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Isaac Brock

Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Guernsey. Brock was assigned to Lower Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada for many years, he was promoted to major general, became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come; when the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts. Brock's actions his success at Detroit, earned him accolades including a knighthood in the Order of the Bath and the sobriquet "The Hero of Upper Canada", his name is linked with that of the Native American leader Tecumseh, although the two men collaborated in person only for a few days. Brock died at the Battle of Queenston Heights. Brock was born at St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of John Brock, a midshipman in the Royal Navy, Elizabeth de Lisle, daughter of Daniel de Lisle Lieutenant-Bailiff of Guernsey.

The Brocks were an English family, established in Guernsey since the sixteenth century. Brock earned a reputation during his early education on Guernsey as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. At age ten, he was sent to school in Southampton, he studied for one year in Rotterdam, learning French. Despite his lack of an extensive formal education, Brock appreciated its importance; as an adult, he spent much time reading in an attempt to improve his education. He read many works on military tactics and science, but he read ancient history and other less practical topics. At the time of his death, he owned a modest library of books, including classic works by Shakespeare and Samuel Johnson, he kept a reputation as an "unusually tall, robust" man throughout his life, with an adult height of about 6 ft 2 in. Measurements taken from his uniform show that at his death he had a waist size of 47 inches and the inside brim of his hat measured 24 inches in circumference. Though Brock was noted as a handsome man who enjoyed the company of women, he never married.

Brock had a successful pre-war military career and a quick rise through the ranks, which many commented on at the time. Some credited luck and others skill in his rapid promotions, Brock had substantial portions of both on his way to prominence. Lacking special political connections, Brock's ability to gain promotions when the nation was at peace attests to his skills in recruiting men and organizing finances, ambition. At the age of fifteen, Brock joined the 8th Regiment of Foot on 8 March 1785 with the rank of ensign, was given responsibility for the regimental colours, his elder brother John was an officer in the same regiment. As was usual at the time, Brock's commission was purchased. On 16 January 1790 he bought the rank of lieutenant and that year he raised his own company of men; as a result, he was promoted to captain on 27 January 1791 and transferred to the 49th Regiment of Foot on 15 June 1791. His nephew and biographer asserts that shortly after Brock joined the regiment, a professional dueller forced a match on him.

As the one being challenged Brock had his choice of terms, he insisted that they use pistols. His friends were shocked as Brock was his opponent an expert shot. Brock, refused to change his mind; when the duellist arrived at the field, he asked Brock to decide. Brock insisted that the duel would take place not at handkerchief distance; the duellist subsequently was forced to leave the regiment. This contributed to Brock's popularity and reputation among his fellow officers, as this duellist had a formidable reputation and was regarded as a bully in the regiment. During his time with this regiment, Brock served in the Caribbean, where he fell ill with fever and nearly died, he did not recover until after returning to England in 1793. Once back in Britain he spent much of his time recruiting, he was placed in charge of recruits on Jersey, he purchased his majority on 27 June 1795, rejoined his regiment in 1796, when the rest of his men returned from the West Indies. On 28 October 1797 Brock purchased the rank of lieutenant-colonel for £3,000, became acting commanding officer of the regiment, assuming substantive command on 22 March 1798 with the retirement of Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Keppel.

The rank was bought cheaply. In 1799 the 49th was assigned to the Helder Expedition against the Batavian Republic, to be led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. During the troop landings, Brock saw his first combat on 10 September 1799 under the command of then-Major-General John Moore. Given that the 49th was in poor shape when Brock took command, they saw little actual combat. Moore was sparing them and using more experienced troops to establish the beachhead. On 2 October the 49th was involved in heavy combat at the Battle of Alkmaar, where they acquitted themselves well, sustaining only 33 deaths; the 49th had been ordered to proceed up the beaches of Egmont-op-Zee, a steep climb through sand dunes and poor terrain. The risks were exacerbated by harassment from French sha

Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve

Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of south-central Mexico. The 171,774.4 hectares reserve surrounds the volcanoes of Popocatépetl and Ixtaccíhuatl and marks the biogeographical boundary between the Nearctic and Neotropic ecozones. The reserve is managed by Iztaccíhuatl Popocatépetl Zoquiapan National Park; the altitude of Los Volcanes varies between 2,589 metres above sea level and 5,452 metres above sea level. There is a marked ecosystem gradient deriving from the variations in altitude, favoring enormous specific wealth and the presence of endemic species, its diverse ecosystems consist of the pine and sacred fir of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests as well as high-mountain prairies. Its geological formations are of volcanic origin with a predomination of andesitic rocks. Within the reserve, the core zone comes under federal jurisdiction, the buffer zone under each State’s land planning and a combination of ejido and small landowners.

