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Isaac Backus

Isaac Backus was a leading Baptist preacher during the era of the American Revolution who campaigned against state-established churches in New England. Born in the village of Yantic, now part of the town of Norwich, Backus was influenced by the Great Awakening and the works of Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, he was converted in 1741. For five years, he was a member of a Separatist Congregationalist church. In 1746, he became a preacher, he was ordained in 1748. Backus became a Baptist in 1751 when he became pastor of the Middleborough Baptist Church in Middleborough, Massachusetts. In 1764, Isaac Backus joined John Brown, Nicholas Brown, William Ellery, Stephen Hopkins, James Manning, Ezra Stiles, Samuel Stillman, Morgan Edwards and several others as an original fellow or trustee for the chartering of the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, the first Baptist school of higher learning. Considered a leading orator of the "pulpit of the American Revolution."

Backus published a sermon in 1773 that articulated his desire for religious liberty and a separation of church and state called An Appeal to the Public for Religious Liberty, Against the Oppressions of the Present Day. In that book, Backus stated: "Now who can hear Christ declare, that his kingdom is, not of this world, yet believe that this blending of church and state together can be pleasing to him?"In 1778, he authored a important work entitled Government and Liberty Described and Ecclesiastical Tyranny Exposed of which a copy is held by the John Carter Brown Library at Brown. Backus served as a delegate from Middleborough to the Massachusetts ratifying convention, which ratified the United States Constitution in 1788. In a speech during the convention, Backus praised the constitution for its prohibition of religious tests for federal office holders:Many appear to be much concerned about it, but nothing is more evident, both in reason, in the holy scriptures, than that religion is a matter between God and individuals.

Ministers first assumed this power under the Christian name. And let the history of all nations be searched, from that day to this, it will appear that the imposing of religious tests hath been the greatest engine of tyranny in the world. In the same speech Backus praised the constitution for giving the federal government the power to tax and regulate or abolish the slave trade, he voted in favor of ratification. Allison, William Henry. "Isaac Backus." Dictionary of American Biography. Vol I. p. 471. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928, 1943. Backus, Isaac. An Appeal to the Public for Religious Liberty Against the Oppressions of the Present Day. Boston: John Boyle. Backus, Isaac; the Doctrine of Universal Salvation Examined and Refuted. Boston: John Carter. Backus, Isaac. A Great Faith Described and Incalcated: A Sermon, on Luke VII. 9. Boston: E. Lincoln. Backus, Isaac. Church History of New England from 1620 to 1804. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publ. and S. S. Society. Backus, Isaac. David Weston. A History of New England with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists.

1. Newton, Massachusetts: Backus Historical Society. Backus, Isaac. David Weston. A History of New England with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists. 2. Newton, Massachusetts: Backus Historical Society; the Diary of Isaac Backus. William G. McLoughlin, ed. 3 vol. Providence: Brown University Press, 1979. Grenz, Stanley J. "Church and State: The Legacy of Isaac Backus." Center Journal 2: 73–94. "Isaac Backus: Eighteenth Century Light on the Contemporary School Prayer Issue." Perspectives in Religious Studies 13: 35–45. "Isaac Backus and Religious Liberty." Foundations 22: 352–360. Isaac Backus and Baptist: His Place in History, His Thought, Their Implications for Modern Baptist Theology. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983. Hovey, Alvah. A Memoir of the Life and Times of the Rev. Isaac Backus, A. M. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. (Review at JSTOR 25107417 Little, David. "American Civil Religion and the Rise of Pluralism." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 38: 401–413. Maston, T.

B. Isaac Backus: Pioneer of Religious Liberty. London: James Clarke & Co. Ltd. 1962. McLoughlin, William G. "Isaac Backus and the Separation of Church and State in America." American Historical Review 73: 1392–1413. JSTOR 1851375 The Papers of Isaac Backus, 1630-1806. Leigh Johnsen, ed. 15 microfilm reels. Ann Arbor, Mich.: ProQuest Information and Learning, 2003. Isaac Backus on Church and Calvinism: Pamphlets, 1754-1789. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968. Isaac Backus and the American Pietistic Tradition. Boston: Little and Company, 1967. Individual Clergymen and Denominational Assessments of the Constitution Furman University's Special Collection on Baptists Baptist Identity and Christian Higher Education, monograph by Donald D. Schmeltekopf and Dianna M. Vitanza Isaac Backus at the Baptist Page Isaac Backus biography at Acton Institute An Appeal to the Public for Religious Liberty Against the Oppressions of the Present Day First Baptist Church of North Middleboro The church Isaac Backus started


