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Islamabad Capital Territory

Islamabad Capital Territory is the only federal territory of Pakistan. Located in north-central Pakistan between the provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it includes the country's federal capital Islamabad; the territory is represented in the National Assembly constituencies NA-52, NA-53 and NA-54. In 1960, land was transferred from Rawalpindi District of Punjab province to establish Pakistan's new capital. According to the 1960s master plan, the Capital Territory included Rawalpindi, was to be composed of the following parts: Rawalpindi, 259 square kilometres Islamabad, 220.15 square kilometres Margalla Hills, 220.15 square kilometres Islamabad rural, 446.20 square kilometres However, Rawalpindi was excluded from the Islamabad master plan in the 1980s. Islamabad is subdivided into five zones: Zone I: Designated for urban development and federal government institutions Zone II: Designated for urban development Zone III: Designated for rural development Zone IV: Designated for rural development Zone V: Designated for rural development Islamabad Capital Territory comprises urban and rural areas.

The rural consists of 23 union councils, comprising 133 villages. The climate of Islamabad has a humid subtropical climate, with five seasons: Winter, Summer, Rainy Monsoon and Autumn; the hottest month is June, where average highs exceed 38 °C. Wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudburst and flooding. Coolest month is January. Islamabad's micro-climate is regulated by three artificial reservoirs: Rawal and Khanpur Dam. Last one is located on the Haro River near the town of about 40 kilometres from Islamabad. Simli Dam is 30 kilometres north of Islamabad. 220 acres of the city consists of Margalla Hills National Park. Loi Bher Forest is situated along the Islamabad Highway. Highest monthly rainfall of 743.3 millimetres was recorded during July 1995. Winters feature dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the city, temperatures stay mild, with snowfall over the higher elevations points on nearby hill stations, notably Murree and Nathia Gali.

The temperatures range from 13 °C in January to 38 °C in June. The highest recorded temperature was 46.6 °C on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was −6 °C on 17 January 1967. The city has "recorded" snowfall. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad received a record breaking 620 millimetres of rainfall in just 10 hours, it was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the past 100 years and the highest rainfall in 24 hours as well. The main administrative authority of the city is Islamabad Capital Territory Administration with some help from Metropolitan Corporation Islamabad and Capital Development Authority, which oversees the planning, development and administration of the city. Islamabad Capital Territory is divided into eight zones: Administrative Zone, Commercial District, Educational Sector, Industrial Sector, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Rural Areas and Green Area. Islamabad city is divided into five major zones: Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, Zone IV, Zone V. Out of these, Zone IV is the largest in area.

All sectors of ghouri town are located in this zone. Zone I consists of all the developed residential sectors, while Zone II consists of the under-developed residential sectors; each residential sector is identified by a letter of the alphabet and a number, covers an area of 4 square kilometres. The sectors are lettered from A to I, each sector is divided into four numbered sub-sectors. Series A, B, C are still underdeveloped; the D series has seven sectors, of which only sector D-12 is developed. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills; the E Sectors are named from E-7 to E-17. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. In the revised Master Plan of the city, CDA has decided to develop a park on the pattern of Fatima Jinnah Park in sector E-14. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of Bahria University, Air University, the National Defence University; the F and G series contains the most developed sectors. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here.

The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex will be one of the major landmarks of the F-8 sector. G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17; some important places include the Jinnah Convention Center and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17; the H sectors are dedicated to educational and health institutions. National University of Sciences and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12; the I sectors are numbered from I-8 to I-18. With the exception of I-8, a well-developed residential area, these sectors are part of the industrial zone. Two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17. Zone III consists of the Margalla Hills and Margalla Hills National Park. Rawal Lake is in this zone.

Zone IV and V consist of Islam

University Church of St Mary the Virgin

The University Church of St Mary the Virgin is an Oxford church situated on the north side of the High Street. It is the centre from which the University of Oxford grew and its parish consists exclusively of university and college buildings. St Mary's possesses an eccentric baroque porch, designed by Nicholas Stone, facing High Street, a spire, claimed by some church historians to be one of the most beautiful in England. Radcliffe Square lies to the north and to the east is Catte Street; the 13th-century tower is open to the public for a fee and provides good views across the heart of the historic university city Radcliffe Square, the Radcliffe Camera, Brasenose College and All Souls College. A church was established at the centre of the old walled city, in Anglo-Saxon times. In the early days of Oxford University, the church was adopted as the first building of the university, congregation met there from at least 1252, by the early 13th century it was the seat of university government and was used for lectures and the award of degrees.

