Islamic Cairo called Historic Cairo or Medieval Cairo, refers generically to the historic areas of Cairo, that existed before the city's modern expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries. The name "Islamic" Cairo refers not to a greater prominence of Muslims in the area but rather to the city's rich history and heritage since its foundation in the early period of Islam, while distinguishing it from with the nearby Ancient Egyptian sites of Giza and Memphis; this area holds one of the largest and densest concentrations of historic architecture in the Islamic world. It is characterized by hundreds of mosques, madrasas, mansions and fortifications dating from throughout the Islamic era of Egypt. In 1979, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization proclaimed Historic Cairo a World Cultural Heritage site, as "one of the world's oldest Islamic cities, with its famous mosques, madrasas and fountains" and "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."
The history of Cairo begins, in essence, with the conquest of Egypt by Muslim Arabs in 640, under the commander'Amr ibn al-'As. Although Alexandria was the capital of Egypt at that time, the Arab conquerors decided to establish a new city called Fustat to serve as the administrative capital and military garrison center of Egypt; the new city was located near a Roman-Byzantine fortress known as Babylon on the shores of the Nile, southwest of the site of Cairo proper. The choice of this location may have been due to several factors, including its closer proximity to Arabia and Mecca, the fear of strong remaining Christian and Hellenistic influence in Alexandria, Alexandria's vulnerability to Byzantine counteroffensives arriving by sea. More the location of Fustat at the intersection of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt made it a strategic place from which to control a country, centered on the Nile river, much as the Ancient Egyptian city of Memphis had done; the foundation of Fustat was accompanied by the foundation of Egypt's first mosque, the Mosque of'Amr ibn al-'As, much rebuilt over the centuries but still exists today.
Fustat grew to become Egypt's main city and economic center, with Alexandria becoming more of a provincial city. In 661 the Islamic world came under the control of the Ummayyads, based in their capital at Damascus, until their overthrow by the Abbasids in 750; the last Ummayyad caliph, Marwan II, made his last stand in Egypt but was killed on August 1st, 750. Thereafter Egypt, Fustat, passed under Abbasid control; the Abbasids marked their new rule in Egypt by founding a new administrative capital called al-'Askar northeast of Fustat, under the initiative of their governor Abu'Aun. The city was completed with the foundation of a grand mosque in 786, included a palace for the governor's residence, known as the Dar al-'Imara. Nothing of this city remains today, but the foundation of new administrative capitals just outside the main city became a recurring pattern in the history of the area. Ahmad Ibn Tulun was a Turkish military commander who had served the Abbasid caliphs in Samarra during a long crisis of Abbasid power.
He became governor of Egypt in 868 but became its de facto independent ruler, while still acknowledging the Abbasid caliph's symbolic authority. He grew so influential that the caliph allowed him to take control of Syria in 878. During this period of Tulunid rule, Egypt became an independent state for the first time since Roman rule was established in 30 BC. Ibn Tulun founded his own new administrative capital in 870, called al-Qata'i, just northwest of al-Askar, it included a new grand palace, a hippodrome or military parade ground, amenities such as a hospital, a great mosque which survives to this day, known as the Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built between 876 and 879. Ibn Tulun died in 884 and his sons ruled for a few more decades until 905 when the Abbasids sent an army to reestablish direct control and burned al-Qata'i to the ground, sparing only the mosque. After this, Egypt was ruled for a while by another dynasty, the Ikhshidids, who ruled as Abbasid governors between 935 and 969; some of their constructions under Abu al-Misk Kafur, a black eunuch who ruled as regent during the part of this period, may have influenced the future Fatimids' choice of location for their capital, since one of Kafur's great gardens along the Khalij canal was incorporated into the Fatimid palaces.
