Islam in Sweden

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A 2014 report estimated there were 150,000 to 200,000 Muslims in Sweden practicing their religion regularly.[1] Others are cultural Muslims, apostates or converts to other religions. Other sources set the figure at around 6% (almost 600,000) of the total Swedish population.[2] A 2017 Pew Research report documents Muslim population at 8.1% of the total population of Sweden of 10 million (approximately 810,000).[3]

History[edit]

Nasir Mosque, first mosque in Sweden
Nasir Mosque, first mosque in Sweden

Archaeological findings have shown Swedish contact with Islam dating back to the 7th–10th centuries, when the Vikings were trading with the medieval Islamic world. Many Arabic coins originating from the Middle East have been found at Iron Age burial sites.[4]

In 1930, there were 15 Muslims in Sweden.[5]

In modern Sweden, the first registered Muslim groups were Finnish Tatars who emigrated from Finland and Estonia in the 1940s. Islam began to have a noticeable presence in Sweden with immigration from the Middle East beginning in the 1970s.

Most Muslims in Sweden are either immigrants or descendants of immigrants, the majority are from the Middle East, in particular Iraq and Iran. However, 5 out of 6 Iranians in Sweden consider themselves secular rather than Muslim and are in strong opposition to the Islamic Republic regime in their ancestral home. Most Iranians and Iraqis fled as refugees to Sweden during the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, the second-largest Muslim group consists of immigrants or refugees from Eastern Europe, particularly from former Yugoslavian countries, most of them being Bosniaks, who number 12,000. There is also a sizeable community of Somalis, who numbered 40,165 in 2011.

Sweden has a number of mosques providing the Muslim communities in Sweden places of worship,[6] the first mosque in Sweden was the Nasir Mosque, built in 1976. It was followed by the Malmö Mosque, 1984, and later, the Uppsala Mosque in 1995. More mosques were built during the 2000s, including the Stockholm Mosque (2000), the Umeå Mosque (2006) and the Fittja Mosque (completed 2007), among others. The governments of Saudi Arabia and Libya have financially supported the constructions of some of the largest Mosques in Sweden.[7][8]

As of the year 2000, an estimated 300,000 to 350,000 people of Muslim background lived in Sweden, or 3.5% of total population;[9] thereby included is anyone who fits the broad definition of someone who "belongs to a Muslim people by birth, has Muslim origin, has a name that belongs in the Muslim tradition, etc." regardless of personal religious convictions.[10]), of whom about 100,000 were second-generation immigrants (born in Sweden or immigrated as children).[11] In Sweden registration by personal belief is not common and is normally against the law, thus only figures of practising Muslims belonging to an Islamic community can be reported; in 2009, the Muslim Council of Sweden reported 106,327 registered members.[2]

In 2017, the Swedish National Board of Student Aid (CSN) eased its longtime grants and loans to students going to Islamic University of Madinah in Saudi Arabia, a religious school for missionaries proselytising the wahhabist variant of Islam. An investigation by Dagens Nyheter found that 71 students had travelled from Sweden with CSN funding since year 2000, the ban of grants was due to that neither women nor non-Muslims in general are allowed to study at Madinah and the ban encompasssed all studies at all institutions being hostile to democracy.[12]

The organisation Muslim Youth of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges Unga Muslimer) with its headquarters at Stockholm Mosque received state aid from the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society (Swedish acronym: MUCF) in the years 2011-2015.[13] SUM had to pay back the government funds for 2016 and 2017 due to the organisation failing to respect the ideals of democracy.[14][15] A report outlined how sympathisers and activists for extremist movements had leading positions of local chapters of SUM.[14][16]

According to a poll by Sifo, 60% of the 1000 participants wanted to ban the Islamic call to prayer using loudspeakers, while 21% responded they should be allowed and 19% were undecided.[17]

In 2018, kindergardens in Biskopsgården district were reprimanded by the Municipality of Gothenburg after Göteborgs-Posten newspaper had found out that 4 out of 5 kindergardens stated they were willing to force girls in their care to wear the Islamic hijab if the parents requested it.[18]The newspaper found a willingness by kindergardens to force at 27 of the 40 investigated institutions in Malmö, Gothenburg and Stockholm.[18]

Demography[edit]

