Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee
Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee is an Iranian politician, Minister of Education from 2009 to 2013. He is the current member of the Parliament of Iran from Hamedan since 2016, as he held the position from same district from 1996 until 2009 when he was nominated as Minister of Education by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and was confirmed by Parliament, he was Head of Education Commission in the Parliament
Ali Larijani is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer, Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008. Larijani was the Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 15 August 2005 to 20 October 2007, appointed to the position by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, replacing Hassan Rouhani. Acceptance of Larijani's resignation from the secretary position was announced on 20 October 2007 by Gholamhossein Elham, the Iranian government's spokesman, mentioning that his previous resignations were turned down by President Ahmadinejad. Larijani was one of the two representatives of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei to the council, the other being Hassan Rouhani. In his post as secretary he functioned as the top negotiator on issues of national security, including Iran's nuclear program. Ali Larijani was born on 3 June 1957 in Iraq to Iranian parents, he hails from a religious family based in Behshahr in the province of Mazandaran. His father was Ayatollah Mirza Hashem Amoli.
His parents moved to Najaf in 1931 due to pressure of ruler Reza Shah, but returned to Iran in 1961. Larijani is a graduate of Qom, he holds a bachelor of science degree in computer science and mathematics from Aryamehr University of Technology and holds a master's degree and Ph. D. in Western philosophy from University of Tehran. He wanted to continue his graduate studies in computer science, but changed his subject after consultation with Morteza Motahhari. Larijani has published books on Immanuel Kant, Saul Kripke, David Lewis. Dr. Larijani is faculty member of University of Tehran School of Humanities. Larijani is a former commander of the Revolutionary Guards. Larijani served as the deputy minister of labour and social affairs, was appointed deputy minister of information and communications technology. In March 1994, he was appointed as head of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, replacing Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani in the post, he was in office until 21 July 2004 and was succeeded by Ezzatollah Zarghami after serving ten years in the post.
He became security adviser to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in August 2004. Larijani was a presidential candidate for the 2005 presidential elections, where he ranked sixth, winning 5.94% of the votes. He was considered the most important presidential candidate of the conservative alliance for the 2005 presidential elections, he was supported among other conservative groups. He had been announced as the final choice of the conservative Council for Coordination of the Forces of the Revolution, made from representatives of some influential conservative parties and organizations, but he proved to be the least popular of the three conservative candidates, the others being Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf. In 2005, Larijani was appointed secretary of the Supreme National Security Council, a body which helps draw up nuclear and other policies, by Khamenei, he replaced Hassan Rouhani in the post. As chief nuclear negotiator, Iranian analysts said he differed with the president over how to pursue negotiations with his European counterparts and say he backed a more pragmatic approach.
As Iran's top nuclear envoy Larijani said on 25 April 2007 that he expected "new ideas" from senior EU official Javier Solana at talks on resolving the deadlock between Tehran's refusal to freeze its nuclear programme and United Nations Security Council demands that it do so. In the March 2008 parliamentary election, Larijani won a seat from Qom, he said. In May 2008, Larijani became speaker of the parliament, he was reelected in next years as chairman of the parliament. He was re-elected in 2012 elections as the Qom district's high receiving candidate, he was elected for another term as chairman of the parliament on 5 June 2012 and was sworn in on 11 June 2012. Larijani implied on 21 June 2009 that authorities took the side of one candidate, without clarifying which candidate. Just after the election, Larijani congratulated presidential candidate Mir Hossein Mousavi as he, having "access to firsthand and classified information and news", believed Mousavi had won the election. However, on 22 October 2012, during a QA meeting with the students of Iran University of Science and Technology, Larijani denied the allegations that he had congratulated Mousavi.
He was elected as speaker in the new Majlis in May 2016. Larijani was considered to maintain Motalefeh membership and views while in Hashemi Rafsanjani cabinet. Iranian scholar Mehdi Moslem in his 2002 book named Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini Iran, suggests that Larijani had been a member of Motalefeh and part of the ‘traditional right’. Payam Mohseni, fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, classifies Larijani as a lead figure in the ‘theocratic right’ camp, whose other prominent are Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi and Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani. Larijani was one of the leaders of the Principlists Pervasive Coalition in 2008 parliamentary elections, a United Front of Principlists leader. During Iranian 2016 parliamentary election Larijani was the leader of the Followers of Wilayat faction, although he was backed by the reformist List of Hope and said he is running as an independent candidate, he is described as a center-right politician who has "slowly distanced himself from the Principlist camp" and a "conservative-turned-moderate".
