Louis II, Duke of Bourbon
Louis de Bourbon, called the Good, son of Peter de Bourbon and Isabella de Valois, was the third Duke of Bourbon. Duke Louis is reported to have been somewhat mentally unstable having a trait of nervous breakdowns, hereditary; the teenage Louis inherited the duchy from his father Duke Peter I after his death in the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. On August 19, 1371, he married Anne of Auvergne, Countess of Forez and a daughter of Beraud II, Dauphin of Auvergne, his wife the Countess of Forez, they had four children: Catherine of Bourbon, d. young John of Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon Louis of Bourbon, Sieur de Beaujeu Isabelle of Bourbon In 1390, Duke Louis launched the Barbary Crusade against the Hafsids of Tunis, in conjunction with the Genoese. Its objective was to suppress piracy based in the city of Mahdia. Duke Louis died at Montlucon in 1410, at the age of 73. Archaeologia: or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity, Vol.20, 236 Housley, The Crusades, 1274-1580: from Lyons to Alcazar, Oxford University Press, 1992
Agnes of Burgundy, Duchess of Bourbon
Agnes of Burgundy, duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne, countess of Clermont, was the daughter of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria. Her maternal grandparents were Albert Duke of Bavaria and Margaret of Brieg, her paternal grandparents were Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. Agnes was married to Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, together they had eleven children: John of Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon Mary of Bourbon, married in 1444 John II, Duke of Lorraine Philip of Bourbon, Lord of Beaujeu Charles of Bourbon and Archbishop of Lyon and Duke of Bourbon Isabella of Bourbon, married Charles, Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was mother of Mary of Burgundy. Peter of Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon Louis of Bourbon, Bishop of Liège Margaret of Bourbon, married in Moulins on 6 April 1472 Philip II, Duke of Savoy, parents of Louise of Savoy Catharine of Bourbon, married on 28 December 1463 in Bruges Adolf II, Duke of Guelders Joanna of Bourbon, married in Brussels in 1467 John II of Chalon, Prince of Orange Jacques of Bourbon, Count of Montpensier.
Unmarried O'Reilly, Elizabeth Boyle, How France Built Her Cathedrals
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge; the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval in about 430 hectares in size; the city's total population is 117,073. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North. Bruges has a significant economic importance, thanks to its port, was once one of the world's chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, a university institute for European studies; the place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvccia in 840–875 as Bruciam, Brutgis uico, in portu Bruggensi, Bricge, Brycge, Bruges, Bruggas and Brugge.
The name derives from the Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga. Compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd and brug; the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-. Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory; this Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates; the Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain with a fortified settlement and church Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet, important to local commerce, This inlet was known as the "Golden Inlet".
Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin; the new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated, they developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including letters of credit; the city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean; this development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century.
By the time Venetian galleys first appeared. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao, thrived as merchants and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges by the mid-15th century; the foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700; such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, after the Bruges Matins, the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the French royal family, it was granted to Robert's younger son, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for Philip the Bold; the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois. When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct, the title was confiscated by Louis XI of France. Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title; the first margrave duke, of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century by the French crown, their suzerain. Richard the Justiciar Rudolph King of France Hugh the Black Gilbert Otto Eudes Henry the Great Otto William In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule, his descendants formed another House of Ivrea. Robert Henry Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry. John II of France, the second Valois king claimed the Duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage. In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance. Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire.
They used the term Burgundy to refer to it, until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois. Maximilian I Philip IV the Handsome, titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV Charles II 1506–1555Philip V 1556–1598 Philip VI 1598–1621 Philip VII 1621–1665 Charles III 1665–1700 Louis, Duke of Burgundy Philip VIII 1700–1713 Charles IV 1713–1740 Maria Theresa 1740–1780 Francis I Joseph 1780–1790 Leopold 1790–1792 Francis II 1792–1795/1835 Ferdinand Franz Joseph Charles V King Juan Carlos I of Spain King Felipe VI of Spain – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown Prince Louis of Bourbon – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. Duchess of Burgundy Kingdom of Burgundy King of Burgundy Duchy of Burgundy County of Burgundy Count of Burgundy Dukes of Burgundy family tree Arelat Calmette, Joseph.