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Lafayette Mendel

Lafayette Benedict Mendel was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition, with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne, including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan. Mendel was born in Delhi, New York, son of Benedict Mendel, a merchant born in Aufhausen, Germany in 1833, Pauline Ullman, born in Eschenau, Germany, his father immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1851, his mother in 1870. At 15, he won a New York State scholarship. Mendel studied classics and the humanities, as well as biology and chemistry at Yale University and graduated with honors in 1891, he began graduate work at the Sheffield Scientific School on a fellowship and studied physiological chemistry under Russell Henry Chittenden. He finished his Ph. D. 1893 after only two years. Upon graduation, he began as an assistant at the Sheffield School in Physiological chemistry, he studied in Germany and was made an assistant professor on his return in 1896. He became a full professor in 1903 with appointments in the Yale School of Medicine and the Yale Graduate School as well as Sheffield.

With Chittenden, Mendel became one of the founders of the science of nutrition. Together with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne he established essential amino acids; as early as 1910 he found an important growth factor...later to be known as vitamin B. In 1903, at age 31, he was appointed full professor of physiological chemistry. In promoting Mendel, Yale made him one of the first high-ranking Jewish professors in the United States. Capping his illustrious career Mendel was appointed Sterling Professor of Physiological Chemistry in 1921. Of the twenty professors to be designated Sterling professors in the decade following their inception in 1920, only two were selected before Mendel. Of the twenty, Mendel was the only Jew. Mendel wrote over 100 papers with Osborne of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, where Mendel was an appointee. In their early work, they studied the deadly poison ricin, classified as a type 2 ribosome inactivating protein from castor beans, he was a member of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences.

Vitamin A discoveryMendel and Osborne's most important work involved the use of controlled studies on rats to study the necessary elements in a healthy diet. They discovered Vitamin A in 1913 in butter fat – independently discovered by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, who submitted their publication first, with both papers appearing in the same issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry – as well as water-soluble vitamin B in milk, they showed, for example. They established the importance of lysine and tryptophan in a healthy diet. Mendel wrote many articles and published Changes in the Food Supply and Their Relation to Nutrition and Nutrition, the Chemistry of Life. Mendel married Alice R. Friend on July 29, 1917, he died in 1935 of a heart condition after a long illness. His house in New Haven is a National Historic Landmark. Mendel received many honors during his career, he was made Sterling Professor at Yale in 1921. He was the first president of the American Institute of Nutrition, he was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1913.

He won the American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal in 1927 "for his outstanding contributions to chemistry". He won the Conné Medal of the Chemist's Club of New York in 1935 "for his outstanding chemical contributions to medicine"


Montasio is a mountain cheese made from cow's milk produced in northeastern Italy in the regions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Veneto. It was awarded a protected designation of origin in 1986. Made from cow's milk Country of origin: Italy Region: Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto Alternative spellings: Montasio Fresco Type: semi-hard. Versions aged longer develop a harder texture. Fat content: 32% Texture: creamy and open Rind: natural Color: pale yellow to gold, depending on age It is aged for a minimum of two months, some preparations are aged for a year or more; the rind is stamped with the date of its production. Friulano Bergkäse Montasio official website Montasio

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is a private university associated with the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois. Tracing its history to an art students' cooperative founded in 1866, which grew into the museum and school, SAIC has been accredited since 1936 by the Higher Learning Commission, by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design since 1944, by the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design since the associations founding in 1991. Additionally it is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. In a 2002 survey conducted by Columbia University's National Arts Journalism Program, SAIC was named the “most influential art school” in the United States, its downtown Chicago campus consists of seven buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the AIC building. SAIC is in an equal partnership with the AIC and share many administrative resources such as design and human resources; the campus, located in the Loop, comprises chiefly five main buildings: the McLean Center, the Michigan building, the Sharp, Sullivan Center, the Columbus.

SAIC holds classes in the Spertus building at 610 S. Michigan. SAIC owns additional buildings throughout Chicago that are used as student investments. There are three dormitory facilities: The Buckingham, Jones Hall, 162 N State Street residencies; the institute has its roots in the 1866 founding of the Chicago Academy of Design, which local artists established in rented rooms on Clark Street. It was financed by member dues and patron donations. Four years the school moved into its own Adams Street building, destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; because of the school's financial and managerial problems after this loss, business leaders in 1878 formed a board of trustees and founded the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. They expanded its mission beyond education and exhibitions to include collecting. In 1882, the academy was renamed the Art Institute of Chicago; the banker Charles L. Hutchinson served as its elected president until his death in 1924; the school grew to become among the "most influential" art schools in the United States.

