The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps is a branch of the Iranian Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Whereas the Iranian Army defends Iranian borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard is intended to protect the country's Islamic republic political system; the Revolutionary Guards base their role in protecting the Islamic system as well as preventing foreign interference and coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have 125,000 military personnel including ground and naval forces, its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. It controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel, its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society.
Its expanded social, political and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed that of the country's Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2019 is Hossein Salami, preceded by Mohammad Ali Jafari and Yahya Rahim Safavi from 2007 and 1997; the IRGC is designated as a terrorist organization by the governments of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the United States. Government organizations in Iran are known by one-word names rather than acronyms or shortened versions, the general populace universally refers to the IRGC as Sepâh. Sepâh has a historical connotation of soldiers, while in modern Persian it is used to describe a corps-sized unit – in modern Persian Artesh is the more standard term for an army. Pâsdârân is the plural form of Pâsdâr, meaning "Guardian", members of Sepah are known as Pāsdār, their title and comes after their rank.
Apart from the name Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Iranian Government and those who identify with the organization use Sepāh-e Pâsdârân, although it is not uncommon to hear Pâsdârân-e Enghelâb, or Pâsdârân as well. Among the Iranian population, among diaspora Iranians, using the word Pasdaran indicates admiration for the organization. Most foreign governments and the English-speaking mass media tend to use the term Iranian Revolutionary Guards or the Revolutionary Guards. In the US media, the force is referred to interchangeably as the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps or the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps; the US government standard is Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, while the United Nations uses Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. The force's main role is in national security, it is responsible for internal and border security, law enforcement, Iran's missile forces. IRGC operations are geared towards less traditional duties; these include the control of smuggling, control of the Strait of Hormuz, resistance operations.
The IRGC is intended to complement the more traditional role of the regular Iranian military, with the two forces operating separately and focusing on different operational roles. The IRGC is a combined arms force with its own ground forces, air force and special forces, it controls the Basij militia. The Basij is a volunteer-based force, with 300,000 reservists; the IRGC is recognized as a component of the Iranian military under Article 150 of the Iranian Constitution. It is separate from, parallel to, the other arm of Iran's military, called Artesh. In the waters of the Persian Gulf, the IRGC is expected to assume control of any Iranian response to attacks on its nuclear facilities; the IRGC was formed on 5 May 1979 following the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in an effort to consolidate several paramilitary forces into a single force loyal to the new government and to function as a counter to the influence and power of the regular military seen as a potential source of opposition because of its traditional loyalty to the Shah.
From the beginning of the new Islamic government, the Pasdaran functioned as a corps of the faithful. The Constitution of the Islamic Republic entrusted the defense of Iran's territorial integrity and political independence to the regular military, while it gave the Pasdaran the responsibility of preserving the Revolution itself. Days after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Tehran on 1 February 1979, Mehdi Bazargan's interim administration established the Pasdaran under a decree issued by Khomeini on 5 May; the Pasdaran was intended to protect the Revolution and to assist the ruling clerics in the day-to-day enforcement of the new government's Islamic codes and morality. There were other more important, reasons for establishing the Pasdaran; the Revolution needed to rely on a force of its own rather than borrowing the previous regime's tainted units. As one of the first revolutionary institutions, the Pasdaran helped legitimize the Revolution and gave the new government an armed basis of support.
Moreover, the establishment of the Pasdaran served notice to both th
Marvel NOW! is a comic book branding for the relaunch of several ongoing comic books published by Marvel Comics, that debuted in October 2012 with new #1 issues. The relaunch included some new titles, including Uncanny Avengers and All-New X-Men. Described as a shifting of the Marvel Universe following the conclusion of the "Avengers vs. X-Men" storyline, Marvel NOW! entailed changes to both the publishing format and the universe to attract new readers. Publishing changes included new creative teams for each of the titles and the in-universe changes included changes to character designs and new storylines, it marked the next stage of the Marvel ReEvolution initiative, which began in March 2012. The original run went through several waves before coming to an end in May 2015 at the start of the "Secret Wars" storyline. A second Marvel NOW!, Marvel NOW! 2.0, debuted in 2016 following the "Civil War II" storyline. Marvel NOW! 2.0 was followed in 2017 by Marvel Legacy. Marvel Comics first announced the launch of Marvel NOW! in July 2012.