The Fatimids, an Isma'ili Shi'a caliphate, based in Ifriqiya, conquered Egypt in 969 CE during the reign of Caliph al-Mu'izz. Their army, composed of North African Kutama Berbers, was led by the general Jawhar al-Siqilli. In 970, under instructions from al-Mu'izz, Jawhar planned and constructed a new city to serve as the residence and center of power for the Fatimid Caliphs; the city was named al-Mu'izziyya al-Qaahirah, the "Victorious City of al-Mu'izz" simply called "al-Qahira", which gave us the modern name of Cairo. The city was located northeast of Fustat and of
Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard described Scientology as "the Western Anglicized continuance of many earlier forms of wisdom", cites the teachings of Jesus among belief systems of those "earlier forms". Jesus is recognized in Scientology as part of its "religious heritage," and "is seen as only one of many good teachers."Contradicting the Christian concept of Jesus' "atonement of mankind's sins" through his death on the cross, Hubbard states in the Volunteer Ministers Handbook that "Man is good, but he could not attain expression of this until now. Nobody but the individual could die for his own sins – to arrange things otherwise was to keep man in chains." In Scientology, Jesus is classified as below the level of Operating Thetan, described by L. Ron Hubbard as being a "shade above" the condition of "Clear,"similar to the group’s view of Buddha. According to R. Philip Roberts in The Apologetics Study Bible, "Scientology's upper-level materials tout the concept of Jesus as God as being a fiction that ought to be removed by'auditing'".
According to Scientology, as written by Walter Martin in The Kingdom of the Cults, there is a possibility that Jesus believed in reincarnation: "There is much speculation on the part of religious historians as to the early education of Jesus of Nazareth. It is believed by many authorities that Jesus was a member of the cult of Essenes, who believed in reincarnation." Hubbard linked Hindu teachings to Jesus. Walter Martin mentions that the apostle Peter has, long ago, denied mythologies and fables attributed to Christ. "We have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty" In the 2008 book Vintage Jesus: Timeless Answers to Timely Questions, authors Mark Driscoll and Gerry Breshears write: "According to Scientology, Jesus is an'implant' forced upon a thetan about a million years ago". In A Piece of Blue Sky, Jon Atack writes "In confidential issues, Hubbard dismissed Christian teaching as an'implant.'...
In confidential materials Hubbard attacked Christianity as an'implant,' and said that Christ was a fiction."Hubbard is quoted as stating that Christianity evolved from the "R6 Implant": "The man on the cross. There was no Christ! The Roman Catholic Church, through watching the dramatizations of people picked up some little fragments of R6."Hubbard described the belief that the Christian heaven is “the product of two implants dating back more than 43 trillion years.” He said further that heaven is a “false dream” that leads thetans to a goal that does not exist, persuades them of the singularity of this life. Operating Thetan level VIII is highest level of auditing level in Scientology, it is known as "The Truth Revealed". It was released to select high-ranking public Scientologists in 1988. In OT VIII, dated 1980, Hubbard explains the document is intended for circulation only after his death, its purpose is to explain the untold story of Hubbard's life's work. Hubbard explains that the reader has "undoubtedly heard pieces of data over the years that hinted at the greater untold reality of my mission here on Earth" but "the story was never written, nor spoken...
It is only now that I feel it safe to release the information". In the document, Hubbard teaches that "the historic Jesus was not nearly the sainted figure has been made out to be. In addition to being a lover of young boys and men, he was given to uncontrollable bursts of temper and hatred". Hubbard mentions the Book of Revelation and its prophecy of a time when "an arch-enemy of Christ, referred to as the anti-Christ, will reign". According to Hubbard, the "anti-Christ represents the forces of Lucifer". Hubbard writes "My mission could be said to fulfill the Biblical promise represented by this brief anti-Christ period." In an interview with The Sacramento Bee, actress Mimi Rogers explained how her identity as a Scientologist helped her with the character Sharon in the 1991 psychological/religious drama film The Rapture. "I don't, for example, have a Jesus Christ definition of God... And I have no views on hell. To me they're alien concepts. If I were a practicing Christian or a Jew, with all the hang-ups of those religions, I don't think I could have done Sharon justice" said Rogers.