Pew Research Center estimates the number of Muslims in Sweden at 810,000 (or 8.1% of the total population) for the year 2016.[19] In order to estimate the number of Muslims in Sweden in the year 2050, they looked at three scenarios: zero migration, medium migration, and high migration; in the year 2050 the number of Muslims in Sweden would be 1,130,000 (or 11.1% of the population) under the zero migration scenario, 2,470,000 (or 20.5% of the population) under the medium migration scenario, and 4,450,000 (or 30.6% of the population) under the high migration scenario.[19]

Although there are no official statistics of Muslims in Sweden, estimates count 200,000—250,000 people of Muslim background in 2000[9] (i.e. anyone who fits the broad definition of someone who "belongs to a Muslim people by birth, has Muslim origin, has a name that belongs in the Muslim tradition, etc. "[20]), roughly estimated close to 100,000 of which are second-generation.[11] Of the first-generation Muslims, 255,000 are thought to be Sunni,[not in citation given] 5,000 Shi'ites,[not in citation given] no more than 1,000 Ahmadiya, Alevi and other groups and probably no more than 5,000 converts – mainly women married to Muslim men.[21] In 2009 a US report stated that there are 450,000 to 500,000 Muslims in Sweden, around 5% of the total population, and that the Muslim Council of Sweden reported 106,327 officially registered members.[22] Swedish estimates are rather 350,000, including nominal Muslims and people from a Muslim background.

Such numbers do not imply religious beliefs or participation; Åke Sander claimed in 1992 that at most 40–50% of the people of Muslim background in Sweden "could reasonably be considered to be religious",[23] and in 2004, based on discussions and interviews with Muslim leaders, concerning second-generation Muslims born and raised in Sweden that "it does not seem that the percentage they consider to be religious Muslims in a more qualified sense exceeds fifteen percent, or perhaps even less".[24] Sander re-stated in 2004 that "we do not think it unreasonable to put the figure of religious Muslims in Sweden at the time of writing at close to 150,000".[25] Professor Mohammad Fazlhashemi at Umeå University estimates "a good 100,000".[26] About 25,000 are regarded as devout Muslims, visiting Friday prayers and practising daily prayers.

Muslims in Sweden most often originate from Iraq, Iran, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, the Iraqis being by far the largest group in 2015.[27] They are followed by Muslim refugees from Syria and Somalia, two very rapidly growing groups. Two other groups, residing in Sweden for a decade longer, are people from Turkey and Lebanon.

In 2017 Swedish Security Police reported that the number of jihadists in Sweden had risen to thousands from about 200 in 2010.[28] Based on social media analysis, an increase was noted in 2013.[29]

Conversion[edit]

Helena Benaouda, a Swedish Finnish woman who converted to Islam, attending a royal wedding

There are no official statistics on the exact number of Swedish converts to Islam, but Anne Sofie Roald, a historian of religions at Malmö University College, estimates the number of converts from the Church of Sweden to Islam to be 3,500 people since the 1960s. Roald further states that conversions are also occurring from Islam to the Church of Sweden, most noticeably by Iranians, but also by Arabs and Pakistanis.[30]

The first known convert to Islam was the famous painter Ivan Aguéli who was initiated into the Shadhiliyya order in Egypt in 1909. It was Aguéli who introduced the French metaphysician René Guénon to Sufism. Aguéli is more known among Sufis by his Muslim name Abdul-Hadi al-Maghribi. Other well-known Swedish converts to Islam are Tage Lindbom, Kurt Almqvist, Mohammed Knut Bernström and Tord Olsson. Lindbom, Almqvist and Olsson are also initiates into various Sufi orders. Bernström translated the Quran into Swedish in 1998.

Places of worship[edit]

Several mosques have been built in Sweden since the 1980s, with notable ones in Malmö (1984) and Stockholm (2000). The Bellevue Mosque and the Brandbergen Mosque in the 2000s came to public attention as recruitment and propaganda centers for Islamist terrorism.[31][32]

The following are some of the places of Islamic worship that can be found today in Sweden.

