SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville, was a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville. He is regarded, in the oft-quoted words of the 19th-century historian Montalembert, as "the last scholar of the ancient world."At a time of disintegration of classical culture, aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, continuing after his brother's death. He was influential in the inner circle of Sisebut, Visigothic king of Hispania. Like Leander, he played a prominent role in the Councils of Seville; the Visigothic legislation that resulted from these councils influenced the beginnings of representative government. His fame after his death was based on his Etymologiae, an etymological encyclopedia which assembled extracts of many books from classical antiquity that would have otherwise been lost. Isidore was born in a former Carthaginian colony, to Severianus and Theodora. Both Severianus and Theodora belonged to notable Hispano-Roman families of high social rank.

His parents were members of an influential family who were instrumental in the political-religious maneuvering that converted the Visigothic kings from Arianism to Catholicism. The Catholic Church celebrates him and all his siblings as known saints: An elder brother, Saint Leander of Seville preceded Saint Isidore as Archbishop of Seville and, while in office, opposed King Liuvigild. A younger brother, Saint Fulgentius of Cartagena, served as the Bishop of Astigi at the start of the new reign of the Catholic King Reccared, his sister, Saint Florentina, served God as a nun and ruled over forty convents and one thousand consecrated religious. This claim seems unlikely, given the few functioning monastic institutions in Iberia during her lifetime. Isidore received his elementary education in the Cathedral school of Seville. In this institution, the first of its kind in Iberia, a body of learned men including Archbishop Saint Leander of Seville taught the trivium and quadrivium, the classic liberal arts.

Saint Isidore applied himself to study diligently enough that he mastered Latin, acquired some Greek, Hebrew. Two centuries of Gothic control of Iberia incrementally suppressed the ancient institutions, classic learning, manners of the Roman Empire; the associated culture entered a period of long-term decline. The ruling Visigoths showed some respect for the outward trappings of Roman culture. Arianism meanwhile took deep root among the Visigoths as the form of Christianity that they received. Scholars may debate whether Isidore personally embraced monastic life or affiliated with any religious order, but he undoubtedly esteemed the monks highly. After the death of Saint Leander of Seville on 13 March 600 or 601, Isidore succeeded to the See of Seville. On his elevation to the episcopate, he constituted himself as the protector of monks. Saint Isidore recognized that the spiritual and material welfare of the people of his See depended on the assimilation of remnant Roman and ruling barbarian cultures, attempted to weld the peoples and subcultures of the Visigothic kingdom into a united nation.

He succeeded. Isidore eradicated the heresy of Arianism and stifled the new heresy of Acephali at its outset. Archbishop Isidore strengthened religious discipline throughout his See. Archbishop Isidore used resources of education to counteract influential Gothic barbarism throughout his episcopal jurisdiction, his quickening spirit animated the educational movement centered on Seville. Saint Isidore introduced Aristotle to his countrymen long before the Arabs studied Greek philosophy extensively. In 619, Saint Isidore of Seville pronounced anathema against any ecclesiastic who in any way should molest the monasteries. Saint Isidore presided over the Second Council of Seville, begun on 13 November 619, in the reign of King Sisebut, a provincial council attended by eight other bishops, all from the ecclesiastical province of Baetica in southern Spain; the Acts of the Council set forth the nature of Christ, countering the conceptions of Gregory, a Syrian representing the heretical Acephali. Based on a few surviving canons found in the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, Saint Isidore is known to have presided over an additional provincial council around 624.

The council dealt with a conflict over the See of Écija, wrongfully stripped bishop Martianus of his see, a situation, rectified by the Fourth Council of Toledo. It addressed a concern over Jews, forced to convert to Christianity by Sisebut failing to present their children for baptism; the records of the council, unlike the First and Second Councils of Seville were not preserved in the Hispana, a collection of canons and decretals edited by Saint Isidore himself. All bishops of Hispania attended the Fourth National Council of Toledo, begun on 5 December 633; the aged Archbishop Saint Isidore presided over its deliberations and originated most enactments of the council. Through Isidore's influence, this Council of Toledo promulgated a decree, commanding all bishops to establish seminaries in their cathedral cities along the lines of the cathedral school at Seville, which had educated Saint Isidore decades earlier; the decree prescribed the study of Greek and the liberal arts and encouraged interest in law and medicine.

