Isan consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand. Isan is Thailand's largest region, located on the Khorat Plateau, bordered by the Mekong River to the north and east, by Cambodia to the southeast and the Sankamphaeng Range south of Nakhon Ratchasima. To the west it is separated from central Thailand by the Phetchabun Mountains. Since the beginning of the 20th century, northeastern Thailand has been known as Isan, while in official contexts the term phak tawan-ok-chiang-nuea may be used; the term "Isan" was derived from capital of Chenla. The majority Isan-speaking population of the region distinguish themselves not only from the Lao of Laos but from the central Thai by calling themselves khon Isan or Thai Isan in general. However, some refer to themselves as Lao, academics have been referring to them as Lao Isan or as Thai Lao, with the main issue with self-identification as Lao being stigma associated with the Lao identity within Thai society; the Khmer-speaking minority and the Kuy people, who live in the south of Isan, speak Austroasiatic languages and follow customs more similar to those of Cambodia than to those of the Thai and Lao, who are Tai peoples.
The main language is Isan, one of the Southwestern Tai languages related to Lao. Written with the Thai alphabet, Isan belongs to the Chiang Saeng and Lao–Phutai language groups, which along with Thai are members of the Tai languages of the Kra–Dai language family. Central Thai is spoken by everyone and is the language used in education but native in Nakhon Ratchasima Province only. Khmer, the language of Cambodia, is spoken in areas along the Cambodian border: Buriram and Sisaket; the Lao Isan people are aware of their Lao ethnic origin, but Isan has been incorporated as a territory into the modern Thai state through over one hundred years of administrative and bureaucratic reforms, educational policy, government media. Despite this, since the election of Thaksin Shinawatra as prime minister in the 2001 Thai general election, the Lao Isan identity has reemerged, the Lao Isan are now the main ethnolinguistic group involved in the pro-Thaksin "Red Shirt movement" of the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship.
Several Thai prime ministers have come from the region. Prominent aspects of Isan culture include mor lam, an indigenous folk music, muay Thai boxing, cock fighting, celebratory processions. Isan food, in which glutinous rice and chili peppers are prominent, is distinct from central Thai cuisine, though it is now found throughout the kingdom. Sticky rice is a staple of northeastern cuisine and it accompanies most meals. Isan has a number of important Bronze Age sites, with prehistoric art in the form of cliff paintings and early evidence of rice cultivation. Iron and bronze tools such as those found at Ban Chiang may predate similar tools from Mesopotamia; the region came under the influence of the Dvaravati culture, followed by the Khmer Empire. The latter built dozens of prasats throughout Isan; the most significant are at Phanom Rung Historical Park. Preah Vihear Temple was considered to be in Isan, until the International Court of Justice in 1962 ruled that it belonged to Cambodia. After the Khmer Empire began to decline in the 13th century, Isan was dominated by the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, established by Fa Ngum.
Due to a scarcity of information from the periods known as the dark ages of Cambodia, the plateau seems to have been depopulated. There were few if any lines of demarcation, for prior to the 19th century introduction of modern mapping, the region fell under what 20th century scholars called the "mandala system". Accordingly, in 1718 the first Lao mueang in the Chi River valley — and indeed anywhere in the interior of the Khorat Plateau — was founded at Suwannaphum District by an official in the service of King Nokasad of the Kingdom of Champasak; the region was settled by both Lao and Thai emigrants. Thailand held sway from the 17th century, carried out forced population transfers from the more populous left bank of the Mekong to the right bank in the 18th and 19th centuries; this became more severe following the Lao rebellion for complete independence of 1826–9. In the wake the Franco-Siamese War of 1893, the resulting treaty with France and the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 made the plateau a border region between Thailand and the Laos of French Indochina.
In the mid-20th century, the state-supported assimilation policy called Thaification promoted the ethnic integration of Isan into the modern conception of Thai nationality and de-emphasized the use of ethnic markers, for ethnic Laos and Khmers, as it was deemed uncivilized and to prevent ethnic discrimination among the Thai people. The national government claimed that the name "Isan" was derived from Sanskrit Īśāna, a name of Shiva they claimed referred to his rule of the northeast; this interpretation was intended to reinforce Isan's identity as the northeast of Thailand, rather than as part of the Lao kingdom, created by the French colonial discourse, as "race was an important ideological tool for French colonialists in the attempt to seize the'Laotian' and'Cambodian' portions of Siam."Before the central government introduced the Thai alphabet and language in
Krrb is a hyperlocal classified advertising website that allows individuals and businesses to sell vintage, secondhand, handmade or locally sourced items including artisanal foods, art and collectables. Members of the website can list real estate, events, services and community notices; the website follows in the tradition of a neighborhood garage sale or flea market, prioritizing proximity over categorization so that users can see listings nearest to them. Each seller gets a personal storefronts; as of October 2014, the company has 31,332 listings from 92,341 members in 3,211 cities and 118 countries. Disenchanted with the state of online classifieds, "Craigslist felt like selling goods in a seedy back alley", founder George Eid decided to create an "online flea market works the way craigslist should". Krrb.com launched in November 2010 and incorporated as Krrb, Inc. in January 2011. The company is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York City and is owned by AREA 17, an interactive agency based in New York City and Paris, France.