Vice President of Iran
The Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs. As of July 2009, there are 12 Vice Presidents in Iran; the First Vice President is the most important as he or she leads cabinet meetings in the absence of the president. The role of First Vice President was created in the revision of the Constitution in 1989, it took over some of the responsibilities of the Prime Minister. According to Article 124, the First Vice President chairs the board of ministers and coordinates the other vice presidencies, if let by the President. According to Article 131, the First Vice President takes over as acting President in cases where the President in incapacitated, but only if permitted by the Supreme Leader. According to the same Article, the First Vice President must make sure that a new president is elected in fifty days. According to Article 132, during the time an Acting President is serving, the Majlis cannot impeach ministers and it can't disapprove newly introduced ministers.
Referendums and revisions to the Constitution are forbidden. Current officeholders are ex officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Environmental Protection Organization Vice President and Head of Atomic Energy Organization Vice President and Head of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization Vice President and Head of Management and Planning Organization Vice President and Head of Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs Vice President and Head of National Elites Foundation Vice President and Head of Administrative and Employment Affairs OrganizationFormerly, heads of these two organization below were ex-officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Physical Education Organization Vice President and Head of National Youth OrganizationBoth organizations were merged into Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports; the President may or may not choose vice presidents for specific issues, but their existence is not obligatory. Some of the offices held by vice presidents are: Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs Vice President for Legal Affairs Vice President for Executive Affairs Vice President for International Affairs Vice President for Economic Affairs Vice President for Women and Family Affairs Vice President for Management and Human Resources Development Vice President for Supervision and Strategic Affairs Vice President for Development and Social Affairs Chief of Staff of the President of Iran Advisor to the President of Iran Aide to the President of Iran
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei is a marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He was President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East, as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. According to his official website, Khamenei was arrested six times before being sent into exile for three years during Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's reign, he was the target of an attempted assassination in June 1981. Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, developed close ties with the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him; the Revolutionary Guards have been used to suppress opposition to him. Khamenei went to serve as the third President of Iran from 1981 to 1989, while becoming a close ally of the first Supreme Leader, Ruhollah Khomeini. After Khomeini had a disagreement with the heir apparent Hussein Ali Montazeri, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani claimed that Khomeini had chosen Khamenei as his successor while the Assembly of Experts deliberated to elect the next Supreme Leader.
After Khomeini's death, Khameini was elected by the Assembly of Experts as the new Supreme Leader on 4 June 1989, at the age of 49. He has been head of the servants of Astan Quds Razavi since 14 April 1979. Today, as Supreme Leader, Khamenei is the head of state of Iran and the commander-in-chief of its armed forces. For this reason, he is considered the most powerful political authority in the country; as Supreme Leader, Khamenei can issue decrees and make the final decisions on the main policies of the government in many fields such as economy, the environment, foreign policy, national planning in Iran. According to Karim Sadjadpour, Khamenei has either direct or indirect control over the executive and judicial branches of government, as well as the military and media. All candidates for the Assembly of Experts, the Presidency and the Majlis are vetted by the Guardian Council, whose members are selected directly or indirectly by the Supreme Leader of Iran. There have been instances when the Guardian Council reversed its ban on particular people after being ordered to do so by Khamenei.
There have been major protests during Khamenei's reign, including the 1994 Qazvin Protests, the 1999 Iranian student protests, the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests the 2011–12 Iranian protests, the 2017–18 Iranian protests. Journalists and other individuals have been put on trial in Iran for the charge of insulting Supreme Leader Khamenei in conjunction with blasphemy charges, their sentences have included lashing and jail time, some of them have died in custody. Regarding the nuclear program of Iran, Ali Khamenei had issued a fatwa in 2003 saying that the production and use of all kinds of weapons of mass destruction is forbidden. Born to Seyyed Javad Khamenei, an Alim and Mujtahid born in Najaf, Khadijeh Mirdamadi in Mashhad, Khamenei is the second of eight children. Two of his brothers are clerics, his elder sister Fatemeh Hosseini Khamenei died in 2015, aged 89. He has an ethnic Azerbaijani background on his father's side, with one source claiming that his mother was an ethnic Persian speaker from Yazd.