Around 1320 a two-storey building was added to the north side of the chancel — the ground floor became the "convocation" house used by university parliament, the upper storey housed books bequeathed by Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester, which formed the first university library. When Adam de Brome became rector in 1320 the church's fortune became linked to what would become Oriel College. In 1324 Brome founded St Mary Hall and appropriated the church's rectory house, including small tithes and burial dues for the college, an act confirmed in 1326 by the bishop, Henry Burghersh, after Brome had got Edward II's patronage to refound the college. Brome diverted the revenues of the church to his college, which thereafter was responsible for appointing the vicar and providing four chaplains to celebrate the daily services in the church. Early provosts of the college were inducted into their stall in the church, until 1642 fellows were required to attend services on Sundays and holy days. St Mary's was the site of the 1555 trial of the Oxford Martyrs, when the bishops Latimer and Ridley and the Archbishop Cranmer, were tried for heresy.

The martyrs were imprisoned at the former Bocardo Prison near St Michael at the Northgate in Cornmarket Street and subsequently burnt at the stake just outside the city walls to the north. A cross set into the road marks that location on what is now Broad Street, the nearby Martyrs' Memorial, at the south end of St Giles', commemorates the events. A section cut out of "Cranmer's Pillar" remains from the morning of Cranmer's death on 21 March 1556 when he was brought to the church for a sermon from Henry Cole, Provost of Eton College, who on Mary I's instructions, spelled out the reasons why he must die. Cranmer stood on a stage, the corner of, supported by a small shelf cut from the pillar opposite the pulpit; until the 17th century, the church was used not only for prayers but for rowdy graduation and degree ceremonies. This phenomenon, "The notion that'sacrifice is made to God and Apollo', in the same place where homage was due to God and God alone" was repugnant to William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, who in the 1630s initiated the erecting of a separate building for these ceremonies.

This project was cut short by the fall of Laud and the outbreak of the English Civil War, but after the Restoration it was revived and carried through by John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, who commissioned Christopher Wren to erect what became the Sheldonian Theatre. Thereafter, the church was reserved for religious worship only. During his time in Oxford, John Wesley attended the university sermon, as a fellow of Lincoln College preached sermons in the church, including the university sermon on "Salvation by Faith" on 18 June 1738 and the "Almost Christian" sermon on 25 July 1741. Following his denunciation of the spiritual apathy and sloth of the senior members of the University in his sermon "Scriptural Christianity" on 24 August 1744, he was never asked to preach there again — "I preached, I suppose, the last time at St Mary's," he wrote in his journal, "Be it so. From the present pulpit John Keble preached the assize sermon of 14 July 1833, considered to have started the Oxford Movement, an attempt to revive catholic spirituality in the church and university.

The influence of the movement spread and affected the practice and spirituality of the Church of England. By 1843, Newman became disillusioned with Anglicanism and resigned from St Mary's joining the Roman Catholic Church. In the 15th and early 16th century the main body of the church was rebuilt in the Perpendicular style, but the oldest part of the present church is the tower, which dates from around 1270; the Decorated spire with its triple-gabled outer pinnacles, inner pinnacles and statues was added in the 1320s. Only one of the twelve statues is original, the others were by George Frampton and erected around 1894; the original statues can now be found in the cloister of New College. The tower is plainer; the architect is unknown. The south porch was built in 1637 and was designed by Nicholas Stone, master mason to C


Not to be confused with Mandwa, a village in Maharashtra. Mandawa is a town in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan in India, it is part of Shekhawati region. Mandawa is situated 190 km off Jaipur in the north; the town lies between latitude 28 ° 06' in longitude 75 ° 20' in the east. Mandawa is known for its fort and havelis; the fort town of Mandawa is well connected with the other places in region through a good network of roads. The City of Mandawa was made a thikana in the middle of the 18th century. There have been earlier references to Mandu Jat as the founder of the Mandawa village, he first established a Dhani and dug a well here, completed on savan badi 5 samvat 1797. This place was known as ‘Mandu ki dhani’, ‘Mandu ka bas’ or ‘Manduwas’ which changed to ‘Manduwa’, ‘Mandwa’ and ‘Mandawa’. A remote feudal principality in the centre of the Shekhawati region, Mandawa was a trading outpost for the ancient caravan routes that stopped here from China and the Middle East. Thakur Nawal Singh, the Rajput ruler of Nawalgarh and Mandawa, built a fort in 1755 to protect this outpost.