AREA 17 founder George Eid founded Krrb.com as part of an incubator program started by the company, which launched Slash Paris. Luis Lavena, core developer of Ruby and developed the software and continues to lead the engineering team. Interactive art director Arnaud Mercier designed the user interface. Andrew Wagner, former editor of ReadyMade, American Craft and Dwell Magazine and current columnist for the New York Times, joined the company in 2011 as Director and Editor in Chief. In 2014, Phil Jeffs, Director of Product at AREA 17, joined the team to lead product development. Touted as a "prettier Craigslist" and a "hyper-local Etsy with vintage, thrift & handmade goods", Krrb was embraced by influencers as a "fantastic new online happy place" to "unload your stuff with no sketchiness". In 2013, The Huffington Post named Krrb one of the "10 best websites for vintage furniture", Mashable listed the Krrb iPhone app as one of "9 excellent apps for discovering new things" and PC World listed Krrb as "our favorite lifestyle websites".
In 2012, Krrb partnered with Apartment Therapy to create the Apartment Therapy Classifieds "dedicated to people who are serious about their home and furniture." This successful partnership lead to the creation of the Krrb Classifieds Network, "a multi-tenant B2B solution that enables any publisher, university or local government to deploy and expand their own branded classifieds – without the need to worry about technology and customer service." The Krrb Classified Network was released in October 2013 with the launch of the Chicago Magazine Classifieds. According to Krrb founder George Eid. “By partnering with authoritative local publications such as Chicago, we can offer people a curated alternative that engages them on a personal level – within an environment that they love and trust.” In February 2013, Craigslist sent a Cease and Desist letter demanding that Krrb permanently disable its Krrb It button, a bookmarklet tool that enables a registered user of Krrb to copy factual information from their own Craigslist posts to Krrb, using publicly available information, displayed in a way, unique to Krrb.
In order to avoid legal fees, Krrb disabled the Krrb. Official website
Sector 3 is an administrative unit of Bucharest. It is the most populous, most densely populated and the third-largest division of the city. At its total population of over 460 thousand, it is the second-most populated administrative area of Romania, only after the capital city, it is the most important of all six sectors of Bucharest, as it includes the Downtown Bucharest, the Kilometre Zero and other significant landmarks. It is bordered by Sector 2 to the North, Ilfov County to the East, Sector 4 to the South, Sector 5 to the Southwest and Sector 1 to the Northwest; the largest and most populous district of Sector 3 is Titan. Lipscani, colloquially known as oldtown is the center of the nightlife in Bucharest, the biggest attraction for foreign tourists. Notable, the Bucharest Mall is located inside the Vitan district of the Sector 3. Two of the sector's districts have been described as the most pleasant by Bucharest citizens. Downtown Old City Dristor Dudeşti Văcărești Titan Vitan Sector 3, being the largest division of Bucharest is served by the largest part of its public transport company.
The sector is served by over 14 trolleybus lines. The sector is served by a wide light rail system. Trolleybus routes 70 and 92 as well as tram routes 40 and 56 are the only routes operating inside the sector; the sector is served by the Bucharest Metro. A total of 13 stations are placed within its districts; the oldest and busiest station of the system is Union Square. Other major underground hubs located in Sector 3 include Dristor and University; the Sun Motorway which links the city to Constanța starts from this sector. There is a CFR train station located in the sector, the commuter station Titan Sud; the sector is home to more than fifty kindergartens and public high schools as well as the Hyperion Private University. The most prestigious high schools in the sector are Matei Basarab National College, situated in Downtown Bucharest and Alexandru Ioan Cuza Theoretic Lyceum, situated in Titan. Robert Negoiță, a member of the Social Democratic Party has been the sector's mayor since 2012, he is serving his second term, having been re-elected in 2016.
The Local Council of Sector 3 has 31 seats, with the following party composition: With a population of 393,226 people based on a July 2005 estimate, Sector 3 is the most populous sector in Bucharest. According to the 2002 census, 97.29% of the sector's population is ethnic Romanian, while 1.31% are Romani, 0.29% are Hungarian and 0.15% are Turkish. In terms of gender, 53.6 % of the population is female. Apartment Building 63 List of local councillors for Sector 3