Some of his ancestors are from Tafresh in today's Markazi Province and migrated from their original home in Tafresh to Khamaneh near the Tabriz. Khamenei's great ancestor was Sayyid Hossein Tafreshi, a descendent of the Aftasi Sayyids, whose lineage reached to Sultan ul-Ulama Ahmad, known as Sultan Sayyid, a grandchild of Shia fourth Imam, Ali ibn Husayn, his education began by learning Quran at Maktab. He went to Najaf in 1957, but soon returned to Mashhad due to his father's unwillingness to let him stay there. In 1958, he settled in Qom where he attended the classes of Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi and Ruhollah Khomeini. Like many other politically active clerics at the time, Khamenei was far more involved with politics than religious scholarship. Khamenei is married to Khojaste Bagherzadeh, with whom he has two daughters. One of his sons, married a daughter of Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel. According to Mehdi Khalaji, an Iran expert at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Khamenei has a decent life "without it being luxurious".
Robert Tait of The Telegraph notes that Khamenei is "renowned for a spartan lifestyle." Khamenei's official residence is the Beit Rahbari compound. According to The Telegraph, around 500 people are employed at the Beit Rahbari compound, "many recruited from the military and security services". Mother Nature Network published a picture of Khamenei exiting a BMW car, noted that Khamenei has been seen riding around in a BMW. Khamenei's health has been called into question. In January 2007, after he had not been seen in public for some weeks, had not appeared as he traditionally does at celebrations for Eid al-Adha, rumours spread of his illness or death. Khamenei issued a statement declaring that "enemies of the Islamic system fabricated various rumors about death and health to demoralize the Iranian nation", but according to author Hooman Majd, he appeared to be "visibly weak" in photos released with the statement. On 9 Septem
Assembly of Experts
The Assembly of Experts —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran. However all directly-elected members after the vetting process by the Guardian Council still have to be approved by the Supreme Leader of Iran before gaining membership to the Assembly of Experts. All candidates to the Assembly of Experts must be approved by the Guardian Council whose members are, in turn, appointed either directly or indirectly by the Supreme Leader; the Assembly consists of eighty eight Mujtahids that are elected from lists of vetted candidates by direct public vote for eight-year terms. The number of members has ranged from 82 elected in 1982 to 88 elected in 2016. Current laws require the assembly to meet for at least two days every six months; the current chairman of the Fifth Assembly is Ahmad Jannati. The Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader. Due to Ali Khamenei's longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power.
Iran's Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani, a Khamenei appointee, stated that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise Khamenei. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called the late Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made resulting Rafsanjani to retract it. Mehdi Karroubi, under house arrest since 2011 without trial, by the direct order of Khamenei, said that "the Assembly of Experts, a council of elected clerics charged with electing and disqualifying the Supreme Leader, has turned into a ceremonial council that only praises the Leader.” The members of this assembly are jurists, not theologians. This is a important difference. According to the Iranian Constitution, the assembly is in charge of supervising and electing the Supreme Leader.
In the event of his death, resignation or dismissal, the Experts shall take steps within the shortest possible time to appoint a new Leader. "Whenever the Leader becomes incapable of fulfilling his constitutional duties, or loses one of the qualifications mentioned in the Constitution, or it becomes known that he did not possess some of the qualifications he will be dismissed." The assembly has never dismissed a sitting Supreme Leader, as all of their meetings and notes are confidential, the assembly has never been known to challenge or otherwise publicly oversee any of the Supreme Leader's decisions. To choose the Supreme Leader, the Experts are to review qualified candidates and consult among themselves. Constitutionally the criteria of qualification for the office of the Supreme Leader include "Islamic scholarship, piety, right political and social perspicacity, courage, administrative facilities and adequate capability for leadership." In the event that they find one of the jurists better versed in Islamic regulations, in fiqh, or in political and social issues, or possessing more general popularity or special prominence than any of their members, they shall elect that person as Supreme Leader.
Otherwise, in the absence of such a candidate, the Experts shall elect and declare one of their own as Supreme Leader. Iranian constitutional referendum, 1989 removed the requirement for the leader to be a marja, as Ali Khamenei was not a marja at that time; the assembly gathers every six months. Activities of the assembly include compiling a list of those eligible to become Supreme Leader in the event of the current Supreme Leader's death, resignation, or dismissal; this is done by the 107/109 commission. Monitoring the current leader to make sure he continues to meet all the criteria listed in the constitution is done by the 111 commission. Members of the Assembly report to this commission about the issues concerning the current Supreme Leader, the commission can order an emergency meeting of the Assembly. If the commission denies this, the members can ask the entire plenary of the Assembly for a vote, if most of the members vote in favor, an emergency meeting will be scheduled to discuss the current Supreme Leader.