In 1997, celebrity Scientologist Lisa Marie Presley hosted a Christmas party at a Church of Scientology mission in Memphis, Tennessee. 100 children attended the event, which Scientology officials stated was Presley's idea. Church of Scientology administrator Peggy Crawford asserted to The Commercial Appeal: "Some Scientologists are Christians and believe Jesus was divine; some don't. We believe. Scientology minister-in-training and professed Christian, Craig Gehring, was quoted in 2007 in The Advocate as saying he thought that his belief in Jesus as the son of God did not conflict with his being a Scientologist: "Personally, I believe the son of God - son of man, but like I said, not a Scientology doctrine. There isn't a doctrine about in Scientology." I believe much in the Christian message. Jesus says time and time again,'The kingdom of God is at hand.'... And, a message you will find any Scientologist working toward." Gehring said that during his time studying Scientology at the Baton Rouge, Louisiana mission, he had not encountered teachings of Scientology space opera as had been reported in 2006 in Rolling Stone.
Hubbard discounted the Christian belief of the Holy Trinity. According to his Phoenix Lectures, “The Christian god is much better characterized in the Vedic Hymns than in any subsequent publication, including the Old Testament.” He goes on to say that the Christian god is much more like the Hindu Veda than t
During the Middle Ages, the County of Moha was a small territory in the pagus of Hesbaye in the Duchy of Lower Lorraine in the Holy Roman Empire. It was centred around the village of Moha on the right bank of the river Mehaigne and its nearby castle; the "county" of Moha was an allod. It came to be regarded as a county only in the 11th century, when its lords became counts of Egisheim, counts of Dagsburg and Metz. Among its dependencies were the manors of Antheit, Saint-Jean and Wanze; the first recorded lord of Moha was Albert I, known from a charter of the bishopric of Liège dated 1031 and from another of Archbishop Poppo of Trier dated to 1040–44. This Albert may have belonged to the House of Verdun, since he signed after Count Albert II of Namur in 1031 and Duke Godfrey the Bearded in the 1040s. Furthermore, Archbishop Poppo's charter was issued on behalf of Count Gozelo I of Montaigu and his wife. Albert I was succeeded by Albert II, but how or whether they are related is unknown. Albert II married Hedwig, a daughter of Count Henry I of Dagsburg and Egisheim, himself a son of Count Henry VI and nephew of Pope Leo IX.
According to a letter of Pope Leo, his nephew Henry was dead by 1050. He was succeeded in Dagsburg by his son Hugh VII and in Egisheim by his daughter, who thus passed the county to Albert II, he became, by a combination of his new title with his old allodial lordship, the first count of Moha. The Codex Hirsaugiensis explicitly refers to Albert as count of Egisheim. In his own donation to Marbach Abbey, he refers to himself as "the count of Egisheim, called of Moha". In a document from Sint-Truiden Abbey he is called the count of Moha. In 1089, Hugh VII died and Albert II inherited Dagsburg. After the death of Hedwige, he married daughter of Count Conrad I of Luxembourg. Hugh VIII, his son by Hedwig, succeeded to the county of Dagsburg around 1098, while Egisheim passed to another branch of the family. Thereafter, Moha remained in the hands of the counts of Dagsburg until the death of the last of the line in 1212. In 1201, Count Albert II of Dagsburg made Duke Henry I of Brabant his heir for the castle of Dagbsurg and the county of Metz if he should die without an heir of the body.
Moha was included in this grant. In 1204, Albert altered the terms of his will, leaving the same possessions to the bishopric of Liège. In these two wills the legal status of the territory is not confused by the traditional title of "county", it is described as the allodium de Muha et de Waleve. On Albert's death in 1212, the county of Moha was disputed between Brabant. Duke Henry, assisted by Waleran, heir of the Duchy of Limburg, marched an army as if to attack Moha, while Bishop Hugues de Pierrepont moved with his army to Huy. Bypassing Moha, the duke attacked undefended Liège while the bishop force-marched his army back from Huy. Liège looted for four days. On 8 May, Henry began the siege of Moha, but failing to take it abandoned it on 10 May; the bishop set to work strengthening and rebuilding Liège. In July, strengthened by alliances with Marquis Philip I of Namur, Count Louis II of Looz and Count Ferdinand of Flanders, he moved against Brabant. Threatened by a superior force, Henry opened negotiations.