Name Municipality Year Organization & sponsorship Sect Imam Worship language
Eastern Sweden
Stockholm Mosque Stockholm, Medborgarplatsen 2000 Islamiska Förbundet i Stockholm, sponsored by United Arab Emirates[33] Sunni Abu Mahmoud Arabic, Swedish
Bangladesh Jame Masjid 23 Kocksgatan, Medborgarplatsen Stockholm     Sunni Hanafi   Bengali, Arabic
Fittja Mosque Stockholm, Fittja 2007 Botkyrka Turkiska Islamiska Förening, sponsored by Turkey Sunni Hanafi   Arabic, Turkish
Brandbergen Mosque Haninge (South Stockholm)   Haninge Islamiskt Kultur Center   Karim Laallam Arabic
Imam Ali Mosque Järfälla (West Stockholm)   Ahl Al Bayt Assembly, sponsored by Iran[33] Shi'ite   Arabic, Persian
Skogås moske Skogås, Stockholm     Sunni    
Central Sweden
Uppsala Uppsala, Kvarngärdet 1995   Sunni    
Vasternorrland Islamisk Forening örnsköldsvik, domsjö 2014   Sunni    
Örebro Örebro, Vivalla 2008 Sponsored by Qatar[33] In December 2017, the building was afire when firefighters arrived and it burned to the ground in December 2017.[34]      
Western Sweden
Bellevue Mosque Gothenburg, Bellevue   Islamic Sunni Centre, sponsored by Saudi Arabia[33] Wahhabi/Salafi    
Turkish Mosque 1 Gothenburg, Hisingen     Sunni Hanafi    
Masjid Guraba Gothenburg, Hisingen     Sunni    
Bosnian Mosque Gothenburg, Hisingen     General    
Nasir Mosque Gothenburg, Högsbo 1976 Sunni Muslim Jama'at, sponsored by Pakistan [33] Sunni Hanafi Yahya Khan Arabic, Swedish, Urdu
Angered Mosque Gothenburg, Angered
Trollhättan Mosque Trollhättan 1985 Sponsored by Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and UAE[33] General    
Southern Sweden
Malmö Mosque Malmö 1984        

Associations[edit]

The beginning of national Islamic (Sunni) institutions in Sweden dates back to the creation of FIFS (Förenade Islamiska Församlingar i Sverige) in 1973–1974. In 1982 and 1984 two splits, due to internal rivalries, cultural differences, personal conflicts and funding, brought to the creation of SMF (Svenska Muslimska Förbundet) and ICUS, today IKUS (Islamska Kulturcenterunionen i Sverige). Others national institutions are BHIRF (Bosnien-Hercegovinas Islamiska riksförbund), founded in 1995 by Bosnian refugees, IRFS (Islamiska Riksförbundet), also since 1995, and SIA (Svenska Islamiska Akademin), founded in 2000 by the former ambassador Mohammed Knut Bernström, with the task of establishing in the future an Islamic university in Sweden, charged with imam education. SIA also publishes since February 2001 the periodical Minaret in Swedish.

On a lower level, specific Islamic organizations targeting specific groups have been created as well. SMUF, SUM (Sveriges Unga Muslimer), was the greatest youth Muslim organization since 1986, but after the inception of the Muslim Peacemovement (SMPJ) ("Swedish Muslims for Peace and Justice") that was founded in 2008 SMPJ has grown beyond that as the most active organization gathering young Muslims, students and professionals with local branches all over the country. SMPJ is today the fastest growing Muslim organization and already one of the largest peace movements in Sweden and a recognized NGO that has received several awards for its advocacy work, human rights work and contribution to Peace and Justice. SMPJ has kept outside the different internal rivalries of other Muslim organisations and gathers members from all of the different national Islamic institutions both Shia and Sunni (in accordance to the Amman message and is the only Muslim NGO that does that in Sweden today and is fully independent Muslim movement.

There exist also the women association IKF (Islamiska Kvinnoförbund i Sverige), the youth association IUF (Islamiska Ungdomförbundet i Sverige) and the imam association SIR (Sveriges Imamråd). IIF (Islamiska Informationföreningen) is a member association of FIFS aiming at providing information about Islam in Sweden; 1986–2000 it published Salaam, whose editorial board has always been dominated by women, mainly Swedish converts.

