Shighnan District is one of the 28 districts of the Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. It's part of the history region of Shighnan, today divided between Afghanistan and Tajikistan; the district borders the Panj River and Tajikistan in the northeast, the Maimay district to the west, the Raghistan district in the southwest, the Kohistan, Arghanj Khwa, Shuhada districts in the south, the Ishkashim district in the southeast. The Khowar, Tajiks and Pamiris are the major ethnic groups. Pashto and Persian are spoken; this District has a population of 27,750 >Shighnan District
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276. In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have 60,000 students, its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. For centuries, Graz was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace. Graz was the sole Cultural Capital of Europe of 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008; the name of the city, Graz spelled Gratz, most stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad; the German name'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria, it is about 200 km southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor in Slovenia, about 50 km away. Graz is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and forested area; these towns and villages border Graz: to the north: Gratkorn, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Judendorf-Straßengel Graz is divided into 17 districts: The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the Copper Age.
However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Graz came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs; the royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, most of today's Slovenia, parts of Italy. In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Karl-Franzens-Universität called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions.
Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler lived in Graz for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy, he left Graz to go to Prague. Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion.
With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was assaulted, e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus in 1481, by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry, it has been preserved since 1551, displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austri
Wakhan or "the Wakhan" is a rugged, mountainous part of the Pamir, Hindu Kush and Karakoram regions of Afghanistan. Wakhan District is a district in Badakshan Province; the Wakhan is located in the extreme north-east of Afghanistan. It contains the headwaters of the Amu Darya River, was an ancient corridor for travellers from the Tarim Basin to Badakshan; until 1883 the Wakhan included the whole valley of the Panj River and the Pamir River, as well as the upper flow of the Panj River known as the Wakhan River. An 1873 agreement between UK and Russia split the Wakhan by delimiting spheres of influence for the two countries at the Panj and Pamir rivers, an agreement between Britain and Afghanistan in 1893 confirmed the new border. Since the name Wakhan is now used to refer to the Afghan area south of the two rivers; the northern part of the historic Wakhan is now part of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan. The only road into the Wakhan is a rough track from Ishkashim past Qila-e Panja to Sarhad-e Broghil.
Paths lead from the end of the road to the Wakhjir Pass, a mountain pass leading to China, closed to travellers. The western part of the Wakhan, between Ishkashim and Qila-e Panja, is known as Lower Wakhan, which includes the valley of the Panj River; the valleys of the Wakhan River, the Pamir River and their tributaries, the terrain between, are known as Upper Wakhan. The eastern extremity of Upper Wakhan is known as the Pamir Knot, the area where the Himalayas, Tian Shan, Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges meet. West of the Pamir Knot is the Little Pamir, a broad U-shaped grassy valley 100 km long and 10 km wide, which contains Chaqmaqtin Lake, the headwaters of the Aksu or Murghab River. At the eastern end of the Little Pamir is the Tegermansu Valley, from where the closed Tegermansu Pass leads to China; the Great Pamir or Big Pamir, a 60 km long valley south of Zorkol lake, drained by the Pamir River, lies to the northwest of the Little Pamir. The mountain range. West of the Nicholas Range, between the Great Pamir and the lower valley of the Wakhan River, is the Wakhan Range, which culminates in the Koh-e Pamir.
The roads in the region have small shrines to Ismaili Muslim pirs and are adorned with "special stones and curled ibex and sheep horns", which are symbols of purity in the Zoroastrian faiths, once present in the region before the arrival of Islam. The Wakhan is connected to Tashkurgan Tajik County, China, by a long, narrow strip called the Wakhan Corridor, which separates the Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan; the Wakhan River flows through the corridor from the east to Qila-e Panja where it joins the Pamir River to become the Panj River which forms the border. In the south the corridor is bordered by the high mountains of the Hindu Kush, crossed by the Broghol pass, the Irshad Pass and the disused Dilisang Pass to Pakistan; the Wakhan has been an important region for thousands of years as it is where the Western and Eastern portions of Central Asia meet. Western Wakhan was conquered in the early part of the 1st century CE by Kujula Kadphises, the first "Great Kushan," and was one of the five xihou or principalities that formed the nucleus of the original Kushan kingdom.
Until 1883 Wakhan was a principality on both sides of the Panj and Pamir Rivers, ruled by a hereditary ruler with his capital at Qila-e Panja. In the 1880s, under pressure from Britain, Abdur Rahman Khan the Emir of Afghanistan imposed Afghan rule on the Wakhan. Agreements between Britain and Russia in 1873 and between Britain and Afghanistan in 1893 split the historic area of Wakhan by making the Panj and Pamir Rivers the border between Afghanistan and the Russian Empire. On its south side, the Durand Line agreement of 1893 marked the boundary between British India and Afghanistan; this left a narrow strip of land as a buffer between the two empires. In 1949, when Mao Zedong completed the Communist takeover of China, the borders were permanently closed, sealing off the 2,000-year-old caravan route and turning the corridor into a cul-de-sac; when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in December 1979, they occupied the Wakhan and built strong military posts at Sarhad-e Broghil and elsewhere. To facilitate access they built a bridge across the Pamir River near Gaz Khan.