The township that grew around the fort soon attracted a large community of traders, who settled here. Mandawa is located at 28.05°N 75.15°E / 28.05. It has an average elevation of 316 metres. In the north side it has four villages named Bazisar, Kamalsar and Godu ka bas and east side three villages named Tetara and Hanumanpura, south sides villages names are Mithwas, Dinwa Ladhkhani and west side are Khalasi, Sadinsar and Dabari; as of 2001 India census, Mandawa had a population of 20,717. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Mandawa has an average literacy rate of 58%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, female literacy is 45%. In Mandawa, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age; the fort of Mandawa was founded in the 18th century. Thakur Nawal Singh, son of Shardul Singh, founded the fort in Vikram Samvat 1812; the fort dominates the town with a painted arched gateway adorned with frescoes of Lord Krishna and his cows. Built as per a medieval theme, the castle of Mandawa is adorned with beautiful frescoes.

Rooms in the palace are decorated with paintings of Lord Krishna, exquisite carvings and amazing mirror work. The palace's Durbar Hall houses a number of paintings. Situated in the middle of the town, the Mandawa Fort has been converted into a heritage hotel; this town has been referred to as the "open art gallery" of Rajasthan because the entire Shekhawati region and not just Mandawa is dotted with fascinating mansions that have lavishly painted walls. Sewaram Saraf Haveli This 100-year-old Haveli is famous for its architecture and paintings, Bollywood's Favorite Destination for Movie Shooting, PK, Bajrangi Bhaijan, Mirza Sahibaan and many more Ram Pratap Nemani Haveli The Haveli has been converted into a Heritage Hotel where one can experience untouched frescos dating back to the 18th century. Vivaana Culture Hotel is a captivating twin haveli adorned with fascinating paintings. Both the exterior and interior boast of superb and rare artifacts and frescos; the over a century old haveli has been lovingly restored and renovated maintaining the old world charm.

Hanuman Prasad Goenka Haveli This haveli has a painting depicting Indra Dev on an elephant and Lord Shiva on his Nandi bull. Goenka Double Haveli This haveli, with two gates, has a monumental façade of horses; the outer walls, jutting balconies and overhanging upper stories are replete with patterns and paintings, ranging from traditional Rajasthani women and religious motifs to Europeans wearing stylish hats and other Victorian finery. Murmuria Haveli The paintings of trains, George V, Venice were executed on the walls of this haveli during the 1930s by Balu Ram, one of the last working artists of the region. In pictures - like Lord Krishna with his cows in the English courtyard and a young Nehru on a horseback, holding the national flag - this haveli uses a unique theme blending the East with the West; the haveli features a long frieze depicting a train with a crow flying above the engine and much activity at the railway crossing. Jhunjhunwala Haveli The haveli features a striking gold leaf painted room located to the right of the main courtyard.

Mohan Lal Saraf Haveli A picture of a Maharaja stroking his moustaches beautifies this haveli. Gulab Rai Ladia Haveli This haveli is located in the south of town, where the decoration of the outer and inner walls is the finest in Shekhawati. Blue washes here and there betray twentieth-century censorship of the erotic scenes, acceptable one hundred years earlier; the Bansidhar Newatia Haveli, Lakshminarayan Ladia Haveli and Chokhani Double Haveli are some of the other painted havelis in the area. Murals in the Thakurji temple, located opposite the Goenka Double Haveli and the Murmuria Haveli, include soldiers being shot from the mouths of cannons, a reflection of the horrors of the Mutiny of 1857. Further west are a couple of chhatris, a step-well, still used today and bearing paintings inside its decorative corner domes. Aakharam ka Haveli This more than 100-year-old haveli is located in the main market of the town, near Sonthaliya Darwaza. Shekhawati Holi Festival Kalwas Additional sourcesShekhawati Bodh, A monthly magazine of Shekhawati region, Mandawa special issue, July 2005