Walter E. Massey served as president from 2010–July 2016; the current president is Elissa Tenny the school's provost. SAIC offers classes in technology. SAIC serves as a resource for issues related to the position and importance of the arts in society. SAIC offers an interdisciplinary Low-Residency MFA for students wishing to study the fine arts and/or writing; as of fall 2018, the student enrollment at SAIC is demographically classified as follows:Total Enrollment: 3,640 Undergraduate students: 2,895 Graduate students: 745 Sex: Female: 74.3% Male: 25.7% International and ethnic origin: International students: 33% United States students: 67%, further subdivided as follows: White: 32.6% Hispanic: 10.4% Asian or Pacific Islander: 8.9% African American: 3.3% American Indian: 0.2% Multiethnic: 2.8% Not Specified: 8.4% Geographic distribution of United States students: Midwest: 41.2% Northeast: 16.5% West: 19.4% South: 22.8% Founded in 1868, the Visiting Artists Program is one of the oldest public programs of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Formalized in 1951 by Flora Mayer Witkowsky's endowment of a supporting fund, the Visiting Artists Program hosts public presentations by artists and scholars each year in lectures, symposia and screenings. It is an eclectic program that showcases artists' working in all media, including sound, performance, poetry and independent film. Recent visiting artists have included Catherine Opie, Andi Zeisler, Aaron Koblin, Jean Shin, Sam Lipsyte, Ben Marcus, Marilyn Minter, Pearl Fryar, Tehching Hsieh, Homi K. Bhabha, Bill Fontana, Wolfgang Laib, Suzanne Lee, Amar Kanwar among others. Additionally, the Distinguished Alumni Series brings alumni back to the community to present their work and reflect on how their experiences at SAIC have shaped them. Recent alumni speakers include Tania Bruguera, Jenni Sorkin, Kori Newkirk, Maria Martinez-Cañas, Saya Woolfalk, Jun Nguyen-Hatsushiba, Sanford Biggers to name a few. Sullivan Galleries- Located to the 7th floor of the Sullivan Center at 33 S. State Street.

With shows and projects led by faculty or student curators, it is a teaching gallery that engages the exhibition process as a pedagogical model and mode of research. SITE Galleries - Founded in 1994, SITE, once known as the Student Union Galleries, is a student-run organization at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago for the exhibition of student work; the two central tenets of the galleries are to build relationships between different departments and stakeholders throughout the institution and strengthen our role as a teaching gallery within and beyond SAIC. This is accomplished first through providing a consistent space for undergraduate and graduate directors to organize and generate exhibitions that realize the vision of student artists. Furthermore, with strategic programming, SITE supports these exhibitions and engages evolving currents and discourses in o

John Henry Caldwell

John Henry Caldwell was a U. S. Representative from Alabama. Born in Huntsville, Caldwell attended the common schools of Huntsville and Bacon College, Kentucky, he taught school in Limestone County, four years. He moved to Jacksonville, Alabama, in 1848, he was principal of the Jacksonville Female Academy 1848-1852 and of the Jacksonville Male Academy 1853-1857. Edited the Jacksonville Republican in 1851 and 1852 and assumed the editorship of the Sunny South in 1855, he served as member of the State house of representatives in 1857 and 1858. He studied law, he commenced practice in Jacksonville, Alabama. During the Civil War enlisted in the Confederate States Army and organized Company A of the Tenth Alabama Regiment, from St. Clair and Calhoun Counties, served throughout the war, he was promoted to major and to lieutenant colonel. He served in the Army of Virginia. Caldwell was elected solicitor for the tenth judicial circuit in 1863 but was deposed by the Provisional Governor in 1865, he was reelected the same year, in 1867 was removed from office for refusing to obey military orders.

Caldwell was first elected to congress on November 5, 1872 as a fusion candidate of the Liberal Republican and Democratic parties. He received 62.62% of the vote. He was elected to represent Alabama's 5th congressional district, which at the time encompassed the most north-eastern part of Alabama, he was re-elected in 1874 as a straight Democrat with 59.19% of the vote. Caldwell was a member of the Forty-fourth Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Agriculture. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1876, he resumed the practice of law. He died in Jacksonville, September 4, 1902, he was interred in Jacksonville Cemetery. United States Congress. "John Henry Caldwell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Dubin, Michael J. "United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results". McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. Jefferson, North Carolina. 1998. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website