Islam in Sweden
A 2014 report estimated there were 150,000 to 200,000 Muslims in Sweden practicing their religion regularly. The main driver of spreading Islam in Sweden is immigration since the late 1960s. Other sources set the figure at around 6% (almost 600,000) of the total Swedish population. A 2017 Pew Research report documents Muslim population at 8.1% of the total population of Sweden of 10 million (approximately 810,000).
- 1 History
- 2 Demography
- 3 Conversion
- 4 Places of worship
- 5 Community organisations
- 6 Salafism
- 7 Violent extremism
- 8 Controversies
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Archaeological findings have shown Viking contact with Islam dating back to the 7th–10th centuries, when the Vikings were trading with the medieval Islamic world. Many Arabic coins originating from the Middle East have been found at Iron Age burial sites.
In 1930, there were 15 Muslims in Sweden.
In modern Sweden, the first registered Muslim groups were Finnish Tatars who emigrated from Finland and Estonia in the 1940s. Islam began to have a noticeable presence in Sweden with immigration from the Middle East beginning in the 1970s.
Most Muslims in Sweden are either immigrants or descendants of immigrants. The majority are from the Middle East, in particular Iraq and Iran. However, 5 out of 6 Iranians in Sweden consider themselves secular rather than Muslim and are in strong opposition to the Islamic Republic regime in their ancestral home. Most Iranians and Iraqis fled as refugees to Sweden during the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988. The second-largest Muslim group consists of immigrants or refugees from Eastern Europe, particularly from former Yugoslavian countries, most of them being Bosniaks, who number 12,000. There is also a sizeable community of Somalis, who numbered 40,165 in 2011.
Sweden has a number of mosques providing the Muslim communities in Sweden places of worship. The first mosque in Sweden was the Nasir Mosque, built in 1976. It was followed by the Malmö Mosque, 1984, and later, the Uppsala Mosque in 1995. More mosques were built during the 2000s, including the Stockholm Mosque (2000), the Umeå Mosque (2006) and the Fittja Mosque (completed 2007), among others. The governments of Saudi Arabia and Libya have financially supported the constructions of some of the largest Mosques in Sweden.
As of the year 2000, an estimated 300,000 to 350,000 people of Muslim background lived in Sweden, or 3.5% of total population; thereby included is anyone who fits the broad definition of someone who "belongs to a Muslim people by birth, has Muslim origin, has a name that belongs in the Muslim tradition, etc." regardless of personal religious convictions.), of whom about 100,000 were second-generation immigrants (born in Sweden or immigrated as children). In Sweden registration by personal belief is not common and is normally against the law, thus only figures of practising Muslims belonging to an Islamic community can be reported. In 2009, the Muslim Council of Sweden reported 106,327 registered members.
In 2007, a study by the Integrationsverket government agency showed that 55% of respondents among the population of Sweden expressed reservations about moving to districts where many Muslims live. This was the same as for 2005.
In December 2008, riots broke out in Malmö in the Herrgården section of Rosengård, when the landlord did not renew the contract for the premises of a local mosque. Angry youths occupied the premises for three weeks, at the end of which police coming to evict the occupiers were confronted by about 30 occupiers, including radical Muslims and activists affiliated with the radical leftist Antifaschistische Aktion. The occupiers attacked police with pipe bombs and rocks and the incident rapidly escalated, with protestors arriving from other cities and officials calling in riot police. Rioters set fire to cars, wagons, kiosks, building sheds, recycling stations, and bicycle sheds. After two nights of rioting, 200 adult Malmö residents organized by the Islamiska kulturföreningen moved into the streets to meditate, causing the youthful rioters to desist.
In 2014, a poll by Gävle University College found that when asked about their attitudes towards veils, in the case of the niqab and the burqa, 84% responded that the niqab was unacceptable and 81% saw the burqa in the same light, a compact resistance to these. The chador was deemed unacceptable by 37% and a "clear majority" found the hijab and the shayla acceptable, 65.0 and 65.2 percent respectively. The report stated that "The question seems to arouse strong feelings against oppression versus the right to wear the clothes you want." The poll showed a slight increase in acceptance for the public wearing of veils. It also stated that "a clear majority (64.4%) of the Swedish population consider Muslim women to be more oppressed than other women in Sweden.". Of the respondents, 26% expressed resistance to all kinds of Islamic veils. In 2017, the Swedish National Board of Student Aid (CSN) eased its longtime grants and loans to students going to Islamic University of Madinah in Saudi Arabia, a religious school for missionaries proselytising the wahhabist variant of Islam. An investigation by Dagens Nyheter found that 71 students had travelled from Sweden with CSN funding since year 2000. The ban of grants was due to that neither women nor non-Muslims in general are allowed to study at Madinah and the ban encompasssed all studies at all institutions being hostile to democracy.