However, the area did not see fighting. In 2010 the Wakhan was reported to be unaffected by the war in the rest of Afghanistan. Wakhan is sparsely populated; the total population is estimated at about 10,600. Wakhi and Khowar are the major ethnic groups of Wakhan. Most of its inhabitants speak the Vakhi or Wakhi language, belong to an ethnic group known as Vakhi or Wakhi. Nomadic Kyrgyz herders live at the higher altitudes. According to a 2003 report by the United Nations Environment Programme and Food and Agriculture Organization, the population of Wakhan suffers from lack of education, ill health, food insecurity and opium addiction; the Wakhi population of Wakhan was 9,444 in 2003. All of them adhere to the Shia Ismaili faith and some of them speak Ishkashimi language. Wakhi people inhabit several areas adjacent to the Wakhan in Tajikistan and China; the Wakhi practice agriculture in the river valleys, herd animals in the summer pastures at higher elevations. The dominant sect of Islam in the region is Ismaili, much milder than the strict form of Islam practiced in the country.
In Ishkashim, the city at the western mouth of the Wakhan, stricter observance is demanded. The area has
Fayzabad is a city in northeast Afghanistan, with a population of about 30,000 people. It serves as largest city of Badakhshan Province, it is situated in Fayzabad District and is at an altitude of 1,200 m.. Fayzabad is the main administrative center of the Pamir region; the Kokcha River runs alongside the city. The Fayzabad Airport is located next to the city; the Afghan Air Force has access to the airport. The city was called Jauz Gun until 1680 because of the number of nuts in the area; the name was changed to Faizabad, which can be translated as "abode of divine bounty and charity", when the robe of Muhammed was delivered to the city. Tradition states that it was brought here by Muhammad Shaykh Ziya and Shaykh Niyaz after Wais Quran brought it to Balkh. At that time the city replaced Munjan as the capital of Badakhshan. In 1768, Ahmad Durrani took the robe to Kandahar, established the Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed there in 1695; the Sáhibzádas of Samarkand removed the relic of the prophet from the capital in 1734.
His clothing which came from the Turkish Campaign, was taken by Temorlane to Samarkand. Whilst the relic was being conveyed to India it was captured by Mír Yár Beg who deposited it at Fayzabad. Many visitors used to come to a shrine erected in the city; the Khoja community of Badakhshán were made attendants at the shrine. There are seven historical forts around the city, several of which are in ruins; these forts were built to help defend the roads leading in and out. In 1979 the town became a hotbed of guerrilla groups. Fayzabad became a base for the Soviet garrison. Many NGOs who work in the Badakhshan province have placed their headquarters in the new part of the city. Near the city Germany is leading the Provincial Reconstruction Team. Danish and Czech teams had been a part of the PRT but the Czechs left in 2007 and the Danes in 2008; the camp is based at an old Russian air strip. The city is located on the right bank of the Kokcha River near where the river exits from a gorge and before it reaches a large open plain.
Fayzabad has a hot summer Mediterranean continental climate. It has cold, moderately wet winters. Precipitation falls in spring and winter. Fayzabad has been isolated from other parts of the country because of the lack of paved roads. There are two active bazaars in the city where items as diverse as cotton, cotton cloth and goods, sugar, tea and cutlery are traded, it has been two years since the asphalted ring road of Afghanistan reached Fayzabad. The cost of the road connecting Fayzabad with Taloqan and Kunduz was about $US 200 million, paid for by USAID. Several varieties of cash crops are grown in the vicinity including barley and rice and there are a number of gardens and orchards. There has been some success in panning for gold in the vicinity, beryl can be found and there is a salt mine located nearby; the city has a handicraft industry producing woolen goods and there are flour and rice mills. There is a working power station in the city and there is considerable potential for expansion of hydroelectric power.
