth-largest subnational entity in the world. If Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area.
Nunavut has long land borders with the Northwest Territories on the mainland and a few Arctic islands, with Manitoba to the south of the Nunavut mainland. Through its small satellite territories in the southeast, it has short land borders with Newfoundland and Labrador on Killiniq Island, with Ontario in two locations in James Bay – the larger located west of Akimiski Island, the smaller around the Albany River near Fafard Island – and with Quebec in many locations, such as near Eastmain and near Inukjuak, it shares maritime borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec and Manitoba. Nunavut's highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island; the population density is one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has the same area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a polar climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude and lower continental summertime influence than areas to the west. In more southerly continental areas cold subarctic climates can be found, due to July being milder than the required 10 °C.
The region now known as Nunavut has supported a continuous indigenous population for 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, so it is possible that the inhabitants of the region had occasional contact with Norse sailors. In September 2008, researchers reported on the evaluation of existing and newly excavated archaeological remains, including yarn spun from a hare, tally sticks, a carved wooden face mask that depicts Caucasian features, possible architectural material; the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and settlers on Baffin Island, not than 1000 CE, they seem to indicate prolonged contact up to 1450. The origin of the Old World contact is unclear. So... you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
The written historical accounts of Nunavut begin in 1576, with an account by English explorer Martin Frobisher. While leading an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Frobisher thought he had discovered gold ore around the body of water now known as Frobisher Bay on the coast of Baffin Island; the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit. Other explorers in search of the elusive Northwest Passage followed in the 17th century, including Henry Hudson, William Baffin and Robert Bylot. Cornwallis and Ellesmere Islands featured in the history of the Cold War in the 1950s. Concerned about the area's strategic geopolitical position, the federal government relocated Inuit from Nunavik to Resolute and Grise Fiord. In the unfamiliar and hostile conditions, they were forced to stay. Forty years the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report titled The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.