Transportation in Houston
Houston’s freeway system includes 575.5 miles of freeways and expressways in the 10-county metro area. The State of Texas plans to spend $5.06 billion on Houston area highways between 2002 and 2007, Houston freeways are heavily traveled and often under construction to meet the demands of continuing growth. Interstate 45 south has been in a state of construction, in one portion or another, almost since the first segment. Texas Department of Transportation planners have sought ways to reduce rush hour congestion, primarily through High-occupancy vehicle lanes for vans, timed freeway entrances, which regulate the addition of cars to the freeway, are common. Houston has an network of freeway cameras linked to a traffic management center, to monitor. One characteristic of Houstons freeways are its frontage roads, alongside most freeways are two to four lanes in each direction parallel to the freeway permitting easy access to individual city streets. Frontage roads provide access to the freeway from businesses alongside, such as gas stations, New landscaping projects and a longstanding ban on new billboards are ways Houston has tried to control the potential side effects of convenience.
Houston has a hub-and-spoke freeway structure with multiple loops, the innermost is Interstate 610, forming approximately a 10-mile-diameter loop around downtown. The roughly square Loop-610 is quartered into North Loop, South Loop, West Loop, the roads of Beltway 8 and their freeway core, the Sam Houston Tollway, are the next loop, at a diameter of roughly 25 miles. A proposed highway project, State Highway 99, would form a third loop outside of Houston, as of June 2016, two portions of State Highway 99 have been completed, a 14. S. Highway 59 in Sugar Land, southwest of Houston, to Interstate 69/U. S, Highway 59 in New Caney, northeast of Houston. The next portions to be constructed are from the current terminus at Interstate 69/U. S, Highway 59 in Sugar Land to State Highway 288 in Brazoria County, and from the current terminus at Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 in New Caney to the current terminus at Interstate 10 in Mont Belvieu, Houston lies along the route of the proposed Interstate 69 North American Free Trade Agreement superhighway that will link Canada, the U. S.
industrial mid-west and Mexico. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas, or METRO, provides transportation in the form of buses, trolleys. METRO began running light rail service on January 1,2004, currently the track runs approximately 13 miles from Downtown Houston to the Texas Medical Center and Reliant Park Southbound and to the Northline Mall Northbound. METRO operates an extensive bus system to serve many of Houstons outlying suburban areas. Most of the buses run in barrier-separated high-occupancy-vehicle lanes that provide direct service from park-and-ride parking lots to major employment destinations. Prior to the opening of METRORail, Houston was the largest city in the United States without a rail transit system
Charles Moore (architect)
Charles Willard Moore was an American architect, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. Moore graduated from the University of Michigan in 1947 and earned both a Masters and a Ph. D at Princeton University in 1957, where he studied under Professor Jean Labatut. He remained for an year as a post-doctoral fellow, serving as a teaching assistant for Louis Kahn. It was at Princeton that Moore developed relationships with his fellow students Donlyn Lyndon, William Turnbull, Jr. Richard Peters, and Hugh Hardy, remained lifelong friends and collaborators. During the Princeton years, Moore designed and built a house for his mother in Pebble Beach, Moores Masters Thesis explored ways to preserve and integrate Montereys historic adobe dwellings into the fabric of the city. His Doctoral dissertation and Architecture, was a study of the importance of water in shaping the experience of place. The dissertation is significant for being the first work of scholarship to draw from the work of Gaston Bachelard.
Many decades later, the became the basis of a book with the same title. In 1959, Moore left New Jersey and began teaching at the University of California, Moore went on to become Dean of the Yale School of Architecture from 1965 through 1970, directly after the tenure of Paul Rudolph. In 1975, he moved to the University of California, Los Angeles where he continued teaching, finally, in 1985, he became the ONeil Ford Centennial Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin. Moores outgoing and engaging personality and his dedication to innovation, debate, with Kent Bloomer, Moore founded the Yale Building Project in 1967 as a way both to demonstrate social responsibility and demystify the construction process for first-year students. The project remains active at Yale, the constant changes resulted, in part, from Moores extensive worldwide travel and his moves to California and to Austin, Texas. His mid-1960s New Haven residence, published in Playboy, featured an open, freestanding shower in the middle of the room, such design features made Moore one of the chief innovators of postmodern architecture, along with Robert Venturi and Michael Graves, among others.