Doreen Weightman, trans. The Golden Age of Burgundy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962. Chaumé, Maurice. Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne. 2v. in 4 parts. Dijon: Jobard, 1925. Michael, Nicholas. Armies of Medieval Burgundy 1364–1477. London: Osprey, 1983. ISBN 0-85045-518-9. Vaughan, Richard. Valois Burgundy. London: Allen Lane, 1975. ISBN 0-7139-0924-2
Margaret of Bavaria
Margaret of Bavaria, was Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of the Burgundian Low countries during the absence of her spouse in 1404–1419 and the regent in French Burgundy during the absence of her son in 1419–1423, she became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against John IV, Count of Armagnac in 1419. Margaret was the fifth child of Albert, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, Count of Hainault and Zeeland and Lord of Frisia, Margaret of Brieg. In 1385, at the Burgundian double wedding in Cambrai, she married John, Count of Nevers, the son and heir of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders and Burgundy. With the death of Philip the Bold in 1404, Margaret of Dampierre in 1405, John inherited these territories, Margaret became his consort, they had only one son, Philip the Good, who inherited these territories, seven daughters. Margaret, Countess of Gien and Montargis, married, on 30 August 1404, Dauphin of France on 10 October 1422, Arthur de Richemont, Constable of France, the future Duke of Brittany Catherine Mary.
She married Adolph Duke of Cleves. Philip the Good, his successor Isabella, Countess of Penthièvre, married at Arras on 22 July 1406 to Olivier de Châtillon-Blois, Count of Penthièvre and Périgord Joan, d. young Anne, married John, Duke of Bedford Agnes, married Charles I, Duke of Bourbon Bayley, The Bailleuls of Flanders and the Bayleys of Willow Hall
Philip the Good
Philip the Good was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty, to which all the 15th-century kings of France belonged. During his reign, Burgundy reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, his patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck and Franco-Flemish composers such as Gilles Binchois, the capture of Joan of Arc. In political affairs, he alternated between alliances with the English and the French in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position; as ruler of Flanders, Limburg, Hainaut, Zeeland and Namur, he played an important role in the history of the Low Countries. Born in 1396 in Dijon, Philip was the son of Margaret of Bavaria, his father succeeded Philip's grandfather Philip the Bold as Duke of Burgundy in 1404. On 28 January 1405, Philip was named Count of Charolais in appanage of the duke and became engaged on the same day, at the age of 8, to Michelle of Valois, a daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.
They were married in June 1409. After Michelle's death in 1422, Philip married Bonne of Artois, a daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on 30 November 1424. Bonne of Artois is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt named Bonne, in part due to the papal dispensation required for the marriage, which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt. Bonne of Artois lived only a year. Philip was married for a third time to Isabella of Portugal, a daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, in Bruges on 7 January 1430; this marriage produced three sons: Count of Charolais. Corneille and Anthony were his favorite bastard sons and successively bore the title Grand bâtard de Bourgogne. Philip became duke of Burgundy and count of Flanders and Franche-Comté upon the assassination of John the Fearless, his father, in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law, of planning the murder, which took place during a meeting between John and Charles at Montereau.
Because of this, he continued to prosecute the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, which in turn became entangled in the larger Hundred Years' War. In 1420, Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423, the marriage of Philip's sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England, strengthened the English alliance. On 23 May 1430, Philip's troops under the Count of Ligny captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and sold her to the English, who orchestrated a heresy trial against her conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when he signed the Treaty of Arras, which revoked the Treaty of Troyes and recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed the treaty for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the preeminent duke in France; this action would prove a poor decision in the long term. Philip's defection to the French would prove not only catastrophic to the dual monarchy of England and France, but to his own domains as well, subordinating them to a powerful centralised Valois monarchy.
He attacked Calais, a possession of the English, but the alliance with Charles was broken in 1439. Philip supported the revolt of the French nobles the following year and offered shelter to the Dauphin Louis, who had rebelled against his father Charles VII. Philip was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and was involved directly in the Hundred Years' War between England and France, although he did play a role during a number of periods, such as the campaign against Compiègne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc, he incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 and Hainault and Hol