Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer who wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards, his books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Asimov wrote hard science fiction. Along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimov's most famous work is the "Foundation" series, the first three books of which won the one-time Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series" in 1966, his other major series are the Robot series. The Galactic Empire novels are set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation series. With Foundation and Earth, he linked this distant future to the Robot stories, creating a unified "future history" for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson.

He wrote hundreds of short stories, including the social science fiction novelette "Nightfall", which in 1964 was voted the best short science fiction story of all time by the Science Fiction Writers of America. Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French. Asimov wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his popular science books explain concepts in a historical way, going as far back as possible to a time when the science in question was at its simplest stage. Examples include Guide to Science, the three-volume set Understanding Physics, Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, he wrote on numerous other scientific and non-scientific topics, such as chemistry, mathematics, biblical exegesis, literary criticism. He was president of the American Humanist Association; the asteroid Asimov, a crater on the planet Mars, a Brooklyn elementary school, Honda's humanoid robot, ASIMO, four literary awards are named in his honor.

Asimov's family name derives from the first part of ozimyi khleb, meaning the winter grain in which his great-great-great-grandfather dealt, with the Russian patronymic ending -ov added. Azimov is spelled Азимов in the Cyrillic alphabet; when the family arrived in the United States in 1923 and their name had to be spelled in the Latin alphabet, Asimov's father spelled it with an S, believing this letter to be pronounced like Z, so it became Asimov. This inspired one of Asimov's short stories, "Spell My Name with an S."Asimov refused early suggestions of using a more common name as a pseudonym, believed that its recognizability helped his career. After becoming famous, he met readers who believed that "Isaac Asimov" was a distinctive pseudonym created by an author with a common name. Asimov was born in Petrovichi, Smolensk Oblast, Russian SFSR on an unknown date between October 4, 1919, January 2, 1920, inclusive. Asimov celebrated his birthday on January 2. Asimov's parents were a family of Russian Jewish millers.

He was named Isaac after Isaac Berman. When he was born, his family lived in Petrovichi, in Smolensk Governorate in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Asimov wrote of his father, "My father, for all his education as an Orthodox Jew, was not Orthodox in his heart", noting that "he didn't recite the myriad prayers prescribed for every action, he never made any attempt to teach them to me". In 1921, Asimov and 16 other children in Petrovichi developed double pneumonia. Only Asimov survived, he had two younger siblings: a sister, a brother, vice-president of the Long Island Newsday. Asimov's family travelled to the United States via Liverpool on the RMS Baltic, arriving on February 3, 1923 when he was three years old. Since his parents always spoke Yiddish and English with him, he never learned Russian, but he remained fluent in Yiddish as well as English. Growing up in Brooklyn, New York, Asimov taught himself to read at the age of five, his mother got him into first grade a year early by claiming he was born on September 7, 1919.

In third grade he learned about the "error" and insisted on an official correction of the date to January 2. After becoming established in the U. S. his parents owned a succession of candy stores in which everyone in the family was expected to work. The candy stores sold newspapers and magazines, a fact that Asimov credited as a major influence in his lifelong love of the written word, as it presented him with an unending supply of new reading material as a child that he could not have otherwise afforded, he became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 1928 at the age of eight. Asimov attended New York City public schools including Boys High School in Brooklyn. Graduating at 15, he attended the City College of New York for several days before accepting a scholarship at Seth Low Junior College, a branch of Columbia University in Downtown Brooklyn designed to absorb some of the Jewish and Italian-American students who applied to Columbia College the institution's primary undergraduate school for men. Jewish and Italian-American students of outstanding academic caliber, were deliberately barred from Columbia College proper because of the then-popular practice of imposing unwritten and ethn

Vincent Pyke

Vincent Pyke, born Vincent Pike, was a 19th-century politician in Otago, New Zealand and Victoria, Australia. Pyke was born in Shepton Mallet, England as Vincent Pike, he married Frances Renwick on 7 September 1846 at England. He changed the spelling of his surname some time after their wedding. Pyke and family went to Australia in 1851, first to South Australia and the gold diggings in Victoria where he spent two years as a miner around Forest Creek and Fryer's Creek Bendigo and opened a store at Forest Creek. Pyke was elected to represent Castlemaine in the Victorian Legislative Council from November 1855 to March 1856 and Castlemaine Boroughs in the Victorian Legislative Assembly from November 1856 to February 1857 and again from October 1859 and June 1862. In 1857 Pyke was appointed emigration agent in England in conjunction with the Right Hon. Hugh Childers. In 1862 Pyke visited the Otago goldfields, became Secretary or Commissioner of the goldfields for the Otago Provincial Council, he moved to Dunstan and Clyde.

He was the first Chairman of Vincent County, named after him following an ironic suggestion by an opponent. He represented the electorates of Wakatipu 1873–1875 Dunstan 1875–1890, he contested the 1890 election in the Mount Ida electorate, but was beaten by Scobie Mackenzie. He represented Tuapeka from 1893 to 1894 when he died, he was noted for his loyalty to his Central Otago constituents. Pyke was a journalist, wrote two novels about life on the goldfields, Wild Will Enderby and The Adventures of George Washington Pratt. Pyke died at Lawrence, is buried in the Dunedin Northern Cemetery. Five works by Pyke from the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Cartoon of Vincent Pyke in New Zealand Parliament

Codex Ravianus

Codex Ravianus is a manuscript rewritten from Complutensian Polyglot Bible. It was listed as a Greek manuscript of the New Testament, but it was removed from the list in 1908; the manuscript is a famous instance of the Comma Johanneum. The codex contains a complete text of the New Testament, in two volumes, on 292 + 205 parchment leaves; the leaves are arranged in quarto. It contains a spurious biblical passage, the Comma Johanneum in 1 John 5:7. Although it was rewritten from the Complutensian text, there are some textual divergences between them: Matthew 2:13; the codex was used as an argument in the 18th century that Complutensian was rewritten from the Codex Ravianus with imitation of its letters, but scholars like La Croze and Michaelis proved that errors of Ravianus are nothing more than errors of the pen. It lost its weight as an independent authority; the manuscript is a transcript from the Complutensian Polyglot, printed in 1514. It copies typographical errors of it, the letters are similar.

Some variant readings were inserted from the margin of Stephanus's edition. According to C. R. Gregory it once belonged to Christian Rave, from Uppsala, or his brother Johannes Rave, it took the name of Ravianus from the name Rave. Johann Jakob Wettstein added it into the list of the Greek New Testament manuscripts, designated it siglum 110; the text was published by Treschow, while it was examined and described by Griesbach, Georg Gottlieb Pappelbaum, Gregory. In 1908 Gregory removed it from the list of the Greek New Testament manuscripts, it is no longer listed. The manuscript is housed in the Berlin State Library