The organisation Muslim Youth of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges Unga Muslimer) with its headquarters at Stockholm Mosque received state aid from the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society (Swedish acronym: MUCF) in the years 2011-2015. SUM had to pay back the government funds for 2016 and 2017 due to the organisation failing to respect the ideals of democracy. A report outlined how sympathisers and activists for extremist movements had leading positions of local chapters of SUM.
In 2018, preschools in Biskopsgården district were reprimanded by the Municipality of Gothenburg after Göteborgs-Posten newspaper had found out that 4 out of 5 kindergardens stated they were willing to force girls in their care to wear the Islamic hijab if the parents requested it.The newspaper found a willingness by preschools to force at 27 of the 40 investigated institutions in Malmö, Gothenburg and Stockholm.
In September 2018, the mosque in Alby, Botkyrka via its Green Party member Ali Khali delivered an offer to the Moderate Party where the 3000 votes of the worshippers would be given to the Moderate Party in exchange for planning permission to build a new mosque. Tthe Green Party forced Khalil to leave the party after the finding was made public by Swedish Television.
Pew Research Center estimates the number of Muslims in Sweden at 810,000 (or 8.1% of the total population) for the year 2016. In order to estimate the number of Muslims in Sweden in the year 2050, they looked at three scenarios: zero migration, medium migration, and high migration. In the year 2050 the number of Muslims in Sweden would be 1,130,000 (or 11.1% of the population) under the zero migration scenario, 2,470,000 (or 20.5% of the population) under the medium migration scenario, and 4,450,000 (or 30.6% of the population) under the high migration scenario.
Although there are no official statistics of Muslims in Sweden, estimates count 200,000—250,000 people of Muslim background in 2000 (i.e. anyone who fits the broad definition of someone who "belongs to a Muslim people by birth, has Muslim origin, has a name that belongs in the Muslim tradition, etc. "), roughly estimated close to 100,000 of which are second-generation. Of the first-generation Muslims, 255,000 are thought to be Sunni,[not in citation given] 5,000 Shi'ites,[not in citation given] no more than 1,000 Ahmadiya, Alevi and other groups and probably no more than 5,000 converts – mainly women married to Muslim men. In 2009 a US report stated that there are 450,000 to 500,000 Muslims in Sweden, around 5% of the total population, and that the Muslim Council of Sweden reported 106,327 officially registered members. Swedish estimates are rather 350,000, including nominal Muslims and people from a Muslim background.
Such numbers do not imply religious beliefs or participation; Åke Sander claimed in 1992 that at most 40–50% of the people of Muslim background in Sweden "could reasonably be considered to be religious", and in 2004, based on discussions and interviews with Muslim leaders, concerning second-generation Muslims born and raised in Sweden that "it does not seem that the percentage they consider to be religious Muslims in a more qualified sense exceeds fifteen percent, or perhaps even less". Sander re-stated in 2004 that "we do not think it unreasonable to put the figure of religious Muslims in Sweden at the time of writing at close to 150,000". Professor Mohammad Fazlhashemi at Umeå University estimates "a good 100,000". About 25,000 are regarded as devout Muslims, visiting Friday prayers and practising daily prayers.
Muslims in Sweden most often originate from Iraq, Iran, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, the Iraqis being by far the largest group in 2015. They are followed by Muslim refugees from Syria and Somalia, two very rapidly growing groups. Two other groups, residing in Sweden for a decade longer, are people from Turkey and Lebanon.
There are no official statistics on the exact number of Swedish converts to Islam, but Anne Sofie Roald, a historian of religions at Malmö University College, estimates the number of converts from the Church of Sweden to Islam to be 3,500 people since the 1960s. Roald further states that conversions are also occurring from Islam to the Church of Sweden, most noticeably by Iranians, but also by Arabs and Pakistanis.