Moores Piazza dItalia, a public plaza in New Orleans. In addition to his work as an architect and university educator, Moore was a prolific author. Many other books and articles document his designs, the City Observed, Los Angeles remains an excellent guide to Los Angeles significant architecture. The Charles W. Moore Foundation was established in 1997 in Austin, Texas to preserve Moores last home and its non-profit programs include residencies, conferences and publication of PLACENOTES, a travel guide. His last work, the Washington State History Museum in Tacoma, Washington Notes The Charles W. Moore Foundation, Texas Charles W
Congregation Beth Israel (Houston)
Congregation Beth Israel of Houston, the oldest Jewish congregation in Texas, was founded in Houston in 1854. The congregation was founded in 1854 as an Orthodox Jewish kehilla, the Orthodox Beth Israel Congregation in Houston opened in a former house that had been converted to a synagogue. In 1874 the congregation voted to change their affiliation to Reform Judaism, sparking the foundation of Congregation Adath Yeshurun, hyman Judah Schachtel was a past rabbi. Beth Israels Franklin Avenue Temple building was completed in 1874, the temple was at Crawford Street at Franklin Street in what is now Downtown Houston. In 1908 the congregation moved into a new temple at Crawford at Lamar Street, in an area that was a Jewish community, a new temple at Austin Street and Holman Avenue was dedicated in 1925. Originally it was considered to be a part of the Third Ward, in 1943 Temple Beth Israel announced that people who espoused Zionist ideals were not allowed to be members, so Emanu-El was formed by people who disagreed with the decision.
As of 1967 Beth Israel accepts people with Zionist beliefs, in 1966 the Houston Independent School District purchased the 1920s temple. HISD began using as an annex for San Jacinto High School since the population was increasing. In the years leading to 1967, the Jewish community was moving to Meyerland, to follow the community, in 1967 the congregation moved to a new temple on North Braeswood Boulevard. The temple on Austin Street became the first home of Houstons High School for the Performing, when the high school moved to new quarters, the building became a performance venue for Houston Community Colleges Central Fine Arts division and was renamed the Heinen Theatre. The historic building is located in Midtown Houston, rabbi David Lyon currently presides over the congregation of Beth Israel. The current synagogue at 5600 North Braeswood has a lobby with twelve needlepoints, the design of these needlepoints had inspiration in the Hadassah Medical Centers Chagall windows. The current synagogue facility has expanded since its initial construction in order to house a Jewish school.
The Shlenker School is on the synagogue property, the school is accredited by the Independent Schools Association of the Southwest. The cemetery owned by Congregation Beth Israel is the oldest Jewish cemetery in Houston, History of the Jews in Houston Bell, Roselyn. The Jewish Traveler, Hadassah Magazines Guide to the Worlds Jewish Communities, rowman & Littlefield, January 1,1994. Content in, Alan M. Jewish Travel-Prem, talent Knows No Color, The History of an Arts Magnet High School Information Age Publishing,2007. Synagogue website Shlenker School Congregational history
Climate of Houston
The climate of Houston is classified as humid subtropical. August normally ranks as the warmest month at 84.6 °F, the normal annual precipitation measures 49.77 inches. Occasional severe weather of Houston mostly takes the form of flooding, supercell thunderstorms sometimes bring tornadoes to the area, most commonly during spring. Houston sometimes experiences tropical cyclones during the Atlantic hurricane season, which can bring heavy rain, the last hurricane to hit was Hurricane Ike in 2008. June through August in Houston is very hot and humid, often with scattered afternoon showers, the average relative humidity ranges from over 90 percent in the morning to around 60 percent in the afternoon. Summer temperatures in Houston are very similar to average temperatures seen in tropical climates, such as in the Philippines, the value of relative humidity results in a heat index higher than the actual temperature. The highest temperature recorded at George Bush Intercontinental Airport was 109 °F on September 4,2000.