Volaticotherium antiquum is an extinct, insectivorous mammal that lived in what would become Asia during the Jurassic period, around 164 mya. It is the only member of the genus Volaticotherium, it had a gliding membrane, sometimes compared to modern-day flying squirrel, that extended not just between the limbs and at least the tail base, but the digits, "sandwiching" them. It was densely covered by fur; the tail was flat, increasing the airfoil, the limbs were proportionally long, comparable to those of modern flying and gliding mammals. The toes were grasping; the teeth of Volaticotherium were unusual, possessing long, backwards-pointing cusps used for shearing. This is supported by a study ranking it among insectivorous taxa, while the related Argentoconodon ranked in carnivorous taxa, it has been noted that most gliding mammals are predominantly herbivorous, which would make volaticothere carnivory exceptional. In particular, Volaticotherium itself has been compared to insectivore bats, its femur has unique adaptations among mammals that make it resistant to flight stresses, render terrestrial locomotion cumbersome.

The discovery of Volaticotherium provided the earliest-known record of a gliding mammal, until the discovery of the contemporary haramiyidans Maiopatagium and Xianshou, provided further evidence of mammalian diversity during the Mesozoic Era. The related and older Argentoconodon shows similar post-cranial adaptations for aerial locomotion seen in Volaticotherium; the phylogenetic analysis conducted by the authors of the description of Volaticotherium antiquum recovered it as the sister taxon of the clade that contained, among other taxa, multituberculates and tinodontid "symmetrodontans", dryolestids and eutherians. As the analysis did not place Volaticotherium within any of the known main groups of Mesozoic mammals, the authors of its description erected a separate family Volaticotheriidae and order Volaticotheria for it. However, Zhe-Xi Luo mentioned that Volaticotherium might be a eutriconodont; this was confirmed by the phylogenetic analyses conducted by Leandro C. Gaetano and Guillermo W. Rougier.

More recent studies keep this relationship, but move Volaticotherium, Argentoconodon and Jugulator in a more basal position among triconodontids, away from alticonodontines. The only known fossil of Volaticotherium was recovered from the Daohugou Beds of Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, China; the age of the Daohugou Beds is uncertain and the subject of debate, but most studies suggest an age of around 164 plus or minus 4 million years ago. The description was published in an issue of the journal Nature. Meng, J.. "Corrigendum: A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China". Nature. 446: 102. Bibcode:2007Natur.446Q.102M. Doi:10.1038/nature05639. Online article from Nature, with illustration BBC News: Earliest flying mammal discovered NY Times: Early Mammals Took to the Air, Fossil Suggests AP: Mammals may have flown before birds

Nese, Norway

Nese is a village in Vik Municipality in Vestland county, Norway. The village is located on the shore of the inner part of the Arnafjorden in the eastern part of the municipality; this is the site of Arnafjord Church. This village was the main village around this fjord, with a shop, post office, steamship stop. Today the population has declined to that of a small village. Nese sits about 25 kilometres southwest of the village of Vikøyri, at the end of the road. There is only one road that leads to Nese, the village is at the end of the road. There are no other roads leading further west in the municipality; the next village to the west of Nese is Ortnevik in Høyanger Municipality about 16 kilometres away. But since there is no direct road connection from Nese, one would have to drive 37 kilometres northeast, cross the Sognefjorden by ferry, drive another 60 kilometres west, cross the Sognefjorden by ferry, get off the ferry at Ortnevik—a grand total of about 115 kilometres. On the night of 2 December 1811, there was a large rock slide from the mountain west of Nese, which sent large rocks and boulders falling and rolling right through the small village, killing 45 people.

Most of the bodies were swept into the fjord and never recovered

Grandview High School (Aurora, Colorado)

Grandview High School is the second-largest high school in the Cherry Creek School District, with an enrollment of 2,851 students in grades 9 through 12. Grandview opened in 1998 as the district's fifth high school, built to accommodate a population boom in the district's growing southeastern region. Grandview is located in Aurora and uses the wolf as its mascot, sporting the colors of blue and white. Grandview High School was ranked 414th in the nation on Newsweek's list of the 500 best US high schools in 2016. Grandview was the only high school in the Cherry Creek School District and the City of Aurora to make the list. During the 1995–96 school year a committee of teachers, administrators and students gathered to meet with architects to design the blueprints for High School 5. In January 1997, Linda Fox formally accepted the assignment as the founding principal. By March of that year, groundbreaking at the site began and a cadre of coordinating teachers were hired to create what would become Grandview High School.