Marvel Editor-in-Chief Axel Alonso described it as "the next chapter in the ongoing saga of the Marvel Universe." Alonso further explained, "From October through February, we’ll provide at least one great reason for readers—old, lapsed or new—to go into a comic store each week: a new issue #1, featuring an exciting new creative team and driving concept, that’s an easy entry-point into the Marvel Universe." Marvel Chief Creative Officer Joe Quesada stressed that unlike DC Comics' The New 52, it is not a reboot, but a shifting of the Marvel Universe following the events of Avengers vs. X-Men. Quesada explained that there will be "a lot of changes to the character status quos, alter egos, creator shifts, design shifts, the way that we do our covers, digital shifts and the way we start delivering our books". In March 2013, Alonso announced that Marvel would be launching a new wave of Marvel NOW! titles, dubbed Wave Two, in the summer of that year. Alonso stated, "There are plans for a Marvel NOW!
Wave 2—a new wave of titles that will generate the same amount of excitement amongst retailers and fans that the first wave did. From'Uncanny Avengers' to'Thanos Rising,' Marvel NOW! has been a hit, we're far from done. Look for exciting new series, starting in July and carrying through next year", it was announced a week that Avengers A. I. would be the first of these new titles. In September 2013, Marvel announced a next phase of Marvel NOW! in the aftermath of the "Infinity" storyline, called "All-New Marvel NOW!" which will see new series being launched and will provide entry issue to existing series. These entry issues will be branded as. NOW issues. For example, Avengers #24 was billed as Avengers #24. NOW. Several new series, such as Inhuman and All-New Invaders were announced. In January 2014, Marvel announced that following the conclusion of the Ultimate Marvel miniseries Cataclysm in April 2014, coinciding with the Marvel Universe All-New Marvel NOW! launch, three new Ultimate series will debut from April 2014, under the banner Ultimate Marvel NOW!.
The three series are: Miles Morales: Ultimate Spider-Man, Ultimate FF, All-New Ultimates. In July 2014, Marvel announced that a fourth wave, Avengers NOW!, would launch in October. The wave focuses on solo titles for individual Avengers, takes place in the aftermath of the Original Sin event. Marvel NOW! Officially ended in May 2015 at the start of the Secret Wars storyline, which saw the end of the Marvel Universe. Following the conclusion of Secret Wars, the universe is scheduled to be relaunched again in All-New All-Different Marvel. Alonso stated that the relaunches are reminiscent of the North American television season, explaining "I think that the comics industry – we are – working into a season model that's not too unlike what we see in our favorite cable TV shows: a seasonal model that offers accessible entry points for new readers and is respectful of long-term fans. We did Marvel NOW! and All-New Marvel NOW!, which were both two successful campaigns. And is the latest campaign."In May 2016, Marvel announced the return of Marvel NOW! following the conclusion of the "Civil War II" storyline.
Marvel Executive Editor Tom Brevoort stated that the relaunch is timed to coincide with "Civil War II" as means to "refresh and revitalize" the titles explaining, "One of the things a big event story is judged on, rightly or wrongly, is what kind of an impact it has on the Marvel Universe in its aftermath. That just becomes a condition of these big event stories: what is it at the end that changes the landscape?" On December 13, 2012, a special "Marvel NOW!" Category was featured on the television quiz show, Jeopardy!. A costume based on the Marvel NOW! Title Indestructible Hulk was made available in the game Marvel Super Hero Squad Online in November 2012. All-New, All-Different Marvel Marvel Legacy Marvel NOW! – Marvel Comics
John Reuben Thompson was an American poet, journalist and publisher. John Reuben Thompson was born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1823, he graduated in law from the University of Virginia in 1845. Thompson did not pursue a career in the legal field, but instead dedicated himself to journalism and editorship. In 1847, he became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond, in 1859 editor of The Southern Field and Fireside in Augusta, Georgia. Thompson did not take part in the Civil War due to health reasons. Instead, he went to London, from where he supported the Confederacy by writing articles in English magazines. In 1866 he became editor of the New York Evening Post, a position that he maintained until his death in New York in 1873. Thompson was a poet, most of his works being war-poems. During his career and travels, Thompson had the chance to work with Edgar Allan Poe, many notable Southern authors, such as William Gilmore Simms, Henry Timrod, Paul Hamilton Hayne and Philip Pendleton Cooke, as well as European authors.
Genius and Character of Edgar Allan Poe Poems of John R. Thompson
Presidential elections were held in South Korea on 19 December 2012. They were the sixth presidential elections since democratization and the establishment of the Sixth Republic, was held under a first-past-the-post system, in which there was a single round of voting and the candidate receiving the highest number of votes was elected. Under the South Korean constitution, presidents are restricted to a single five-year term in office; the term of incumbent president Lee Myung-bak ended on 24 February 2013. According to the Korea Times, 30.7 million people voted with turnout at 75.8%. Park Geun-hye of the Saenuri party was elected the first female South Korean president with 51.6% of the vote opposed to 48.0% for her opponent Moon Jae-in. Park's share of the vote was the highest won by any candidate since the beginning of free and fair direct elections in 1987. In 2017, following Park's impeachment and removal from office, Moon would go on to succeed her as the 12th President of South Korea following a second, successful bid for the presidency.