National and target organization have also created umbrella organizations in order to simplify their relationships to the state. FIFS and SMF have created in 1990 SMR (Sveriges Muslimska Råd), of which SUM is also member, the IKUS umbrella organization is named IRIS (Islamiska Rådet i Sverige) and includes also IKF, IUF and SIR. Above all, IS (Islamiska samarbetsrådet) deals with financial issues with the Commission for state grants to religious communities (SST); it includes FIFS, SMF, IKUS, ISS and SIF.

The following are some of the Islamic associations in Sweden:

Violent extremism[edit]

According to the Swedish Defence University, since the 1970s, a number of residents of Sweden have been implicated in providing logistical and financial support to or joining various foreign-based transnational Islamic militant groups, among these organizations are Hezbollah, Hamas, the GIA, Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, Al-Shabaab, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam. In 2010, the Swedish Security Service estimated that a total of 200 individuals were involved in the Swedish violent Islamist extremist milieu. According to the Swedish Defence University, most of these militants were affiliated with the Islamic State, with around 300 people traveling to Syria and Iraq to join the group and Al-Qaeda associated outfits like Jabhat al-nusra in the 2012-2017 period;[35] in 2017, Swedish Security Service director Anders Thornberg stated that the number of violent Islamic extremists residing in Sweden to number was estimated to be "thousands".[36] The Danish Security and Intelligence Service judged the number of jihadis in Sweden to be a threat against Denmark since two terrorists arriving from Sweden had already been sentenced in the 2010 Copenhagen terror plot.[37]

Controversies[edit]

Morality police[edit]

Investigating journalists at TV4 reported that self-appointed morality police in migrant areas such as Rinkeby, Tensta, Husby and Hjulsta harass women for wearing skirts, owning dogs or going out alone without the company of a male.[38][39]The phenomenon has also been reported in the Brandkärr district of Nyköping according to a report by the municipality.[40]

Muslim Council of Sweden[edit]

Swedish social anthropologist Aje Carlbom and parliamentarian Abderisak Aden, who has founded the Islamic Democratic Institute (Islamiska demokratiska institutet), have both stated that they believe that at least part of the leading members of SMR support Islamist ideologies and are influenced by the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.[41]

The Muslim Council of Sweden (SMR), an umbrella organization for Swedish Muslim organizations, has been involved in several controversies; in 2006 Mahmoud Aldebe, one of the Board members of SMR, sent letters to each of the major political parties in Sweden demanding special legislation for Muslims in Sweden, including the right to specific Islamic holidays, special public financing for the building of Mosques, that all divorces between Muslim couples be approved by an Imam, and that Imams should be allowed to teach Islam to Muslim children in public schools. The request was condemned by all political parties and the government and the Swedish Liberal Party requested that an investigation be started by the Office of the Exchequer into the use of public funding of SMR, the Chairman of the Board of SMR subsequently stated that it supported the demands made by Aldebe but that it did not think that the letter had been a good idea to communicate them in a list of demands.[42]

Although the Board of SMR did not condemn Aldebe the letter has caused conflict within the organization.[43] SMR has also been accused of being closely allied to the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which has been criticised[by whom?] both inside and outside the party.[41]

Brandbergen Mosque[edit]

The Brandbergen Mosque has been described by the FBI terrorism consultant Evan Kohlmann as a propaganda central for the Armed Islamic Group (GIA). According to Kohlmann, people connected to the mosque also participated in the financing of GIA's bombing campaign in France in 1995.[31]

In 2004 an Arabic-language manual, which carried the logo and address of the Brandbergen Mosque, was spread on the internet, the manual described the construction of simple chemical weapons, including how to build a chemical munition from an ordinary artillery round.[44] On December 7, 2006, the Swedish citizen Mohamed Moumou, who is described by the United States Department of the Treasury as an "uncontested leader of an extremist group centered around the Brandbergen Mosque in Stockholm", was put on the United Nations Security Council Committee 1267 list of foreign terrorists.[45]

Investigative journalism uncovers discrimination against women[edit]

In 2012, the SVT program Uppdrag granskning visited 10 mosques once with a hidden camera and once with a visible camera. When the representatives were aware of being filmed, they stated that they supported values such as gender equality; however, when two undercover journalists posed as Muslim women with difficulties in their marriage, the answers from the majority of the visited imams were different. The imams told the women that they were expected to sleep with their husbands even if they did not want to and that they were to accept being beaten, and strongly discouraged them from going to the police, since about half of the visited mosques receive state or local funding, they are expected to promote basic values of Swedish society, such as equal rights between genders and to counteract discrimination and violence.[46]

