Mission District, San Francisco
This mission, San Franciscos oldest standing building, is located in the northwest area of the neighborhood. The Mission District is located in east-central San Francisco and it is bordered to the east by U. S. Route 101, which forms the boundary between the eastern portion of the district, known as Inner Mission, and its eastern neighbor, Potrero Hill. Sanchez Street separates the neighborhood from Eureka Valley to the north west, the part of the neighborhood from Valencia Street to Sanchez Street, north of 20th Street, is known as the Mission Dolores neighborhood. South of 20th Street towards 22nd Street, and between Valencia and Dolores Streets is a neighborhood known as Liberty Hill. Cesar Chavez Street is the border, across Cesar Chavez Street is the Bernal Heights neighborhood. North of the Mission District is the South of Market neighborhood, bordered roughly by Duboce Avenue, the principal thoroughfare of the Mission District is Mission Street. South of the Mission District, along Mission Street, are the Excelsior and Crocker-Amazon neighborhoods, the Mission District is part of San Franciscos supervisorial districts 6,9 and 10.
The Mission is often warmer and sunnier than other parts of San Francisco, the Missions geographical location insulates it from the fog and wind from the west. The Mission includes four recognized sub-districts, the northeastern quadrant, adjacent to Potrero Hill is known as a center for high tech startup businesses including some chic bars and restaurants. The northwest quadrant along Dolores Street is famous for Victorian mansions, prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries, the area which now includes the Mission District was inhabited by the Ohlone people who populated much of the San Francisco bay area. The Yelamu Indians inhabited the region for over 2,000 years, Spanish missionaries arrived in the area during the late 18th century. They found these people living in two villages on Mission Creek and it was here that a Spanish priest named Father Francisco Palóu founded Mission San Francisco de Asis on June 29,1776. The Mission was moved from the shore of Laguna Dolores to its current location in 1783, franciscan friars are reported to have used Ohlone slave labor to complete the Mission in 1791.
This period marked the beginning of the end of the Yelamu culture, the Indian population at Mission Dolores dropped from 400 to 50 between 1833 and 1841. The lands around the abandoned mission church became a focal point of raffish attractions including bull and bear fighting, horse racing, baseball. A famous beer parlor resort known as The Willows was located along Mission Creek just south of 18th Street between Mission Street and San Carlos Street. From 1865 to 1891, a conservatory and zoo known as Woodwards Gardens covered two city blocks bounded by Mission Street, Valencia Street, 13th Street, and 15th Street. During Californias early statehood period, in the 19th and 20th century, large numbers of Irish and settlement intensified after the 1906 earthquake, as many displaced businesses and residents moved into the area, making Mission Street a major commercial thoroughfare
Glen Canyon Park
Glen Canyon Park is a city park in San Francisco, California. It occupies about 70 acres along a canyon adjacent to the Glen Park, Diamond Heights. O’Shaughnessy Hollow is a rugged, undeveloped 3.6 acres tract of parkland that lies immediately to the west, the park and hollow offer an experience of San Franciscos diverse terrains as they appeared before the intense development of the region in the late 19th and the 20th centuries. In all, about 63 acres of the park and hollow are designated as undeveloped Natural Area, formal recreational facilities in Glen Canyon Park are mostly located at its southern end. These facilities include a community center, ball fields and tennis courts, playgrounds. The park is well used by local rock climbers, who consider it one of the best bouldering sites near San Francisco. An additional building about halfway up the canyon near Islais Creek serves the Silver Tree Day Camp, the park is easily entered at its southeastern corner. Somewhat further north, there is a stairway leading down into the park.
There are trails leading into the park from the Diamond Heights Shopping Center, of one of these, Joseph Stubbs has written, It is a dramatic, sudden revelation of the park interior from high up, which is simply stunning. It occurs midsection of the park behind Diamond Heights Shopping Center, a branch of Islais Creek originates in the canyon. It is the largest remaining creek in San Francisco with public access, the bottom of the canyon, where Islais Creek flows, is irregular but moderate in slope, dropping 350 feet over a distance of about 1 mile. The creek is surrounded by willow thickets, in earlier times, the creek had an open water channel sustained by a much larger water flow, and was more of a river than a creek. Urban development has reduced the watershed of Islais Creek by as much as 80 percent, at the southern end of the canyon, Islais Creek enters a culvert which carries it to its exit into San Francisco Bay. The scenery of Glen Canyon Park is distinguished by numerous large outcrops of rock, the most striking of these consist of reddish, layered Franciscan chert.