The authority of the Council made this education policy obligatory upon all bishops of the Kingdom of the Visigoths. The council granted remarkable deference to the king of the Visigoths; the ind

2019 Indian Air Force An-32 crash

On 3 June 2019, an Antonov An-32 twin engine turboprop transport aircraft of the Indian Air Force en route from Jorhat Airport in Assam to Mechuka in Arunachal Pradesh lost contact with ground control about 33 minutes after takeoff. There were 13 people on board. After a week-long search operation, the wreckage with no survivors was found near Pari hills close to Gatte village in Arunachal Pradesh at the elevation of 12000 feet. There were eight crew members and five passengers. None of them survived the crash; the Antonov An-32 twin engine turboprop transport aircraft was en route from Jorhat Airport in Assam to Mechuka Advanced Landing Ground in Arunachal Pradesh on 3 June 2019. The aircraft took off from Johrat at 12:27 pm IST and lost contact with ground control at 1 pm IST, about 33 minutes after takeoff. After eight days of search operation, hindered by poor weather, on 11 June 2019, the wreckage of the aircraft was found near Pari hills close to Gatte village, 16 km north of Lipo in Arunachal Pradesh, at 12,000 feet elevation.

The Indian Air Force had offered a cash reward of ₹5 lakh for anyone who could share information on the aircraft. A fleet of Sukhoi-30, C-130J and An-32 aircraft and Mi-17 and ALH helicopters as well as the Indian Army, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police and the state police forces were deployed for the search operation; the Indian Navy's P-8i aircraft was deployed. ISRO's Cartosat and RISAT satellites were used. On 12 June 2019, a team of 15 rescuers were airdropped near the crash site, but were unable to reach the location due to rough terrain and bad weather; the next day the rescue team reached the site and reported that there were no survivors, that they had recovered the aircraft's flight recorders. 1986 Indian Air Force An-32 disappearance 2016 Indian Air Force An-32 disappearance 2019 in India Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network

Euthydemus I

Euthydemus I was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius. Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC, his kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the north, Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of Bactria. Euthydemus was a native of Magnesia, son of the Greek general Apollodotus, born c. 295 BC, who might have been son of Sophytes, by his marriage to a sister of Diodotus II and daughter of Diodotus I, born c. 250 BC, was the father of Demetrius I according to Strabo and Polybius. For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia, he now, in defending himself to Teleas, said that Antiochus was not justified in attempting to deprive him of his kingdom, as he himself had never revolted against the king, but after others had revolted he had possessed himself of the throne of Bactria by destroying their descendants. Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement. Antiochus, on receiving the young man and judging him from his appearance and dignity of bearing to be worthy of royal rank, in the first place promised to give him one of his daughters in marriage and next gave permission to his father to style himself king.

Little is known of his reign until 208 BC when he was attacked by Antiochus III the Great, whom he tried in vain to resist on the shores of the river Arius, the modern Herirud. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus decided to recognize the new ruler, to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around 206 BC. As part of the peace treaty, Antiochus was given Indian war elephants by Euthydemus. Classical accounts relate that Euthydemus negotiated peace with Antiochus III by suggesting that he deserved credit for overthrowing the descendants of the original rebel Diodotus, that he was protecting Central Asia from nomadic invasions thanks to his defensive efforts: "...for if he did not yield to this demand, neither of them would be safe: seeing that great hords of Nomads were close at hand, who were a danger to both. The war lasted altogether three years and after the Seleucid army left, the kingdom seems to have recovered from the assault.

The death of Euthydemus has been estimated to 200 BC or 195 BC, the last years of his reign saw the beginnings of the Bactrian incursions into Northern India. There exist many coins of Euthydemus, portraying him as a middle-aged and old man, he is featured on no less than three commemorative issues by kings, Antimachus I and one anonymous series. He was succeeded by Demetrius, his coins were imitated by the nomadic tribes of Central Asia for decades after his death. In an inscription found in the Kuliab area of Tadjikistan, in western Greco-Bactria, dated to 200-195 BC, a Greek by the name of Heliodotos, dedicating a fire altar to Hestia, mentions Euthydemus as the greatest of all kings, his son Demetrius I as "Demetrios Kalinikos" "Demetrius the Glorious Conqueror": Coins of Euthydemus "Euthydemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911