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Isis

Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Old Kingdom as one of the main characters of the Osiris myth, in which she resurrects her slain husband, the divine king Osiris, produces and protects his heir, Horus, she was believed to help the dead enter the afterlife as she had helped Osiris, she was considered the divine mother of the pharaoh, likened to Horus. Her maternal aid was invoked in healing spells to benefit ordinary people, she played a limited role in royal rituals and temple rites, although she was more prominent in funerary practices and magical texts. She was portrayed in art as a human woman wearing a throne-like hieroglyph on her head. During the New Kingdom, as she took on traits that belonged to Hathor, the preeminent goddess of earlier times, Isis was portrayed wearing Hathor's headdress: a sun disk between the horns of a cow. In the first millennium BCE, Osiris and Isis became the most worshipped Egyptian deities, Isis absorbed traits from many other goddesses.

Rulers in Egypt and its neighbor to the south, built temples dedicated to Isis, her temple at Philae was a religious center for Egyptians and Nubians alike. Her reputed magical power was greater than that of all other gods, she was said to protect the kingdom from its enemies, govern the skies and the natural world, have power over fate itself. In the Hellenistic period, when Egypt was ruled and settled by Greeks, Isis was worshipped by Greeks and Egyptians, along with a new god, Serapis, their worship diffused into the wider Mediterranean world. Isis's Greek devotees ascribed to her traits taken from Greek deities, such as the invention of marriage and the protection of ships at sea, she retained strong links with Egypt and other Egyptian deities who were popular in the Hellenistic world, such as Osiris and Harpocrates; as Hellenistic culture was absorbed by Rome in the first century BCE, the cult of Isis became a part of Roman religion. Her devotees were a small proportion of the Roman Empire's population but were found all across its territories.

Her following developed distinctive festivals such as the Navigium Isidis, as well as initiation ceremonies resembling those of other Greco-Roman mystery cults. Some of her devotees said; the worship of Isis was ended by the rise of Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries CE. Her worship may have influenced Christian beliefs and practices such as the veneration of Mary, but the evidence for this influence is ambiguous and controversial. Isis continues to appear in Western culture in esotericism and modern paganism as a personification of nature or the feminine aspect of divinity. Whereas some Egyptian deities appeared in the late Predynastic Period, neither Isis nor her husband Osiris were mentioned before the Fifth Dynasty. An inscription that may refer to Isis dates to the reign of Nyuserre Ini during that period, she appears prominently in the Pyramid Texts, which began to be written down at the end of the dynasty and whose content may have developed much earlier. Several passages in the Pyramid Texts link Isis with the region of the Nile Delta near Behbeit el-Hagar and Sebennytos, her cult may have originated there.

Many scholars have focused on Isis's name in trying to determine her origins. Her Egyptian name was ꜣst, which became ⲎⲤⲈ in the Coptic form of Egyptian, Wusa in the Meroitic language of Nubia, Ἶσις, on which her modern name is based, in Greek; the hieroglyphic writing of her name incorporates the sign for a throne, which Isis wears on her head as a sign of her identity. The symbol serves as a phonogram, spelling the st sounds in her name, but it may have represented a link with actual thrones; the Egyptian term for a throne was st and may have shared a common etymology with Isis's name. Therefore, the Egyptologist Kurt Sethe suggested she was a personification of thrones. Henri Frankfort agreed, believing that the throne was considered the king's mother, thus a goddess, because of its power to make a man into a king. Other scholars, such as Jürgen Osing and Klaus P. Kuhlmann, have disputed this interpretation, because of dissimilarities between Isis's name and the word for a throne or a lack of evidence that the throne was deified.

The cycle of myth surrounding Osiris's death and resurrection was first recorded in the Pyramid Texts and grew into the most elaborate and influential of all Egyptian myths. Isis plays a more active role in this myth than the other protagonists, so as it developed in literature from the New Kingdom to the Ptolemaic Period, she became the most complex literary character of all Egyptian deities. At the same time, she absorbed characteristics from many other goddesses, broadening her significance well beyond the Osiris myth. Isis is part of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a family of nine deities descended from the creator god, Atum or Ra, she and her siblings—Osiris and Nephthys—are the last generation of the Ennead, born to Geb, god of the earth, Nut, goddess of the sky. The creator god, the world's original ruler, passes down his authority through the male generations of the Ennead, so that Osiris becomes king. Isis, Osiris's wife as well as his sister, is his queen. Set kills Osiris and, in several versions of the story, dismembers his corpse.

Isis and Nephthys, along with other deities such as Anubis, search for the pieces of their brother's body and reassemble

Upham, Hampshire

Upham is a small village and civil parish in the south of England located in Hampshire 7 miles south-east of Winchester. There is a local primary school; the village is divided into two parts: Upham, centred on the church to the north, Lower Upham, centred on the post office and main road. There are the Brushmakers Arms and the Alma Inn. Other features include; the country house The Holt, a Grade II-listed building, was the longtime seat of the Shendley-Leavett family, the home of John Alfred Leavett-Shendley, DL, High Sheriff of Hampshire in 1985–1986 who married Alison Yvonne Cecil, daughter of Hon. Yvonne Cornwallis and Royal Navy Commander Henry Mitford Amherst Cecil, O. B. E. who served as a Navy Commander in both World Wars. There are marginal remains of a Late Roman period Villa in nearby Little Woodcotte, found in 1849. Lower Upham is crossed by the B2177 road the A333 Winchester to Portsmouth road. There is a regular bus service to Winchester, Colden Common, Bishop's Waltham and Fareham.

The parish is crossed by many trackways and paths including the Monarch's Way, Pilgrims' Trail and King's Way. In the south of the parish King's Way and the Pilgrims' Trail use the course of the former Roman road from Winchester to Portchester, which passes between Upham and Lower Upham. Upham lies on the northern margin of the Paleogene deposits of the Hampshire Basin; the north of the parish is on chalk with the Lambeth London Clay to the south. Upham Village Website Media related to Upham, Hampshire at Wikimedia Commons

Manuel Saturnino da Costa

Manuel Saturnino da Costa is a Guinea-Bissau politician who served as Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau from 26 October 1994 to 6 June 1997. From 1977 he was in the Foreign Office, as the ambassador in Cuba and the USSR. During the presidency of João Bernardo Vieira, which had come to power in 1980 through a coup, he became General Secretary of the PAIGC. Following the victory of the PAIGC in the 1994 parliamentary election, Vieira appointed Saturnino da Costa, Secretary-General of PAIGC, as Prime Minister on 25 October 1994. Da Costa formed a government on 18 November, entirely composed of PAIGC members, although one post was given to the Bafata Movement. Following the ouster of President Vieira in May 1999, da Costa was named acting President of PAIGC on 12 May 1999. Francisco Benante was elected to replace him as PAIGC President in September 1999. After Kumba Ialá took office as President, da Costa was arrested, along with another former Prime Minister, Carlos Correia, four other former ministers, in February 2000.

It was alleged that two government bonds were issued without parliamentary approval three years prior. He was acquitted of embezzlement in June 2003. In the November 2008 legislative election, PAIGC won a majority of 67 out of 100 seats in the National People's Assembly, Saturnino da Costa was elected to a seat as a PAIGC candidate in the first constituency, Catio e Como. Following the election, he was appointed as Minister of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers on January 7, 2009. Saturnino da Costa sought the nomination as PAIGC's candidate for the June 2009 presidential election, but in a vote on April 25, 2009, the PAIGC Central Committee chose Malam Bacai Sanhá as the party's candidate, he was replaced in his post as Minister of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers and dismissed from the government on October 28, 2009