Fox, Associate Principal Harry Bull, bookkeeper Sherry Andrews, secretary Vickie Davis settled into Rolling Hills elementary in a nearby neighborhood to spend a year preparing to open a new high school. The cadre joined them in the evenings and full-time in January 1998. According to Terry Conley, Executive Director of High Schools at the time, one clear message from parents was that they "wanted students to have a competitive edge upon graduation, equal rights." From this, the school's mission statement evolved: "To inspire academic achievement, responsible citizenship, individual development in a supportive environment." With this goal in mind, colors and a mascot were chosen. In the fall of 1997, three names for the high school were submitted to the school board, with "Grandview" garnering the highest recommendation. In the winter of 1997–98, the school colors were chosen. Black and purple had the greatest number of votes until a student brought a photograph of Duke athletes in uniform to a community meeting.

The entire group changed their votes to blue and white, which became Grandview's colors. Choosing the mascot proved more difficult. Wanting a mascot that made "good tracks," the "Let's Get Started" committee recommended the wolf over a hornet or diamondback; as the year progressed, a staff was hired, curriculum decisions were made, the school was built. On August 3, 1998, Fox received the keys to the building. With semi-trailers lined up to unload all the furniture, parents came to help assemble desks and ensure that the color-coded furniture made it to the right wings of the school. Books were unpacked, computers were set up, the staff began to move in. On August 24, 1998, Grandview opened its doors to 830 tenth grade students. In 2000, the principal of Grandview, Linda Fox, was promoted to Executive Director of High Schools, Assistant Principal Harry Bull was selected to become the new Principal of Grandview High School. In 2002, the Grandview cheer team won their first state championship. In 2004, the Grandview volleyball team lost a close 5-set state championship match to Doherty High School.

In 2005, the volleyball team won their first state championship, defeating Doherty in four sets and going 30–1 on the season. In 2006, the volleyball team won their second state championship, they defeated Eaglecrest in the semi-final after losing twice in the season to the Raptors defeated Chaparral in the state final. In 2006, Dr. Harry Bull was promoted to Executive Director of High Schools, he would go on to become superintendent of the district in 2013. Assistant Principal Kurt Wollenweber was selected to become the new principal of Grandview High school for the 2007–2008 school year. On December 1, 2007, Grandview's varsity football team defeated Douglas County High School to win the Colorado 5A State Football championship; the game was tied at the end of regulation play and Grandview won in the first overtime on a touchdown. In 2007 the Grandview Poms team won the title of State Champions. At Nationals their dances and Jazz, earned them 7th place in Poms and 9th in Jazz. On the night of October 12, 2008, an unidentified man drove his SUV through the front doors of the school in an apparent suicide attempt.

After the accident, he was taken to Parker Adventist Hospital for minor injuries, held in the mental health wing for observation. He was held on a $10,000 bond; the broad metal doors adjacent to the cafeteria were destroyed, the administration feared that there would be damage to the structural integrity of the building. Therefore, classes were canceled for that subsequent Monday, but resumed on Tuesday after a thorough inspection. Noticeable changes were visible on the exterior of the school, with the lower cafeteria double doors being replaced with triple doors, on the interior, with multiple changes being made to the counseling office where the SUV was lodged. In 2009 the Grandview Poms team placed fifth in the nation in the Large Varsity Poms division and ninth in the Large Varsity Jazz Division. In 2009, the Grandview Cheerleaders placed fifth nationally in the Large Varsity Division at UCA Nationals. In 2009, the Grandview Poms team won the title of League Champions, USA Regional Hip Hop Champions, UDA Regional Large Pom Champions.

In 2010, the Grandview Cheer team won their second state championship. By 2011, the Grandview boys' basketball team had made four Great Eight Appearances, advancing to the Final Four three times. In 2013, Sarah Grobbel replaced Kurt Wollenweber as principal. Wollenweber assumed the position of concurrent enrollment coordinator for the district. In 2014, the Grandview Poms team and the girls' softball team both won the 5A State Championship. In 2014, a new wing was constructed on the w