Radical preachers invited to Sweden[edit]

In March 2014 Malmö Municipality withdrew financial support to a local association because they invited a Syrian lecturer who says that homosexuality should be punished by death to a charity event,[47] the organisers said that the lecturer would not attend and hold no speeches, but after a video recording showed him holding a lecture, the sum of money was recalled.[48]

In January 2015, Sigtuna council stopped radical Islamic preacher Haitham al-Haddad from holding a lecture at their premises,[49] he had been invited by Märsta Unga Muslimer (tr: Muslim Youth of Märsta) but when the council was informed of the preacher's homophobic and antisemitic views, the council cancelled the rental contract.[49]

According to criticism by British think-tank Quilliam in May 2015, Sweden is more likely than other countries to allow preachers with radical views to enter the country and spread their views.[50]

In May 2015, radical preacher Said Rageahs was invited to the mosque in Gävle where he promoted the views that whomever insults Mohammed should be killed along with apostates and advocated segregation between Muslims and non-Muslims.[51] The local imams at Gävle mosque ran the webpage muslim.se which espoused similar views (with the death penalty for homosexuality added) and according to islamologist Jan Hjärpe at Lund University their views are typical of the Wahhabi.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Religion, Religious Freedom And Religious Communities In Sweden" (PDF). Myndigheten för stöd till trossamfund. Sveriges interreligiösa råd (The National Interfaith Council of Sweden). Retrieved 6 April 2018. 
  2. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2014 : Sweden, U.S. Department Of State.
  3. ^ Hackett, Conrad. "5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe". Pew Research/Fact Tank. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 12 December 2017. 
  4. ^ "Swedes find Viking-era Arab coins". BBC News. 4 April 2008. 
  5. ^ https://aktuelltfokus.se/hur-manga-muslimer-finns-det-i-sverige/
  6. ^ David Westerlund, Ingvar Svanberg, Islam outside the Arab world, Palgrave Macmillan, 1999, ISBN 978-0-312-22691-6, p. 392
  7. ^ "Moskén i Malmö ägs av Gaddafi". 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ a b Sander (2004), pp. 218–224
  10. ^ Sander (1990), pp. 16–17
  11. ^ a b Sander (2004), p. 224
  12. ^ "Regeringen ska stoppa CSN-bidrag till saudiska studier - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 2017-12-06. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-03-23. 
  13. ^ "Vi har fått bidrag - Organisationsbidrag, Projektbidrag, EU-bidrag | MUCF". www.mucf.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-17. 
  14. ^ a b Radio, Sveriges. "Sveriges unga muslimer får inte statsbidrag - Nyheter (Ekot)" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-17. 
  15. ^ "Sveriges unga muslimer nekas nytt statsbidrag". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-17. 
  16. ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Rapport kritisk mot Sveriges Unga Muslimer - Nyheter (Ekot)" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-17. 
  17. ^ "Sifo: Majoritet vill förbjuda böneutrop". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-03-18. 
  18. ^ a b "Kommunen tillrättavisar förskolor efter GP:s granskning". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-09. 
  19. ^ a b "Europe's Growing Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 29 November 2017. 
  20. ^ Sander (1990), iversity, pp. 16–17
  21. ^ Sander (2004), pp. 223–4
  22. ^ "Sweden", International Religious Freedom Report 2009
  23. ^ Sander (2004), p. 217
  24. ^ Sander (2004), pp. 216–7
  25. ^ Sander (2004), p. 218
  26. ^ Nyheter, SVT. "Bedövning används vid svensk halal-slakt". 
  27. ^ "Befolkning efter födelseland och ursprungsland 31 december 2012" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "Säpochefen: "Det finns tusentals radikala islamister i Sverige"". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 2017-06-17. 
  29. ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Säpo: Huge increase in violent Islamist extremists in Sweden - Radio Sweden". Retrieved 2017-06-17. 
  30. ^ Svenska Dagbladet (SvD), Fler kristna väljer att bli muslimer, November 19, 2007 (Accessed November 19, 2007)
  31. ^ a b Petersson, Claes (July 13, 2005). "Terrorbas i Sverige" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved Mar 3, 2007. 