The first known convert to Islam was the famous painter Ivan Aguéli who was initiated into the Shadhiliyya order in Egypt in 1909. It was Aguéli who introduced the French metaphysician René Guénon to Sufism. Aguéli is more known among Sufis by his Muslim name Abdul-Hadi al-Maghribi. Other well-known Swedish converts to Islam are Tage Lindbom, Kurt Almqvist, Mohammed Knut Bernström and Tord Olsson. Lindbom, Almqvist and Olsson are also initiates into various Sufi orders. Bernström translated the Quran into Swedish in 1998.
Places of worship
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Several mosques have been built in Sweden since the 1980s, with notable ones in Malmö (1984) and Stockholm (2000). The Bellevue Mosque and the Brandbergen Mosque in the 2000s came to public attention as recruitment and propaganda centers for Islamist terrorism.
The following are some of the places of Islamic worship that can be found today in Sweden.
|Name||Municipality||Year||Organization & sponsorship||Sect||Imam||Worship language|
|Stockholm Mosque||Stockholm, Medborgarplatsen||2000||Islamiska Förbundet i Stockholm, sponsored by United Arab Emirates||Sunni||Abu Mahmoud||Arabic, Swedish|
|Bangladesh Jame Masjid||23 Kocksgatan, Medborgarplatsen Stockholm||Sunni Hanafi||Bengali, Arabic|
|Fittja Mosque||Stockholm, Fittja||2007||Botkyrka Turkiska Islamiska Förening, sponsored by Turkey||Sunni Hanafi||Arabic, Turkish|
|Brandbergen Mosque||Haninge (South Stockholm)||Haninge Islamiskt Kultur Center||Karim Laallam||Arabic|
|Imam Ali Mosque||Järfälla (West Stockholm)||Ahl Al Bayt Assembly, sponsored by Iran||Shi'ite||Arabic, Persian|
|Skogås moske||Skogås, Stockholm||Sunni|
|Gävle mosque||Gävle||Run by "Al-Rashideen foundation", financed by a Qatari organisation. At the time the board of foundation had imam Riyad Al-Duhan among its members, today he calls himself Abo Raad. The Qatari organisation was founded by Abd al-Rahman bin Umayr al-Nuaymi, one of the major al-Qaeda financiers according to a researcher at Uppsala University.||Salafist||Riyad Al-Duhan aka Abo Raad|
|Vasternorrland Islamisk Forening||örnsköldsvik, domsjö||2014||Sunni|
|Örebro||Örebro, Vivalla||2008||Sponsored by Qatar In December 2017, the building was afire when firefighters arrived and it burned to the ground in December 2017.|
|Bellevue Mosque||Gothenburg, Bellevue||Islamic Sunni Centre, sponsored by Saudi Arabia||Wahhabi/Salafi|
|Turkish Mosque 1||Gothenburg, Hisingen||Sunni Hanafi|
|Masjid Guraba||Gothenburg, Hisingen||Sunni|
|Bosnian Mosque||Gothenburg, Hisingen||General|
|Nasir Mosque||Gothenburg, Högsbo||1976||ahmadyya Muslim Jama'at, sponsored by Pakistan ||ahmadyya||Yahya Khan||Arabic, Swedish, Urdu|
|Angered Mosque||Gothenburg, Angered|
|Trollhättan Mosque||Trollhättan||1985||Sponsored by Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and UAE||General|
The beginning of nationwide Islamic (Sunni) institutions in Sweden dates back to the creation of FIFS (Förenade Islamiska Församlingar i Sverige) in 1973–1974. In 1982 and 1984 two splits, due to internal rivalries, cultural differences, personal conflicts and funding, brought to the creation of SMF (Svenska Muslimska Förbundet) and ICUS, today IKUS (Islamska Kulturcenterunionen i Sverige). Others national institutions are BHIRF (Bosnien-Hercegovinas Islamiska riksförbund), founded in 1995 by Bosnian refugees, IRFS (Islamiska Riksförbundet), also since 1995, and SIA (Svenska Islamiska Akademin), founded in 2000 by the former ambassador Mohammed Knut Bernström, with the task of establishing in the future an Islamic university in Sweden, charged with imam education. SIA also publishes since February 2001 the periodical Minaret in Swedish.
There exist also the women association IKF (Islamiska Kvinnoförbund i Sverige), the youth association IUF (Islamiska Ungdomförbundet i Sverige) and the imam association SIR (Sveriges Imamråd). IIF (Islamiska Informationföreningen) is a member association of FIFS aiming at providing information about Islam in Sweden; 1986–2000 it published Salaam, whose editorial board has always been dominated by women, mainly Swedish converts.