The meetings, meeting notes, reports of the Assembly are confidential and not made available to anyone outside the assembly, except for the sitting Supreme Leader. The constitution does not specify requirements for candidacy for the Assembly of Experts, leaving the Assembly itself to put limits on who may run for membership; the assembly has passed laws to require all its members be experts in fiqh, authorizing the Guardian Council to vet candidates for ijtihad proficiency using written and oral examinations. This law was challenged by the reformists, their 2006 election campaign included changing this law to allow non-clerics into the assembly, reforming the law that allows Guardian Council to vet candidates. Women are theoretically eligible to run for the Assembly of Experts and in 1998 nine women submitted their candidacy; the Guardian Council rejected them. The average age of the members of the Assembly is over 60 years, which results in many mid-term elections due to deaths and resignations.
The members must be Ayatollahs. The first elections for the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership were held in December 1982 and the Assembl
Judicial system of Iran
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era. After the 1979 overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty by the Islamic Revolution, the system was altered; the legal code is now based on Islamic law or sharia, although many aspects of civil law have been retained, it is integrated into a civil law legal system. According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic, the judiciary in Iran "is an independent power"; the entire legal system—"from the Supreme Court to regional courts, all the way down to local and revolutionary courts"—is under the purview of the Ministry of Justice, but in addition to a Minister of Justice and head of the Supreme Court, there is a separate appointed Head of the Judiciary. Parliamentary bills pertaining to the constitution are vetted by the Council of Guardians. According to one scholar, the administration of justice in Islamic Iran has been until recent times a loosely sewn and resewn patchwork of conflicting authority in which the different and sometimes conflicting sources for Islamic law—the jurists, the actual judges, the non-Islamic law officials of the king - disputed with each other over the scope of their jurisdictions....
Some aspects of the law always remained in the hands of the mullahs... The village mullah was the natural arbiter in matters of marriage and inheritance. In between the village mullah and the jurisconsult there were mullahs with courts which, while sometimes sanctioned by the royal government, depended for their power on the prestige of the presiding mullah judge as much or more than on the government's sanction Since the sixteenth century AD Iran has been the only country in the world having Shi'ah Islam as its official religion the general principles of its legal system differed somewhat from those of other countries which followed Islamic law. Among the ways, law in Iran and the rest of the Muslim world differed from European law was in its lack of a single law code. "Thirteen centuries of Islamic—more Shiah—tradition" called for jurists to base decisions on their legal training as it applied to the situation being judged. There was no appeal in traditional Islamic law. One jurists's'discovery' of the ruling of law for a specific case would not have been invalidated by some other jurist's discovery of a different ruling for that case.
For the Shiah... resistance to a single written code was stronger. As far as the judicial system is concerned, the changes were quite minor until the end of the nineteenth century. Major events marking the judicial history of Iran during the modern era include the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which gave the country its first Constitution and Bill of Rights, the fall of the Qajars and the rise of the Pahlavi Dynasty in the 1920s, when accession to a modern judicial organisation became one of Iran's greatest challenges, the Islamic Revolution; as European military and technological power began to be felt in 19th century Iran, Westerners insisted on special treatment in Iranian courts. This came in the form of treaties between most European governments and Iran requiring the presence at the trial of any European in Iran of a representative of that European's home country, who would countersign the decision of the Iranian court, without whose countersignature the "decision of the Iranian court could have no effect".
The Europeans insisted on this legal veto right—" called the regime of capitulations"—on the grounds that Iran had no written legal code so that "no one knew what laws foreigners would be judged by." Iran followed the traditional Islamic practice of each judge giving his own interpretation of Islamic law for a given litigation, with no right of appeal. Iranians in general opposed these capitulations, secular Iranians such as Mohammed Mossadeq, wanted to establish a fixed written law they believed would not only end the capitulations but facilitate the building of a strong and unified state. Under the secularist reign of Reza Shah many changes were made in Iran's judicial system, the establishment of a fixed written law with appeals courts was one of them. In March 1926, Minister of Judicial Affairs Ali-Akbar Davar dissolved Iran's entire judiciary, with the approval of the parliament, initiating a wave of fundamental restructuring and overhauling reforms with the aid of French judicial experts.