  32. ^ Lisinski, Stefan (11 November 2005). "Säpo utreder medhjälp till terrorbrott" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 2 January 2007. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f Ankersen, Dag (2017-11-08). "Saudiarabien finansierar var fjärde svensk moské". ETC (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-11-10. 
  34. ^ "Svensk politi anholder en efter brand i moské". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 2018-01-06. 
  35. ^ Linus Gustafsson Magnus Ranstorp (2017). Swedish Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq (PDF). Swedish Defence University. pp. 23–34, 13. Retrieved 12 November 2017. 
  36. ^ "Säpo: Tusindvis af voldelige islamister bor i Sverige". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 2017-12-05. 
  37. ^ "PET: Truslen mod Danmark kan komme fra Sverige". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 2017-12-05. 
  38. ^ Hon kan inte gå ut med hunden utan att bli hotad av män, retrieved 2018-06-23 
  39. ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Brottsofferjouren om moralpoliser: "Det finns ett stort mörkertal" - P4 Värmland" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-23. 
  40. ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Radikalisering i Nyköping: Rapport larmar om månggifte och moralpoliser - P4 Sörmland" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-23. 
  41. ^ a b "Granskningen av islam och integrationen, del II: Socialdemokraternas oheliga röstfiske". Swedish Television (in Swedish). 2006-05-02. Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. 
  42. ^ Sveriges muslimska råd i krismöte Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. Swedish Radio, Friday 28 April 2006 (in Swedish). A copy of the letter sent by Aldebe can be found here [2] (in Swedish)
  43. ^ Sydsvenska dagbladet Archived 2007-01-02 at the Wayback Machine., Krav på muslimska lagar i Sverige skapar maktkamp, 28 April 2006. Folkbladet i Norrköping[dead link], Imam: Vi vill ha egna lagar – men muslimska rådets krav möter hårt motstånd, 29 April 2006
  44. ^ Evan Kohlmann (2004-09-18) Global terror alert. globalterroralert.com
  45. ^ "Treasury Designations Target Terrorist Facilitators" (Press release). United States Department of the Treasury. Dec 7, 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. 
  46. ^ Yllner, Nadja (16 May 2012). "Undercover report: Muslim leaders urges women to total submission". SVT – Uppdrag Granskning. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  47. ^ "Bidrag dras in efter homofobi-tal". Helsingborgs Dagblad. Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå. 20 Mar 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  48. ^ "Utbetalning stoppas efter kritiserat besök". Sydsvenskan. 21 Mar 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  49. ^ a b ""Hatpredikant" inbjuden att tala i Sigtuna – stoppas av kommunen". Sveriges Television. 29 Jan 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  50. ^ Scherman, Lena; Bernardson, Pia (7 May 2015). ""Sverige för flat mot hatpredikanter" (sv: Sweden too lenient towards hate preachers)". Sveriges Television. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  51. ^ "Radikal imam fick predika i Gävles moské". Gefle Dagblad. 2015-06-21. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  52. ^ "Gävleimamen ansvarig för radikal hemsida". Gefle Dagblad. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Alwall, Jonas (1998), Muslim rights and plights : the religious liberty situation of a minority in Sweden, Lund : Lund University Press, pp. 145–238
  • Carlbom, Aje (2006). "An Empty Signifier: The Blue-and-Yellow Islam of Sweden". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 26 (2): 245–261. doi:10.1080/13602000600937754. 
  • Carlbom, Aje (2003), The Imagined versus the Real Other: Multiculturalism and the Representation of Muslims in Sweden, Lund: Lund Monographs in Social Anthropology, pp. 63–163
  • Nielsen, Jørgen S. (1992), Muslims in Western Europe, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 80–84
  • Sander, Åke (1993), Islam and Muslims in Sweden and Norway: a partially annotated bibliography 1980–1992 with short presentations of research centres and research projects, Göteborg: Centre for the Study of Cultural Contact and International Migration, Gothenburg University
  • Sander, Åke (1997), "To what extent is the Swedish Muslim religious?", in Steven Vertovec and Ceri Peach (eds.), Islam in Europe: The Politics of Religion and Community, London: Macmillan and New York: St.Martin's, pp. 179–210

External links[edit]