National and target organization have also created umbrella organizations in order to simplify their relationships to the state. FIFS and SMF have created in 1990 SMR (Sveriges Muslimska Råd), of which SUM is also member. The IKUS umbrella organization is named IRIS (Islamiska Rådet i Sverige) and includes also IKF, IUF and SIR. Above all, IS (Islamiska samarbetsrådet) deals with financial issues with the Commission for state grants to religious communities (SST); it includes FIFS, SMF, IKUS, ISS and SIF.
Islamic Association in Sweden
The Islamic Association in Sweden, (Arabic: الرابطة الأسلامية في السويد) (Swedish: Islamiska förbundet i Sverige, IFiS) was was formed in 1987 by the Stockholm organisation Islamiska Förbundet i Stockholm, which runs Stockholm mosque. IFiS headquarters are located at Stockholm Mosque. According to the IFiS charter, it is a founding member in the Muslim Brotherhood-associated umbrella organisation Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe whose guidlines it follows. It has started the following organisations, either alone or together with others:
- Islamic Relief in Sweden
- Muslim Youth of Sweden
- Islamiska informationsföreningen (IIF) (tr: islamic information society)
Omar Mustafa is chairman of IFiS since 2011. On 7 April 2013 he was elected to the party committee of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which was noted by anti-racist magazine Expo as Mustafa, as chairman of IFiS, had invited Salah Sultan and Ragheb Al-Serjany both of whom had spread antisemitic views in al Jazeera interviews and that he also "likes" Egyptian imam Yousef Al-Qaradawi on Facebook. During the easter of 2013, IFiS invited Yvonne Ridley and Azzam Tamimi to a seminar to a conference it organised together with Ibn Rushd and Sveriges Unga Muslimer. As a result of the discoveries, Mustafa left the Social Democratic Party committee and party.
IFiS organization chart
IFiS is an umbrella organization.
|Federation of Islamic|
Organizations in Europe
|Muslim Council of Sweden||Stockholm mosque||Gothenburg Mosque||Islamic Relief||Sveriges Unga Muslimer||Ibn Rushd|
Muslim Council of Sweden
The Muslim Council of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges muslimska råd, SMR) is an umbrella organisation of Islamic organisations in Sweden. It was founded in 1990 by representatives of the United Islamic Parishes in Sweden (Swedish: Förenade islamiska församlingar i Sverige, FIFS) and the Muslim Association of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges Muslimska Förbund, SMuF). The current[when?] chairperson of the organisation is Helena Benaouda, who succeeded Mostafa Kharraki.
Muslim Association of Sweden
The Muslim Association of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges muslimska förbund, SMF) is Sweden's largest Muslim organisation, which represents around 70,000 Muslims in Sweden, which receives state aid from Swedish Agency for Support to Faith Communities.
Swedish Muslims for Peace and Justice
The Swedish Muslims for Peace and Justice is a self-described peace organization. It was founded in 2008 by a group including the Swedish Parliamentarian Mehmet Kaplan. Kaplan was forced to resign from the Swedish Cabinet due to his association with advocates of violent attacks on Armenians and connections to Islamist militants in Turkey. In 2018 it was headed by former Green Party politician Yasri Khan. Khan was forced to leave the Green Party after he was nominated to the party committee while refusing to shake hands with women on religious grounds.
In salafist circles, while topics in the main are uncontroversial, derogatory views towards women, homosexuals, non-believers are frequently expressed. Also it is stressed that Muslims should not integrate into Swedish society. The Swedish Defence University concluded in its 2018 report on salafism in Sweden that since according to salafi doctrine only following the religious laws is allowed, salafism is an anti-democratic movement. In contrast to non-salafis, salafist preach in Swedish.
According to the Swedish Defence University, since the 1970s, a number of residents of Sweden have been implicated in providing logistical and financial support to or joining various foreign-based transnational Islamic militant groups. Among these organizations are Hezbollah, Hamas, the GIA, Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, Al-Shabaab, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam. In 2010, the Swedish Security Service estimated that a total of 200 individuals were involved in the Swedish violent Islamist extremist milieu. According to the Swedish Defence University, most of these militants were affiliated with the Islamic State, with around 300 people traveling to Syria and Iraq to join the group and Al-Qaeda associated outfits like Jabhat al-nusra in the 2012-2017 period. In 2017, Swedish Security Service director Anders Thornberg stated that the number of violent Islamic extremists residing in Sweden to number was estimated to be "thousands". The Danish Security and Intelligence Service judged the number of jihadis in Sweden to be a threat against Denmark since two terrorists arriving from Sweden had already been sentenced in the 2010 Copenhagen terror plot.