The majority of the inhabitants are Tajiks, while there are minority communities of Pashtuns, Uzbeks and Turkmens. Eleven languages are spoken in the city, including Dari, Munji, Ishkashimi, Sarikoli, Rushani and Turkmen. There are a number of shrines of historical importance in the city; the city has several schools including an all-girls school. There is a government hospital in the province. There are a number of commercial guesthouses in the city, Qasre Kokcha Hotel is the best among them which has security, central heating system and internet. There is a guest house called Lapis Lazuli for expatriates. 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes Badakhshan Province Faizabad Airport, Badakhshan Province on YouTube
Maimay known as Darwaz-e Payin, or Darwaz, is a district in Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. It was created in 2005 from part of Darwaz District, it is home to 12,000 residents. This district borders the Kuf Ab, Raghistan and Nusay districts, along with some districts in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, including Vanj and Shughnon; the district was part of the Darwaz principality, a semi-independent statelet ruled by a mir. Darwaz Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Nawab spelt Nawaab, Navab, Nabob or Nobab, was an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in the Indian subcontinent. "Nawab" refers to males and means Viceroy. The primary duty of a Nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal emperor along with the administration of a certain province; the title of "nawabi" was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similar to a British peerage, to persons and families who ruled a princely state for various services to the government of British India. In some cases, the titles were accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. During the British Raj, some of the chiefs, or sardars, of large or important tribes were given the title, in addition to traditional titles held by virtue of chieftainship; the term "zamindari " was used for the subahdar or viceroy of a subah or region of the Mughal empire. Nawab is a Hindustani term, used in Urdu, Hindi and many other North-Indian languages, borrowed via Persian from the Arabic honorific plural of naib, or "deputy."
In some areas Bengal, the term is pronounced nobab. This variation has entered English and other foreign languages as nabob; the term "Nawaab" is used to refer to any Muslim ruler in north or south India while the term "nizam" is preferred for a senior official—it means "governor of region". The Nizam of Hyderabad had several nawabs under him: Nawabs of Cuddapah, Rajahmundry, Chicacole, et al. "Nizam" was his personal title, awarded by the Mughal Government and based on the term "Nazim" as meaning "senior officer". "Nazim" is still used for a district collector in many parts of India. The term "nawab" is still technically imprecise, as the title was awarded to Hindus and Sikhs, as well, large zamindars and not to all Muslim rulers. With the decline of that empire, the title, the powers that went with it, became hereditary in the ruling families in the various provinces. Under British rule, nawabs continued to rule various princely states of Awadh, Bahawalpur, Baoni, Bhopal, Jaora, Kurnool, Mamdot, Palanpur, Radhanpur, Malerkotla, Sachin and Tonk.
Other former rulers bearing the title, such as the nawabs of Bengal and Oudh, had been dispossessed by the British or others by the time the Mughal dynasty ended in 1857. Some princes became Nawab by promotion, e.g. the ruler of Palanpur was "diwan" until 1910 "nawab sahib". Other nawabs were promoted are restyled to another princely style, or to and back, e.g. in Rajgarh a single rawat went by nawab. The style for a nawab's queen is begum. Most of the nawab dynasties were male primogenitures, although several ruling Begums of Bhopal were a notable exception. Before the incorporation of the Subcontinent into the British Empire, nawabs ruled the kingdoms of Awadh, Bengal and Bhopal; the title nawab was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state. For the Muslim elite various Mughal-type titles were introduced, including nawab. Among the noted British creations of this type were Nawab Hashim Ali Khan, Nawab Khwaja Abdul Ghani, Nawab Abdul Latif, Nawab Faizunnesa Choudhurani, Nawab Ali Chowdhury, Nawaab Syed Shamsul Huda, Nawab Sirajul Islam, Nawab Alam yar jung Bahadur, M.
A, Madras, B. A. B. C. L. Barr-At-Law. There were the Nawabs of Dhanbari, Nawabs of Ratanpur, Nawabs of Baroda and such others. Nawaab was the rank title—again not an office—of a much lower class of Muslim nobles—in fact retainers—at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar State, ranking only above Khan Bahadur and Khan, but under Jang, Mulk and Jah; this style, adding the Persian suffix -zada which means son, etymologically fits a nawbab's sons, but in actual practice various dynasties established other customs. For example, in Bahawalpur only the nawbab's heir apparent used nawabzada before his personal name Khan Abassi Wali Ahad Bahadur, while the other sons of the ruling nawab used the style sahibzada before the personal name and only Khan Abassi behind. "Nawabzadi" implies daughters of the reigning nawbab. Elsewhere, rulers who were not styled nawbab yet awarded a title nawabzada; the word naib has been used to refer to any local leader in some parts of the Ottoman Empire, successive early modern Iranian kingdoms, in the eastern Caucasus.
Today, the word is used to refer to directly elected legislators in lower houses of parliament in many Arabic-speaking areas to contrast them against officers of upper houses. The term Majlis al-Nuwwab has been adopted as the name of several legislative lower houses and unicameral legislatures. In colloquial usage in English, adopted in other Western languages, the transliteration "nabob" refers to commoners: a merchant-leader of high social status and wealth. "Nabob" de