The transition zone is the property of the ejidos and small landowners. The transition zone is the only part with human settlements, including 31,480 inhabitants and land given over to farming, stock-raising, harvesting or other uses; the Ecological Planning Programme for Popocatépetl volcano and its Area of Influence covers a surface area of 28,319,253 hectares involving 34 municipalities in three states, namely: Ixtapaluca, Cocotitlán, Tenango del Aire, Amecameca, Tepetlixpa and Ecatzingo, in the State of Mexico. This article incorporates text from a free content work. License statement: UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory, UNESCO, UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use

St. Peter, Leipzig

Old St. Peter's Church is a Lutheran parish and church in the old town of Leipzig, Germany; the present church building, in Gothic Revival style, was erected from 1882 onwards at the Gaudigplatz, serves as a concert venue. It replaced a former building at a different location; the former building was built in 1507. After the Reformation, it was used as a Lutheran church until 1539, again from 1712 to 1885, it was demolished in 1886. With 87 metres it is Leipzig's tallest church; the Peterskirche, sometimes called Alte Peterskirche to distinguish it from the building at a different location) was built close to one of the four city gates and adjacent to the wall. The quarter around it was called Petersviertel; the church was dedicated on 29 March 1507. After the Reformation, the church was abandoned in 1539; the building served during the Thirty Years' War as barracks. In 1704, the minister of St. Thomas's church suggested that the building should be used again for religious purposes, it was rebuilt, including two storeys.

The first service was held on 29 May 1712. A new altar and organ were installed from 1797 to 1799. A bell tower was added in 1874; when the congregation outgrew the old church, minister Gustav Adolf Fricke and the church council decided in 1876 to build a new church. A property at the Schlettenplatz, south of the old city, was exchanged for the property of the old church. Eighty architects from all over Germany responded to a competition in 1877; the designs by August Hartel and Constantin Lipsius were chosen. Construction began in March 1882, it was dedicated on 27 December 1885. The interior painting and stained glass windows were completed in 1886; the church was damaged during the bombing of Leipzig in World War II. Restoration was again in the 1990s and 2000s; the church is built in a Gothic Revival style. It has the highest tower of any church in Leipzig, at 87 metres, its exterior is richly decorated, with a large portal on the western side. "Geschichte". Peterskirche. 2014. "Peterskirche, Leipzig".

Kidok. 2009. Mai, Hartmut. Die Peterskirche in Leipzig. Beucha: Sax-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-930076-33-8. Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32256-9. "Gedenkblätter der Grundsteinlegungs- und Einweihungsfeier für die neue Peterskirche". Leipzig-Lexikon. 1886. Retrieved 11 February 2015. " Peterskirche". Leipzig-Lexikon. Retrieved 11 February 2015. " Peterskirche". Leipzig-Lexikon. Retrieved 11 February 2015. Cornelius Gurlitt: Peterskirche. In: Beschreibende Darstellung der älteren Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Königreichs Sachsen, 17. Volume: Stadt Leipzig. C. C. Meinhold, Dresden, 1895, p. 149. Kirchen in Leipzig. Schriften des Leipziger Geschichtsvereins 2/1993. Sax-Verlag, Beucha 1993 Heinrich Magirius. Stadt Leipzig. Die Sakralbauten. Mit einem Überblick über die städtebauliche Entwicklung von den Anfängen bis 1989. Tl. 1. Dt. Kunstverlag, München 1995, pp. 679–697 Bruno Hartung: Die alte und die neue Peterskirche in Leipzig. Eine Denkschrift. Verlag von Heinrich Matthes, Leipzig.

Printed by Bär & Hermann in Leipzig 1885. Vereinigung Leipziger Architekten und Ingenieure: Die Peterskirche. In: Leipzig und seine Bauten. Zur X. Wanderversammlung des Verbandes Deutscher Architekten- und Ingenieur-Vereine in Leipzig vom 28. Bis 31. August, 1892. J. M. Gebhardt's Verlag, Leipzig 1892. Official website