Martin de Bervanger

Martin de Bervanger was a French priest, founder of charitable institutions including the Parisian Institution Saint-Nicolas. He was born in Sarrelouis, died in Paris. After being for some time assistant pastor in his native city, he took part, in 1822, in the foundation of the Association Royale de Saint-Joseph, of the Oeuvre de Saint-Henri; these two institutions were destined to give to workingmen free instruction and professional training. To reach this end more he founded, in 1827, a boarding-school where, besides manual training, poor boys could receive intellectual and moral education; this is the Oeuvre de Saint-Nicolas. In the beginning only seven children were in the establishment, but it soon developed and was transferred from its poor quarters in the Faubourg Saint-Marceau, to a better location in the Rue Vaugirard. At the time of the Revolution of 1830, the first two institutions disappeared, but the Institution Saint-Nicolas remained, it had many difficulties to overcome. De Bervanger succeeded in overcoming all obstacles, the institution became more and more prosperous.

Soon a branch establishment was founded at Issy. In 1859 De Bervanger turned over the institution to Cardinal Morlot, Archbishop of Paris, who gave the direction of it to the Christian Brothers, it has since been enlarged. De Bervanger wrote the Règle de l'oeuvre de Saint Nicolas. Martin de Bervanger, Catholic Encyclopedia article This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

Caswell, Northamptonshire

Caswell is a lost settlement in Northamptonshire 2 miles from Towcester, 8 miles from Northampton and 12 miles from Milton Keynes. It is close to Greens Norton village and now consists entirely of Caswell House, a former family farmhouse built for the 4th Duke of Grafton in 1839. Another similar house is at a hamlet 0.5 miles north of Green's Norton. Both have three spaced bays with low-pitched hipped slate roofs and lower wings and are formally arranged The building and stables are Grade II listed; the concept of a research lab covering the Plessey company's interests in materials germinated in 1934 when its founders Allen George Clark and William Heynes were in charge. Another leading member of staff at this time was Geoffrey Charles Gaut who joined the Plessey company from Oxford University where he was awarded a degree in chemistry, he joined as Chief Chemist at Ilford where he began a lifelong involvement with electronic materials and devices. At the beginning of the Second World War in 1939 he volunteered for the RAF having qualified as a pilot with the University Air Squadron at Oxford.

However, to his chagrin, his commission was cancelled through the influence of Allen Clark who believed that Gaut would have a special role to play in the war effort to develop electronics and radar. With bombing in the Ilford area in 1940, Gaut was told to relocate his laboratory in a quieter country environment where research could proceed undisturbed, thus was founded Plessey's laboratory at Caswell, in Northamptonshire, which, as Gaut said kept his young scientific team concentrating and well away from any interference by senior management. Post-war the distance between Ilford and Caswell forced the introduction of local pre-production units. Over the next 20 years or so this led to the establishment of at least a further eight independent businesses locally in the Towcester area around Wood Burcote, just south of the town. For the next 50 or so years the farmhouse became the home of the Allen Clark Research Centre for the now defunct company which became part of the British GEC in 1989.

The centre was opened under Clark's name by the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh on 20 March 1964 where the Duke unveiled a plaque by Scottish sculptor David McFall. Research was carried out there for a number of areas in which Plessey was involved including semiconductors, LED's, other solid-state devices and integrated circuits and was the birthplace of self scanned C-MOS light sensor arrays for their company Plessey Semiconductors based at Cheney Manor, Swindon; the site had a scanning electron microscope useful for checking the surface topology of ICs under static and charged conditions. At peak, the centre employed several hundred people. After the GEC/Siemens takeover of Plessey, the Caswell site was taken over by GEC and subsequently GEC Marconi. Marconi problems led to the sale of the site to Bookham Technology in 2002. A talented German engineer, William Oscar Heyne was employed by the company. Heyne became the managing director and Chairman of Plessey and was one of the key figures in the development of Plessey during the 1920s and 1930s.

The gallium arsenide field effect transistor and monolithic ic were invented and developed at Caswell, but what is less well known is that scientists on the site were working on silicon integrated circuit technology 18 months before Jack Kilby demonstrated the first working ic at Texas Instruments in Dallas. Caswell technologists developed the first multilayer ceramic capacitor and a host of other inventions that enabled many of the electronic products we rely on today – including mobile phones, satellite TV and WiFi. In 2009 a campus-style business park opened on the site, with the potential to be occupied by up to 500 people and to be known as Caswell Science & Technology Park and operated by regional technology parks operator Fasset, marketing and letting vacant space for on-site client Oclaro known as Bookham, a multi-national specialising in optical components for telecommunications and the internet; the site has an area of 22 acres site with 170,000 sq ft mixed-used office and laboratory space, with 160 people working for 10 different companies at the time of opening.

Occupiers in 2009 include Diamond Hard Surfaces, IT Systems UK, Solutions Research, Definition Media and Finch Business Solutions