On June 29,2013, the temperature at George Bush Intercontinental Airport reached 107 °F, heat stroke can strike people who stay outdoors for long periods of time during the summer, making hydration essential for outdoor work and recreational activity. Heat and humidity of Houston make air conditioning important in day-to-day life, most indoor workers spend the hottest part of the day in air conditioning. After World War II, air conditioning stimulated the growth of Houston, for construction workers and others who must work outdoors, there is little relief from the summer heat and humidity. Industrial workers, automobile mechanics and others who work in non-air conditioned indoor spaces often rely on large electric fans to provide some relief. Autumn in Houston is warm, with temperatures averaging in the upper 60s to lower 80s °F during the day, cool fronts that move through the region during the fall can bring rain. Hurricanes can move into the area from the Gulf of Mexico, bringing heavy rains, most years see little or no significant hurricane activity.
Flooding most frequently occurs in October and November, the latest hurricane to reach Texas was Hurricane Ike. Winters in Houston are relatively mild and temperate compared to most areas of the United States, though Houston does get much colder than places like South Florida, Houston is more prone to extreme variation in the winter months than cities like San Diego, California or Tampa, Florida. The average high in January, the coldest month, is 62.9 °F, cold fronts during the winter drop nighttime lows into the 30s but usually above freezing. The coldest weather of the season includes a period about three weeks with temperatures in the low 30s to mid-40s at night. Hard freezes occur only uncommonly, George Bush Intercontinental Airport has recorded a freeze every winter since it opened in 1969, the coldest temperature ever recorded at George Bush Intercontinental Airport was 7 °F on December 23,1989
Midtown is a district southwest of Downtown Houston, bordered by Neartown, Interstate 69/U. S. Around 1906 what is now Midtown was divided between the Third Ward and Fourth Ward, before the 1950s what is now Midtown was a popular residential district. Increasingly, commercial development lead homeowners to leave for neighborhoods they considered less busy, the area became a group of small apartment complexes, low-rise commercial buildings, and older houses. According to a City of Houston report, the remaining churches, in the 1970s, Midtown became home to Little Saigon, a neighborhood of Vietnamese and Vietnamese Americans, who pioneered the redevelopment of Midtown Houston. During the 1980s, Travis and Milam Streets were viewed as an image of 1970s era Saigon. The Vietnamese areas were established around Milam Street, Webster Street, Fannin Street, by 1991 this Little Saigon had Vietnamese restaurants, hair salons, car shops, and travel agencies. Mimi Swartz of Texas Monthly stated in 1991 that Little Saigon is a place to begin easing into a new country, on June 24,1994 Isabella Court at 3909-3917 South Main Street received listing in the National Register of Historic Places.
The City of Houston established the Midtown Tax Increment Reinvestment Zone in 1995, the establishment of the TIRZ lead to the opening of upper income townhomes and apartment complexes in western Midtown and the area along Elizabeth Baldwin Park. Between 1990 and 2000 the area within the Midtown Superneighborhood saw the increase from 3,070 to 5,311. The increase by 2,241 people was 73% of the 1990 population, during that period about 2,200 multi-family units opened, particularly along Louisiana Street and West Gray Street. Since the total multi-family acreage remained at a number, the population increase increased the density of the area. During the 1990s commercial uses increased, particularly along Main Street, in 1999 the 76th Texas Legislature created the Midtown Management District. In 2009 Houston City Council approved the expansion of the Midtown TIRZ by 8 acres, the new territory includes the Asia House, the Buffalo Soldiers Museum and the Museum of African-American culture. In 2014 the ranking website Niche stated that Midtown was the neighborhood for millennial people.
In 2010 Denny Lee of The New York Times said that Midtown, by 2012 many new bars, retail operations, and restaurants had opened in Midtown. Ed Page, a broker, said in 2012 that Midtown has not yet seen any significant new retail. As of 2010 five flower shops are located along Fannin in a section of Midtown, one decade before 2010 there were over one dozen flower shops in that area. In 2003 the flower shop owners were mostly Asian, the shops, along four city blocks, were centered on Rosedale Street
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Nicknames of Houston
There are many nicknames for the city of Houston, the largest city in Texas and third-largest city in the United States. The citys nicknames reflect its geography, multicultural population and they are often used by the media and in popular culture to reference the city. Cities adopt official nicknames such as one to establish a civic identity, promote civic pride. Houston has had other nicknames in the past which have faded in common usage, the city has recently accumulated several unofficial nicknames from among sub-groups within the city, including several whose origins are in the local hip-hop subculture. The most recently added nickname is The Big Heart, which refers to assistance given by Houston, Houston received its official nickname of Space City in 1967 because it is home to NASAs Manned Spacecraft Center. NASAs center in Houston has its origins in the Space Task Group which directed its first manned spaceflight program, in 1961, it grew into a bigger organization as the Manned Spacecraft Center, and in 1962 moved into a newly built campus on land donated by Rice University.