In March 2018 Kurdish authorities reported they had captured 41 IS supporters with either Swedish citizenship or residence permit in Sweden, of which 5 had key positions in the organisation and one was the head of the ISIL propaganda efforts.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. (October 2015)
Investigating journalists at TV4 reported that self-appointed morality police in migrant areas such as Rinkeby, Tensta, Husby and Hjulsta harass women for wearing skirts, owning dogs or going out alone without the company of a male.The phenomenon has also been reported in the Brandkärr district of Nyköping according to a report by the municipality.
Muslim Council of Sweden
Swedish social anthropologist Aje Carlbom and parliamentarian Abderisak Aden, who has founded the Islamic Democratic Institute (Islamiska demokratiska institutet), have both stated that they believe that at least part of the leading members of SMR support Islamist ideologies and are influenced by the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
The Muslim Council of Sweden (SMR), an umbrella organization for Swedish Muslim organizations, has been involved in several controversies. In 2006 Mahmoud Aldebe, one of the Board members of SMR, sent letters to each of the major political parties in Sweden demanding special legislation for Muslims in Sweden, including the right to specific Islamic holidays, special public financing for the building of Mosques, that all divorces between Muslim couples be approved by an Imam, and that Imams should be allowed to teach Islam to Muslim children in public schools. The request was condemned by all political parties and the government and the Swedish Liberal Party requested that an investigation be started by the Office of the Exchequer into the use of public funding of SMR. The Chairman of the Board of SMR subsequently stated that it supported the demands made by Aldebe but that it did not think that the letter had been a good idea to communicate them in a list of demands.
Although the Board of SMR did not condemn Aldebe the letter has caused conflict within the organization. SMR has also been accused of being closely allied to the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which has been criticised[by whom?] both inside and outside the party.
The Brandbergen Mosque has been described by the FBI terrorism consultant Evan Kohlmann as a propaganda central for the Armed Islamic Group (GIA). According to Kohlmann, people connected to the mosque also participated in the financing of GIA's bombing campaign in France in 1995.
In 2004 an Arabic-language manual, which carried the logo and address of the Brandbergen Mosque, was spread on the internet. The manual described the construction of simple chemical weapons, including how to build a chemical munition from an ordinary artillery round. On December 7, 2006, the Swedish citizen Mohamed Moumou, who is described by the United States Department of the Treasury as an "uncontested leader of an extremist group centered around the Brandbergen Mosque in Stockholm", was put on the United Nations Security Council Committee 1267 list of foreign terrorists.
Investigative journalism uncovers discrimination against women
In 2012, the SVT program Uppdrag granskning visited 10 mosques once with a hidden camera and once with a visible camera. When the representatives were aware of being filmed, they stated that they supported values such as gender equality; however, when two undercover journalists posed as Muslim women with difficulties in their marriage, the answers from the majority of the visited imams were different. The imams told the women that they were expected to sleep with their husbands even if they did not want to and that they were to accept being beaten, and strongly discouraged them from going to the police. Since about half of the visited mosques receive state or local funding, they are expected to promote basic values of Swedish society, such as equal rights between genders and to counteract discrimination and violence.
Radical preachers invited to Sweden
In March 2014 Malmö Municipality withdrew financial support to a local association because they invited a Syrian lecturer who says that homosexuality should be punished by death to a charity event. The organisers said that the lecturer would not attend and hold no speeches, but after a video recording showed him holding a lecture, the sum of money was recalled.
In January 2015, Sigtuna council stopped radical Islamic preacher Haitham al-Haddad from holding a lecture at their premises. He had been invited by Märsta Unga Muslimer (tr: Muslim Youth of Märsta) but when the council was informed of the preacher's homophobic and antisemitic views, the council cancelled the rental contract.
In May 2015, radical preacher Said Rageahs was invited to the mosque in Gävle where he promoted the views that whomever insults Mohammed should be killed along with apostates and advocated segregation between Muslims and non-Muslims. The local imams at Gävle mosque ran the webpage muslim.se which espoused similar views (with the death penalty for homosexuality added) and according to islamologist Jan Hjärpe at Lund University their views are typical of the Wahhabi.
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