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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir was an American chemist and engineer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. Langmuir's most famous publication is the 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure". Langmuir became embroiled in a priority dispute with Lewis over this work. While at General Electric from 1909 to 1950, Langmuir advanced several fields of physics and chemistry, invented the gas-filled incandescent lamp and the hydrogen welding technique; the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research near Socorro, New Mexico, was named in his honor, as was the American Chemical Society journal for surface science called Langmuir. Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 31, 1881, he was the third of the four children of Sadie, née Comings. During his childhood, Langmuir's parents encouraged him to observe nature and to keep a detailed record of his various observations.

When Irving was eleven, it was discovered. When this problem was corrected, details that had eluded him were revealed, his interest in the complications of nature was heightened. During his childhood, Langmuir was influenced by Arthur Langmuir. Arthur was a research chemist how things work. Arthur helped Irving set up his first chemistry lab in the corner of his bedroom, he was content to answer the myriad questions that Irving would pose. Langmuir's hobbies included mountaineering, piloting his own plane, classical music. In addition to his professional interest in the politics of atomic energy, he was concerned about wilderness conservation. Langmuir attended several schools and institutes in America and Paris before graduating high school from Chestnut Hill Academy, an elite private school located in the affluent Chestnut Hill area in Philadelphia, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in metallurgical engineering from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1903. He earned his Ph.

D. in 1906 under Friedrich Dolezalek in Göttingen, for research done using the "Nernst glower", an electric lamp invented by Nernst. His doctoral thesis was entitled "On the Partial Recombination of Dissolved Gases During Cooling." He did postgraduate work in chemistry. Langmuir taught at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, until 1909, when he began working at the General Electric research laboratory, his initial contributions to science came from his study of light bulbs. His first major development was the improvement of the diffusion pump, which led to the invention of the high-vacuum rectifier and amplifier tubes. A year he and colleague Lewi Tonks discovered that the lifetime of a tungsten filament could be lengthened by filling the bulb with an inert gas, such as argon, the critical factor being the need for extreme cleanliness in all stages of the process, he discovered that twisting the filament into a tight coil improved its efficiency. These were important developments in the history of the incandescent light bulb.

His work in surface chemistry began at this point, when he discovered that molecular hydrogen introduced into a tungsten-filament bulb dissociated into atomic hydrogen and formed a layer one atom thick on the surface of the bulb. His assistant in vacuum tube research was his cousin William Comings White; as he continued to study filaments in vacuum and different gas environments, he began to study the emission of charged particles from hot filaments. He was one of the first scientists to work with plasmas, he was the first to call these ionized gases by that name because they reminded him of blood plasma. Langmuir and Tonks discovered electron density waves in plasmas that are now known as Langmuir waves, he introduced the concept of electron temperature and in 1924 invented the diagnostic method for measuring both temperature and density with an electrostatic probe, now called a Langmuir probe and used in plasma physics. The current of a biased probe tip is measured as a function of bias voltage to determine the local plasma temperature and density.

He discovered atomic hydrogen, which he put to use by inventing the atomic hydrogen welding process. Plasma welding has since been developed into gas tungsten arc welding. In 1917, he published a paper on the chemistry of oil films that became the basis for the award of the 1932 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Langmuir theorized that oils consisting of an aliphatic chain with a hydrophilic end group were oriented as a film one molecule thick upon the surface of water, with the hydrophilic group down in the water and the hydrophobic chains clumped together on the surface; the thickness of the film could be determined from the known volume and area of the oil, which allowed investigation of the molecular configuration before spectroscopic techniques were available. Following World War I Langmuir contributed to atomic theory and the understanding of atomic structure by defining the modern concept of valence shells and isotopes. Langmuir was president of the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1923. Based on his work at General Electric, John B. Taylor developed a detector ionizing beams of alkali

Illinois Budget Impasse

The Illinois Budget Impasse was a 793-day-long budget crisis in the state of Illinois. From July 1, 2015, to August 31, 2017, Illinois was without a complete state budget for fiscal years 2016, 2017, part of 2018; as a result, many state agencies had to continue borrowing to operate. The budget impasse has adversely affected Illinois' economy, its credit rating, public confidence in Illinois' state government. According to the Constitution of Illinois, the Governor is required to submit a balanced budget proposal for the next fiscal year to the Illinois General Assembly; the General Assembly, in turn, must pass a balanced budget and send it to the Governor's desk to sign before the beginning of the new fiscal year on June 30th. Illinois governors have presented budget proposals in mid-February, allowing around four and a half months of negotiations before the deadline; each fiscal year ends on June 30 of the following year. Each fiscal year is named after the year in which it ends. Although the recent Illinois budget impasse is not the first in the state's history, it is the longest.

At the beginning of July 2007, disagreements between then-governor Rod Blagojevich and the General Assembly delayed the FY08 budget by six weeks. Under Governor Pat Quinn, Illinois went 16 days in FY10 without a budget. On January 12, 2015, Bruce Rauner was sworn in as the 42nd Governor of Illinois. During the 2014 Illinois gubernatorial election, Rauner ran against incumbent governor Pat Quinn on a platform of a series of reforms dubbed "The Turnaround Agenda." The Turnaround Agenda included but was not limited to proposals such as unemployment insurance reform, tort reform, right-to-work reform, collective bargaining reform. Upon his ascension to the governorship, Governor Rauner intended to act on the Turnaround Agenda; these reforms were supported by Illinois' Republican legislators, but opposed by Illinois' Democratic legislators, including Illinois Speaker of the House Michael Madigan. At the time, Illinois was still in FY15 with a budget, signed by then-governor Quinn the previous summer.