It was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in honor of Texas U. S. Senator, Vice President, and President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973, the year Johnson died. As Senate Majority Leader, Johnson played a role in passage of the legislation which created NASA in 1958. Mission Control Center, which coordinates and monitors all human spaceflight for the United States, the visitors center of JSC is Space Center Houston. The first words transmitted by Neil Armstrong from the moon, the Eagle has landed, are written in 15 languages on bronze plaques placed along the main entrance of Tranquility Park in downtown Houston. A replica of one of the left on the moon by Neil Armstrong is on display inside the park. Houston is popularly known as The Bayou City because it is home to ten winding waterways that flow through the surrounding area, other major bayous in the city include White Oak Bayou, Brays Bayou and Sims Bayou. H-Town is a popular modern nickname for Houston. It is commonly used in reference to the city locally and internationally, especially within the entertainment community.
In addition, the H-Town Blues Festival is a festival held each year in the city. H-Town is the name of an R&B hip hop band from Houston that was formed in 1992, the nickname of Clutch City was given to the city of Houston after the Houston Rockets won the 1994 and 1995 NBA championships. The moniker was adopted in response to a headline in the Houston Chronicle declaring Houston to be Choke City. The Rockets mascot, Clutch the Bear, was named the 5th-most recognizable mascot in sports by USA Today in February 2005, crush City is a nickname that derived from the 2015 Houston Astros season
Economy of Houston
The economy of Houston is primarily based on the energy industry, health care, biomedical research, and aerospace constitute large sectors of the citys economy. The Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land MSAs gross domestic product in 2012 was $449 billion, the Houston metropolitan area comprises the largest petrochemical manufacturing area in the world, including for synthetic rubber and fertilizers. The area is the leading center for building oilfield equipment. The city is home to more than 3,000 energy-related establishments, including many of the top oil and gas exploration and production firms, as of 2011,23 companies on the Fortune 500 list have their headquarters in Houston or the surrounding metropolitan region. In 2012, the city was ranked #1 for paycheck worth by Forbes, Houston is a major corporate center. The city and surrounding region is home to 23 Fortune 500 companies, as well as other multinationals. Of the worlds 100 largest non-U. S. -based corporations, in 2006, the Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U. S.
within the category of Best Places for Business and Careers by Forbes. The 2011 Fortune 500 list shows 23 firms headquartered in the 10-county Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown Metropolitan Statistical Area, only New York City in has more Fortune 500 headquarters within city limits. Banking and financial services are vital to the region, forty foreign governments maintain trade and commercial offices here and the city has 23 active foreign chambers of commerce and trade associations. Twenty-two foreign banks representing 12 nations operate in Houston and provide assistance to the international community. In 1997, Houston had offices of 84 subsidiaries of Japanese companies, Houston has more than 1,000 computer-related companies. Since its inception in 1999, Houston Technology Center has become the center of technology entrepreneurship in Houston, the center has helped more than 150 emerging technology companies raise more than $400 million in capital and create about 1,000 new jobs. Houston, with a base of more than 3 million, is AT&Ts largest service city.
The citys telecommunications infrastructure completes more than 70 million Houston telephone connections daily, the Texas Public Utilities Commission has certified more than 400 additional local exchange carriers to provide service statewide or specifically within Houston. More than 1,600 interexchange carriers have registered with the commission to provide long distance service and this is in addition to the 12,500 new graduates the UH System produces every year who enter the workforce in Houston and throughout Texas. These degree-holders tend to stay in Houston, after five years,80.5 percent of graduates are still living and working in the region. More than 65,000 health care professionals work there every day, the UT Research Park, a joint venture between The University of Texas M. D. Anderson and the UT Health Science Center at Houston, is located in the Medical Center. When fully developed, the UT Research Park will be made up of nearly 2 million square feet of research, lab and support space for private companies, the venture will be focused on biotechnology and life sciences research
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The Ensemble Theatre
The Ensemble Theatre is a non-profit organization founded by George Hawkins in 1976 as a touring company that rehearsed in a church basement. In 2003, the company was awarded $250,000 from the Houston Endowment Inc. with which it retired its original capital campaign debt and made some improvements to the facility. Since 1991, Houston Endowment Inc. has granted a total of $1,220,500 to the Ensemble, in August 2006, the Ensemble Theatre celebrated its 30-year anniversary, as it launched its 2006-2007 production season. This celebration included the presentation of an award to American actor and director Danny Glover, the facility includes a main stage auditorium with seating for 200, an arena stage that seats 125, and a grand performance hall that accommodates 500 people. A non-profit organization, the Ensemble Theatre has a touring program. The Ensembles mission is to preserve African-American artistic expression, to do so, it collaborates with and presents works by artists such as Joseph A.