Lee Myung-bak was elected President of South Korea in 2007 as the nominee of the conservative Grand National Party after a contested primary in which he narrowly defeated Park Geun-hye, assumed office in February 2008. His victory brought to a close ten years of liberal administration under Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun; the Lee Myung-bak government pursued the reduction of government bureaucracy and a laissez-faire economic policy, came under criticism from the left for political scandals and controversial policies such as the Jeju-do Naval Base and its support of the South Korea-United States Free Trade Agreement, although both were initiated under the previous administration. Despite the fact that he was elected in a landslide victory and received initial approval ratings of 70%, Lee's ratings had declined to below 30% by 2012. At the end of 2011, Park Geun-hye assumed control of the Grand National Party, subsequently renamed the Saenuri or New Frontier Party in February 2012, she led the party towards the center.
In legislative elections in April 2012, Park guided the party to an upset victory, returning its majority in the National Assembly. This contributed to an increase in her poll ratings and consolidated her position as frontrunner for the Saenuri nomination. Opposition to Saenuri is divided between the Democratic United Party and independent supporters of Ahn Cheol-soo, who has emerged as a leading potential candidate despite his ostensible silence on the race. In the DUP, focus lay on Sohn Hak-kyu as a potential nominee, but by late 2011 Moon Jae-in, a confidant of former president Roh, had overtaken Sohn in polls. Although the DUP invited Ahn to join the party, only 2.3% of respondents to a poll on 21 April thought that Ahn was best suited to be DUP nominee. The DUP itself has been troubled by the split between pro-Roh members such as Moon Jae-in and the "Honam wing" of former president Kim Dae-jung, represented by Chung Dong-young. Ballot numbers for party candidates were given according to the candidate's party seat distribution in the National Assembly.
Ballot numbers for independent candidates were determined through a random lottery by the National Election Commission. The 2012 Democratic United Party presidential primary saw an open primary system implemented for the first time; this new open primary introduced "mobile voting". However, controversies persisted during the primary elections, as questions of the legitimacy and trustworthiness of the voting results were raised; the official result was announced on 16 September 2012, at 15:32 KST, naming Moon Jae-in the presidential candidate from the Democratic United Party. After nominated, Moon stated. Moon Jae-in, Member of National Assembly from Busan Sohn Hak-kyu, former Governor of Gyeonggi Kim Doo-kwan, former Governor of South Gyeongsang Chung Sye-kyun, Member of National Assembly from Seoul Park Joon-young, Governor of South Jeolla Jo Gyeong-tae, Member of National Assembly from Busan Kim Jung-kil, former Minister of the Interior Kim Yong-hwan, former Member of National Assembly from GyeonggiJo, Kim J and Kim Y were disqualified by te party through a cutoff poll, where only top five candidates were allowed to pass to primaries.
Park withdrew. P = Pre-registered electors; the first member of the Saenuri Party to announce their candidacy was Kim Moon-soo on 22 April. Kim, a former labor activist, stated in his announcement that he would focus on combating regional and socioeconomic divides, emphasized his commitment to a policy of multiculturalism, argued for a revision in Saenuri's primary system, he stated further that Park Geun-hye's leadership of the party represented only an "ambiguously prevailing trend", could not be relied upon to reach victory in the elections. Although Kim said that he was "convinced" he could "attract more support than ", he was not expected to garner a high level of support, his early announcement was regarded as an attempt to preemptively form an anti-Park faction in the party. Chung Mong-joon, a billionaire and longstanding member of the National Assembly, followed on 29 April. In his announcement, Chung emphasized the need to confront regionalism and factional politics, stated that he would "write a new history of the Republic of Korea by facilitating experience of managing a business, engaging in diplomacy and creating unity in
Weymouth High School is a comprehensive public high school in Weymouth, Massachusetts that serves students in grades nine through twelve. Weymouth High School offers a Career and Technical Education Program offering such courses as Aesthetics, Allied Health, Architectural Design, Automotive Technology, Early Childhood Education, Information Technology, Construction Technology, Culinary Arts, Graphic Communications and Metal Fabrication. Weymouth High School was first established in 1854. Since that time, it has gone through several incarnations: The building that used to house Weymouth High in the early 20th century stood next to the Town Hall on Middle Street. A new building to house Weymouth High opened in 1963 on Commercial Street. A great example of mid-century modernism, it earned a prestigious national architectural award, it housed students in the 12th grades. The town population grew in leaps and bounds in the mid 20th century, necessitating a second high school. In 1970, Weymouth South High School opened on Pleasant Street.