By April 1927 Iran had 600 newly appointed judges in Tehran. Davar subsequently attempted to expand the new system into other cities of Iran through a programme involving training of 250 judges. Reza Shah represented his legal reforms as "tentative experiments" and allowed the religious judges to keep their courts for matters such as inheritance. In 1936, the new system was made permanent and the religious courts were abolished. However, there were still sharia courts that ruled on issues of family and inheritance up to the Islamic Revolution; some aspects of sharia law were unofficially retained in criminal law, for example compensation in was still unofficially given in a similar manner to blood money, in exch
Cabinet of Iran
The Cabinet of Iran is a formal body composed of government officials, ministers and led by a President. Its composition must be approved by a vote in the Parliament. According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the President may dismiss members of the cabinet, but must do so in writing, new appointees must again be approved by the Parliament; the cabinet meets weekly on Saturdays in Tehran. There may be additional meetings; the president chairs the meetings. From 1699 until 1907 the Iranian cabinet was led by Premiers; the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905 led to the creation of the Persian Constitution of 1906 and the establishment of the Iranian parliament, whose members were elected from the general population. The position of premier was replaced by the Prime Minister of Iran; the constitution stipulated that all Prime Minister must be subject to a vote in parliament for both approval and removal. During the period 1907 to 1951 all Prime Ministers were selected by the Shah and subject to a vote-of-confidence by the Iranian Parliament.
From 1951 to 1953, the members of parliament elected the Prime Minister among themselves, through a vote-of-confidence. The Shah, as the head of state appointed the parliament's selection to the position of Prime Minister, in accordance with the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Following the removal of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh via the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, this practice was abolished and the selection of Prime Minister reverted to the process in effect before 1951. Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the position of Shah was removed as the head of state ending Iran's history of monarchy. Iran's new Islamic constitution stipulated that the President of Iran would nominate the Iranian cabinet, including the Prime Minister, to be approved by a vote-of-confidence in the Iranian parliament; the constitutional amendment of 1989 ended the position of Prime Minister and transferred its powers to that of the president and vice president. President Ahmadinejad announced controversial ministerial appointments for his second term.
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei was appointed as first vice president, but opposed by a number of Majlis members and by the intelligence minister, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i. Mashaei followed orders to resign. Ahmadinejad appointed Mashaei as chief of staff, fired Mohseni-Eje'i. On 26 July 2009, Ahmadinejad's government faced a legal problem. Iran's constitution stipulates that, if more than half of its members are replaced, the cabinet may not meet or act before the Majlis approves the revised membership; the Vice Chairman of the Majlis announced that no cabinet meetings or decisions would be legal, pending such a reapproval. The main list of 21 cabinet appointments was announced on 19 August 2009. On 4 September, Parliament of Iran approved 18 of the 21 candidates and rejected three of them, including two women. Sousan Keshavarz, Mohammad Aliabadi, Fatemeh Ajorlou were not approved by Parliament for the Ministries of Education and Welfare and Social Security respectively. Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi won approval as health minister, making her Iran's first woman minister since the Islamic revolution.
President Ahmadinejad announced controversial ministerial appointments for his second term. Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei was appointed as first vice president, but opposed by a number of Majlis members and by the intelligence minister, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i. Mashaei followed orders to resign. Ahmadinejad appointed Mashaei as chief of staff, fired Mohseni-Eje'i. On 26 July 2009, Ahmadinejad's government faced a legal problem. Iran's constitution stipulates that, if more than half of its members are replaced, the cabinet may not meet or act before the Majlis approves the revised membership; the Vice Chairman of the Majlis announced that no cabinet meetings or decisions would be legal, pending such a reapproval. The main list of 21 cabinet appointments was announced on 19 August 2009. On 4 September, Parliament of Iran approved 18 of the 21 candidates and rejected three of them, including two women. Sousan Keshavarz, Mohammad Aliabadi, Fatemeh Ajorlou were not approved by Parliament for the Ministries of Education and Welfare and Social Security respectively.
Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi won approval as health minister, making her Iran's first woman minister since the Islamic revolution. On 9 May, Ahmedinejad announced Ministries of Petroleum and Energy would merge, as would Industries and Mines with Commerce, Welfare with Labour. On 13 May, he dismissed Ali Akbar Mehrabian and Sadegh Mahsouli. On 15 May, he was announced. From August 2009 to February 2013, a total of nine ministers in the cabinet was dismissed by the Majlis, the last of, labor minister, Reza Sheykholeslam at the beginning of February 2013. On 9 May, Ahmedinejad announced Ministries of Petroleum and Energy would merge, as would Industries and Mines with Commerce, Welfare with Labour. On 13 May, he dismissed Ali Akbar Mehrabian and Sadegh Mahsouli. On 15 May, he was announced. From August 2009 to February 2013, a total of nine ministers in the cabinet was dismissed by the Majlis, the last of, labor minister, Reza Sheykholeslam at the beginning of February