Walker, Pearl Cleage, Cheryl L. Though the Ensemble is an African-American run troupe, it is colorblind when it comes to welcoming directors, performers, pulitzer Prize-winning playwright August Wilson has visited the Ensemble, and influential dramatist Ntozake Shange has directed the troupe. Performers Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee have offered their support to the company, in August 2006, the Ensemble announced its selection of Eileen J. Morris as its new artistic director. National Black Theatre History of the African Americans in Houston The Ensemble Theatre
Gregory-Lincoln Education Center
Gregory-Lincoln Education Center is a K-8 school located at 1101 Taft in the Fourth Ward area of Houston, United States. Gregory-Lincoln is a part of the Houston Independent School District and has an arts magnet program that takes students in both the elementary and middle school levels. As of 2015 Nicole Ayen-Metoyer is the administrator of Gregory-Lincoln. A previous campus for Gregory Lincoln was built in 1966, the original campus was a three story brick building. In the schools history it received enrollment decreases, particularly when the population decreased from 900 students in the 2000-2001 period to about 700 students in the 2004-2005 period. In 1975, the school was known as Abraham Lincoln Junior & Senior High School, and became the campus of Houston Community High School, an HISD magnet school. In 2000, the announced that the Edgar Gregory-Abraham Lincoln Education Center would receive a new campus that would be on the site of the old campus. Initially HISD planned to locate the a new campus for the High School for the Performing, the development attracted controversy since it used eminent domain to seize property owned by existing residents, even though some residents expressed a reluctance to have their property seized.
Betty L. Martin of the Houston Chronicle said that some of the properties were reputed to be of historical significance and these rumors of prevented any development for several years. In 2006 Houston ISD did not find any new grave sites, on Monday, December 31,2007, the two story current Gregory Lincoln building opened. As of January 2008 it has about 500 students, the demolition of the original campus was scheduled to begin in January 2008. The district planned to grade the land and place an athletic field for school students. The new school building includes digital ceiling-mounted projectors in the classrooms, as a result of the closing of J. Will Jones Elementary School, Gregory-Lincolns elementary boundary had an increase in territory in Midtown, as the result of the 2011 closing of E. O. Smith Education Center, Gregory-Lincolns middle school boundary had an increase in territory in Downtown Houston. As of 2008 it had 546 students, during the 2004-2005 school year, Gregory-Lincoln had 770 students.
During the 2000-2001 school year the school had 906 students, gentrification of the areas within the elementary, during the 2004-2005 school year, school was mostly African-American, with 58% of its students being African-American. The school had a large Hispanic minority, which made up 39% of the student body, non-Hispanic White students and Asian American students each made up 1% of the student body. There were no Native American students enrolled at Gregory-Lincoln, 91% of the students qualified for free or reduced lunch
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, with its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houstons primary newspaper. The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, the paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including approximately 300 journalists and photographers. The Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and it reports that its web site averages 125 million page views per month. The publication serves as the newspaper of record of the Houston area, previously headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers, the history of the newspaper can be best understood when divided into the eras of these individuals.
The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post. The Chronicles first edition was published on October 14,1901, at the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — roughly one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper purchased and consolidated the Daily Herald, in 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones agreed, and the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South. Under Foster, the circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, and he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 26,1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows, on a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicles reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by the newspaper and its readers and it has grown into a city-wide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed almost 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area, in 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper. He had approached Foster about selling, and Foster had answered and he replied, On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars. I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts, I considered the offer substantially more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said, I will take it, in 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of economic growth on life in the city