These outcrops have clearly visible banding which is due to the different weathering of the layers and this terrane is from 100 to 200 million years old. The upper slopes and cliffs are of layered chert, which hardened into rock from the ooze of remains of countless radiolarian creatures that accumulated on top of the lava, the ooze was colored red by iron from hydrothermal springs. Both lava and chert were formed in the ocean near the equator. Near shore, greywacke accumulated on the chert in some areas, subduction squeezed the terrane against the continent, and it eventually became part of the Franciscan formation that makes up much of coastal California
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Potrero Hill is a residential neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is known for its views of the San Francisco Bay and city skyline, its proximity to many destination spots, its sunny weather. A working-class neighborhood until gentrification in the 1990s, it is now an upper-middle-class, Potrero Hill is located on the eastern side of the city, east of the Mission District and south of SOMA and the newly designated district Showplace Square. It is bordered by 16th Street to the north, Potrero Avenue and U. S. Route 101 to the west and Cesar Chavez Street to the south. The city of San Francisco considers the area below 20th Street between Potrero Ave and Route 101 to be part of Potrero Hill as well, as outlined in the Eastern Neighborhood Plan, the area east of Highway 280 is Dogpatch. Dogpatch was originally part of Potrero Nuevo and its history is tied to Potrero Hill. Some consider Dogpatch to be its own neighborhood while others disagree, Dogpatch has its own neighborhood association but shares merchant association, Democratic caucuses, and general neighborhood matters with Potrero Hill.
Potrero Hill is one of the sunniest neighborhoods in San Francisco, located on the side of the peninsula. It is insulated from the fog and chill of the Pacific Ocean that is typical on the side of the city. It is a neighborhood and not considered a tourist destination. Despite being surrounded by busy neighborhoods, and featuring a commercial area on 18th St. Potrero Hill is generally quiet. Potrero Hill started as a Caucasian working-class neighborhood in the 1850s and its central location attracted many working professionals during the dot-com era in the 1990s. Today, it is mostly an upper-middle-class family-oriented neighborhood, in addition to the 101 and 280 Interstate freeways, Caltrain runs through this area, making it popular with commuters. Many homes in Potrero Hill have views of the downtown skyline, Potrero Hill has a North and a South Slope, with the North Slope generally more coveted due to its proximity to downtown. There is no dividing line between North and South as the hill apexes in various places.
The demographics of the two are similar with the exception of two public housing projects situated on the South Slope. The projects occupy over one third of the South Slope, the poorly designed and diagonal grids of the housing projects isolate their residents from the greater neighborhood. Industry first arrived at Dogpatch in the mid-1850s, the earliest residents were mostly European immigrants
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina
Twin Peaks (San Francisco)
The Twin Peaks are two prominent hills with an elevation of about 925 feet located near the geographic center of San Francisco, California. Only 928 foot Mount Davidson is higher within the city, the North and South Twin Peaks, known as Eureka and Noe respectively, are about 200 m apart, Twin Peaks Boulevard runs a figure eight around them. The peaks form a divide for the coastal fog pushed in from the Pacific Ocean. Their west-facing slopes often get fog and strong winds, while the east-facing slopes receive more sun, elevation at each summit is just over 900 feet. Thin, sandy soil is commonplace on Twin Peaks, making them susceptible to erosion, before the arrival of the Europeans, the native Ohlone people may have used Twin Peaks as a lookout or hunting ground. The ecological diversity of Twin Peaks provided medicinal or ceremonial plants, when the Spanish conquistadors and settlers arrived at the beginning of the 18th century, they called the area Los Pechos de la Chola or Breasts of the Indian Maiden and devoted the area to ranching.
When San Francisco passed under American control during the 19th century, christmas Tree Point lies some 70 ft below the North Peak and offers vistas of San Francisco and San Francisco Bay. To the north is one of the many reservoirs. It is owned by the San Francisco Fire Department, and supplies water to the Fire Departments independent HPFS water system for fighting fires, established after the 1906 earthquake, the top of Twin Peaks is undeveloped. It is part of the 31 acres Twin Peaks Natural Area and owned by the San Francisco Recreation and these preserved areas are home to many natural resources and wildlife. As part of the Mission blue butterfly habitat conservation, Twin Peaks is one of the few remaining habitats for endangered species. Many bird species and vegetation thrive in these areas, the Muni Metro Twin Peaks Tunnel runs beneath Twin Peaks, linking Downtown San Francisco with West Portal and the southwestern part of the city. There is no public transportation all the way to the top of the Peaks, the San Francisco Police Department Academy is at the base of the peaks.
The name Twin Peaks is applied to the surrounding neighborhood, 49-Mile Scenic Drive List of San Francisco, California Hills Twin Peaks. Treasures in the curves and swells of Twin Peaks
A sanitary sewer or foul sewer is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of a system called sewerage or sewage system. Sewage may be treated to water pollution before discharge to surface waters. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas carry industrial wastewater, separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sewers, separate storm drains may be constructed to convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. Sanitary sewers are distinguished from combined sewers, which combine sewage with stormwater runoff in the same pipe, sanitary sewer systems are considered beneficial because they avoid combined sewer overflows. To overcome these disadvantages, some cities built separate sanitary sewers to collect only municipal wastewater, the decision between a combined sewer system or two separate systems is mainly based on need for sewage treatment and cost of providing treatment during heavy rain events.
Many cities with combined sewer systems built prior to sewage treatment have not replaced those sewer systems, in the developed world, sewers are pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground trunk mains, which transport the sewage to sewage treatment facilities. Vertical pipes, usually made of precast concrete, called manholes, depending upon site application and use, these vertical pipes can be cylindrical, eccentric or concentric. The manholes are used for access to the pipes for inspection and maintenance. They facilitate vertical and horizontal angles in otherwise straight pipelines, pipes conveying sewage from an individual building to a common gravity sewer line are called laterals. Branch sewers typically run under streets receiving laterals from buildings along that street, larger cities may have sewers called interceptors receiving flow from multiple trunk sewers. Design and sizing of sanitary sewers considers the population to be served over the life of the sewer, per capita wastewater production.