That budget would not expire until June 30, 2015. From January 12, 2015, until February 18, 2015, the Illinois Governor's Office of Management and Budget, in conjunction with Illinois' state agencies, crafted a proposed FY16 budget which Governor Rauner introduced in a budget address on February 18, 2015. Both Governor Rauner and Speaker Madigan continued to disagree on how to implement a balanced budget. Governor Rauner insisted that the objectives listed in his Turnaround Agenda, rather than raising taxes, were essential for revitalizing Illinois' economy. Speaker Madigan, on the other hand, insisted that tax increases, rather than budget cuts, were essential; the General Assembly passed a series of budget bills to the Governor. One notable exception to the Governor's veto was a partial budget for the Illinois State Board of Education, which manages Illinois' K-12 education. In August 2015 a supplemental education budget would be passed. However, on July 1, 2015, the fiscal year ended without a budget for all state agencies except for ISBE.

As the new fiscal year began, not all spending stopped. State agencies purchase goods and services from vendors on credit; the agencies are reimbursed from the State according to appropriations in the budget and, in turn, are able to pay the vendors. However, on September 18, 2015, the Supreme Court of Illinois ordered that the State of Illinois must pay state workers and adhere to federal consent decrees which mandated the continuation of various health and social service programs. While this prevented a government shutdown, it meant that state agencies were required to continue purchasing services with no way to pay the vendors. Throughout the remainder of summer and autumn of 2015, negotiations between the Governor and Speaker continued, with few results; as January 2016 approached, the Illinois Governor's Office of Management and Budget began preparing an FY17 proposal despite the fact that FY16 did not yet have a budget. On February 17, 2016, Governor Rauner presented his FY17 budget proposal.

In response, in May 2016, the General Assembly attempted to pass its own budget for the Governor to sign, but it failed in the Senate. However, close to midnight on June 30, 2016, a stopgap budget was passed by the General Assembly and signed by the Governor; the stopgap budget provided limited appropriations to help agencies pay off their backlog of bills from FY16, funded all state agencies in FY17 until January 1, 2017. Again, the Illinois State Board of Education was the sole exception, receiving a full-year FY17 budget. No meaningful revenue increases or legislative reforms occurred. Both Governor Rauner and Speaker Madigan admitted that the stopgap budget was not perfect, neither solved nor ended the budget impasse. Although the first half of FY17 began with a budget, both Republicans and Democrats in the General Assembly were preoccupied with the 2016 elections. Donald Trump's unpopularity in Illinois provided Democratic candidates with the opportunity to tie Governor Rauner – and by extension, the budget impasse – to Trump.

The Illinois Democratic Party performed in the 2016 Illinois elections. Former City Clerk of Chicago Susana Mendoza defeated incumbent Comptroller Leslie Munger, while incumbent senator Mark Kirk lost in a landslide to congresswoman Tammy Duckworth, yet Republicans gained seats in both chambers of the General Assembly; the ruthless campaign atmosphere did not help ongoing negotiations between Governor Rauner and Speaker Madigan. In February 2017, Governor Rauner presented an FY18 budg

Vijay Award for Best Story, Screenplay Writer

The Vijay for Best Story, Screenplay Writer is given by STAR Vijay as part of its annual Vijay Awards ceremony for Tamil films. Here is the films for which they won. 2007 Viji - Mozhi Ameer Sultan - Paruthiveeran Madhavan and Seeman - Evano Oruvan Ram - Katrathu Tamil Venkat Prabhu - Chennai 600028 2008 Kamal Haasan - Dasavathaaram Gautham Menon - Vaaranam Aayiram Mysskin - Anjathey Sasikumar - Subramaniapuram 2009 Arivazhagan Venkatachalam - Eeram Jayamohan and Bala - Naan Kadavul Pandiraj - Pasanga Samudrakani - Naadodigal Vikram Kumar - Yaavarum Nalam 2010 Prabhu Solomon - Mynaa Gautham Menon - Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa Sargunam - Kalavani Suseenthiran and Bhaskar Sakthi - Naan Mahaan Alla Vasanthabalan and Jayamohan - Angadi Theru 2011 Thiagarajan Kumararaja - Aaranya Kaandam K. V. Anand and Subha - Ko M. Saravanan - Engaeyum Eppothum Raghava Lawrence - Kanchana Vetrimaaran - Aadukalam 2012 Karthik Subbaraj - Pizza Balaji Sakthivel - Vazhakku Enn 18/9 Balaji Tharaneetharan - Naduvula Konjam Pakkatha Kaanom Rajesh - Oru Kal Oru Kannadi S. S. Rajamouli - Naan Ee 2013 Nalan Kumarasamy - Soodhu Kavvum Alphonse Putharen - Neram Atlee - Raja Rani Lenin Bharathi, Suseenthiran - Aadhalal Kadhal Seiveer Naveen - Moodar Koodam 2014 Vijay Milton - Goli Soda Karthik Subbaraj - Jigarthanda R. Parthiepan - Kathai Thiraikathai Vasanam Iyakkam Ram - Mundasupatti Velraj - Velaiyilla Pattathari Tamil cinema Cinema of India