In the end, he relinquished his claim on Moha. The settlement did not last. In October 1213, Bishop Hugues and Ferdinand invaded Brabant from two sides, claiming that Henry was not fulfilling his obligations under the prior treaty; when Ferdinand was forced to divert his attention to his French border, the bishop called on the count of Looz. Henry marched an army through the county of Moha and the two sides met in the Battle of Steppes on 13 October 1213; the Liègeois were victorious. The county of Moha was confirmed to the bishop. Albert I, fl. 1031 – c. 1042 Albert II, before 1050 – 1097/8For subsequent counts, see County of Dagsburg
The 2009–10 Wofford Terriers men's basketball team represented Wofford College during the 2009–10 college basketball season. This was head coach Mike Young's eighth season at Wofford; the Terriers competed in the Southern Conference and played their home games at the Benjamin Johnson Arena. They finished the season 26 -- 15 -- 3 in SoCon play to capture the regular season championship, they won the 2010 Southern Conference Men's Basketball Tournament to receive the conference's automatic bid to the 2010 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. In their first tournament, Wofford earned a 13 seed in the East Region where they were defeated in the first round by 4 seed and AP #16 Wisconsin. Source Source All times are Eastern
Sommore is an American comedian and actress. She appeared in the films Friday After Soul Plane, Dirty Laundry. Sommore was raised in New Jersey. After attending Our Lady of the Divine Shepherd and The Pennington School, she graduated from McCorristin Catholic High School in 1985, she graduated from Morris Brown College in Atlanta, where she studied business administration. Sommore has appeared on various shows including HBO's Def Comedy Jam, Showtime at the Apollo, ComicView, BET Live from L. A, she has done guest appearances on television sitcoms The Hughleys and The Parkers, she has been featured on The Oprah Winfrey Show. She appeared on Comedy Central Roast of Flavor Flav. In 2008, she appeared as one of the mob members on several episodes of the game show 1 vs. 100. Her film appearances include Soul Plane, A Miami Tail, Friday After Next, Something New. Sommore and fellow African American female comedians Mo'Nique, Laura Hayes, Adele Givens were the stars on The Queens of Comedy tour, filmed and subsequently aired on Showtime and released on DVD.
Sommore was a winning participant on the sixth season of Celebrity Fit Club. She lost 11 pounds during the show, her 2015 special Sommore: The Reign Continues was aired on Netflix in 2018. Aside from her hometown of Trenton, New Jersey, Sommore has lived in Los Angeles and Fort Lauderdale, Florida, her father was the poet her half sister is actress Nia Long. Her primary residence is in Miami. Sommore on IMDb Official website
The Westerman Lumber Office and House is a historic building in Montgomery, United States. The private, commercial structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 15, 1982; the structure is considered an outstanding example of the brick buildings built in the area of Montgomery and New Prague during the late 19th century, using bricks manufactured in the Minnesota River Valley. The Westerman Lumber Office and House is located in Montgomery's principle business district on the east side of First Street. An L-shaped building, it has an intersecting gable roof which folds at a 45-degree angle over the front facade; the structure was first constructed as a wood-frame office building in the 1880s. In 1895, a back section was added and the entire structure was veneered in a buff colored brick. Brick pilaster strips are located at the corners of the building and between the bays of the front ell; the west facade uses rectilinear windows with green wood trim featuring a stylized floral design in the wood lintels, double-hung windows are used on the second level.
The windows on the north facade use arched brick hoods and decoractive panels composed of exposed brick corners beneath the sills. Henry E. Westerman settled in Le Sueur County in 1873, moved to Montgomery to start a sawmill when the town was founded in 1877, he established the Westerman Lumber Company in 1889. The building was constructed in the 1880s as a small, wood frame office building. Westerman purchased the structure in 1891 to use as an office, he added to the back of the structure in 1895 so it could house his family, at the time had the structure veneered in brick. Westerman's company outgrew the building and it was sold in 1915. By 1996 it was being used as a private residence; the building was restored by former airline pilot John A. Grimm, who restored Montgomery's other NRHP building, Hilltop Hall, it houses a Pizzeria