Commercial and industrial flows are considered, but diversion of surface runoff to storm drains eliminates wet weather flow peaks of inefficient combined sewers. Pumps may be necessary where gravity sewers serve areas at lower elevations than the treatment plant. A lift station is a gravity sewer sump with a pump to lift accumulated sewage to a higher elevation, the pump may discharge to another gravity sewer at that location or may discharge through a pressurized force main to some distant location. Most of the solids are removed by the tanks, so the treatment plant can be much smaller than a typical plant. In addition, because of the vast reduction in solid waste, because the wastestream is pressurized, they can be laid just below the ground surface along the lands contour
Mission blue butterfly
The Mission blue is a blue or lycaenid butterfly subspecies native to the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The butterfly has been declared as endangered by the US federal government and it is a subspecies of Boisduvals blue. The endangered Mission blue has a wingspan around 21–33 millimetres, larvae are extremely small and rarely seen. The males top wing grades from ice blue in the center to deep sky blue exhibiting a dazzling iridescent fluctuation in range under direct, black margins on the upper wing sport long, hair-like scales. Body shape, eyes and appendages possess it of an exquisite poise. Females upper wings are brown, but otherwise mirror males. The larvae only feed on the leaves of the three host lupine plants native to their habitat, the plants are necessary for survival for the Mission blue. Thus, the fate is closely tied to that of the three species of lupines as the plants provide food and shelter for the butterfly in its larval stage. The adult Mission blue drinks the nectar of a variety of flowers, many in the sunflower family, P. i. missionensis is federally endangered and found in only a few locations.
San Bruno Mountain hosts the largest population of Mission blues, a commonly found around elevations of 700 feet. The coastal scrubland and grassland the Mission blue requires is found only in, the butterfly depends solely on three species of perennial lupine for its reproduction, the varied lupine, silver lupine, and the summer lupine. The Mission blue requires the lupine to lay their eggs and nourish the larvae, without these species, the it cannot reproduce and thus cannot survive. Thus, the Mission blues habitat parallels that of the lupine species, two of the areas inhabited by the Mission blue are within the confines of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Golden Gate staff are working to ease the invasive species problem that has helped reduce the Mission blue to the species list. They work to remove non-native plants and replant the area with lupine seed along with monitoring of the butterfly. Much of the area that the Mission blue once inhabited has been destroyed, the coastal sage and chaparral and the native grassland habitats have seen unnatural human development in much of the region.
The San Mateo County town of Brisbane lies in what may once have been the habitat for the butterfly. Near Brisbane, a park and rock quarry have proved damaging to the Mission blue habitat
Interstate 280 (California)
Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route. I-280 from its terminus at U. S.101. One of the signs still indicates that the Junipero Serra Freeway is known as the Worlds Most Beautiful Freeway due to its scenic route through the San Francisco Peninsula. From State Route 1 to the James Lick Freeway in San Francisco it is called the John F Foran Freeway, but is more commonly referred to by its original name. And from the James Lick Freeway to its end at King Street and Fifth Street. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, I-280 is one of two 3-digit Interstate designations to appear on opposite coasts of the United States. I-110 in California and Florida is the other designation. The southern end of Interstate 280 begins at U.
S.101 in San Jose, the segment of the Junipero Serra Freeway between Cupertino and Daly City has been called the Worlds Most Beautiful Freeway since its dedication in the 1960s. Through much of this segment, the freeway is actually running just inside the rim of the rift valley of the San Andreas Fault. For nearly all of its length, Interstate 280 runs roughly parallel, both freeways are north–south routes connecting San Jose with San Francisco, unlike I-280, the route that U. S.101 takes between the two cities goes entirely through urbanized areas. The majority of the population of the San Francisco Peninsula lives somewhere between Interstate 280 and U. S.101, I-280 never intersects with Interstate 80, its parent interstate. The northern terminus of I-280 is within about a mile of I-80s western terminus, although San Francisco has had several opportunities to connect I-280 to I-80, it has chosen to use the money for other purposes. Connecting the two freeways is considered to be politically and financially infeasible at this time, due to the citys strong anti-freeway stance.
Instead, 280s northernmost extension primarily functions as a spur into Downtown San Francisco, Most of I-280, in San Jose to Daly City, is designated as the Junipero Serra Freeway in honor of Spanish missionary Junípero Serra, who founded many of Californias missions in the 18th century. The section of I-280 between the James Lick Freeway and its end at 6th and King Streets is called the Southern-Embarcadero Freeway. Major intersections include U. S.101 and State Route 1 in San Francisco, Interstate 380 in San Bruno, State Route 92 in San Mateo, and I-880 and I-680 and U. S. in San Jose. The Junipero Serra Freeway is the name of Interstate 280 from SR1 in San Francisco to SR17, as named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 140, Chapter 208 in 1967