The building on Commercial Street became Weymouth North High School. In 1971, an arsonist set fire to the original Middle Street location of WHS, the current Abigail Adams Middle School was built in its place; the high schools were again merged into one Weymouth High School in 1991, this new high school was housed in the former Weymouth North High School building. The building that houses Weymouth High School opened in 2004 at One Wildcat Way in South Weymouth; this building was the original Weymouth South High School and most housed the junior high school students in Weymouth. The old Weymouth South High School is known as the "Maroon Building." The "Gold Building" was newly constructed for the opening in 2004, was built on the site of the old South Intermediate School. This expansion cost the school $22 million, took about two years to complete. With the opening of the facility at One Wildcat Way, several security staff were introduced to maintain order among students.. The Maroon Building is the first building of WHS constructed.
It houses the English, History and Music wings, as well as the gymnasium. The auditorium and one of WHS's two cafeterias are located here, appropriately named the Maroon Cafeteria; the Gold Building refers to the addition completed in 2004. The building's site overlaps with where South Intermediate School's track once resided, it houses the Mathematics, vocational education, foreign language wings, as well as the planetarium, the library and the Gold Cafeteria. Vocational students may work in its bakery, school store and salon for academic credit; the connector, as it is called informally, is one of two long, wide corridors that connect the two buildings. It leads from south of the gym to the intersection of the Science wings; this connector joins the 2000-level classrooms of the Gold Building with the 100-level classrooms of the Maroon House. It is known to be crowded in between classes; the back connector is the second corridor that acts as the passage from the English wing to the Science wing.
Weymouth High School students partake in a range of after-school activities. These activities include chapters of SADD and Amnesty International, a Student Senate, a Math Team, a Concert Band, a Choir, a Drama Club, an FRC Robotics Team, a Yearbook Committee. Weymouth High School has many athletic teams. Fall sports include cheerleading, boys' and girls' cross country, dance team, golf, boys' and girls' soccer and girls' volleyball. Winter sports include boys' and girls' basketball, boys' and girls' hockey, boys' and girls' indoor track and gymnastics. Spring sports include baseball, boys' and girls' tennis, boys' and girls' lacrosse, boys' and girls' outdoor track, boys' volleyball. Ultimate known as Ultimate Frisbee, is offered as a club sport in the spring, open to both boys and girls. In the 2009–2010 Season, Girls Cross Country, Football and Boys Outdoor Track were Bay State Carey Division Champions. In the 2014-2015 Season, Boys Hockey were Bay State Carey Division Champions. Weymouth High requires passing a minimum of 21 credits to graduate.
A credit is rewarded each time a class is passed with an average letter grade of D- or higher, or at least 60%. The number of credits is dependent on how the class is taken. For example, a Calculus course that meets every day for the year will reward the student with one credit if that student passes. In classes that do not meet every day or that are only a semester long, such as Psychology, only for half the year, will receive reduced credits. In this case, Psychology meets every day in a 6-day cycle for either the first two or last two quarters of the term, so the passing student would receive.5 credits. For the past six years Weymouth has received Academic Support Grant money to tutor students who have failed the Math and/or English MCAS exam. There are small numbers. A six-week program is run for these students prior to the exams; the students come from studies to tutoring. The student to teacher ratio is 1:1 or 1:2; this individualized approach has been successful. The minimum number of courses that one must take from 9th–12th grade are as follows: 3 credits of History courses 4 credits of English courses 3 credits of Mathematics courses 3 credits of Science courses (Class of 2015-2017 minimum of 2 lab science, Class of 2018 and beyond minimum of 3 l
The historic county of Cumberland in north west England was represented in Parliament from the 13th century. This article provides a list of constituencies constituting the Parliamentary representation from Cumberland. In 1889 Cumberland became an administrative county. In 1974 Cumberland was combined with Westmorland and northern Lancashire to form a new shire county of Cumbria; the first part of this article covers the constituencies wholly or predominantly within the area of the historic county of Cumberland, both before and after the administrative changes of 1974. The second part refers to constituencies in another historic county, which included some territory from the historic county of Cumberland; the summaries section only refers to the constituencies included in the first section of the constituency list. Article names are followed by; the constituencies which existed in 1707 were those represented in the Parliament of England. Key to abbreviations:- BC Borough constituency, CC County constituency.
C1 historic/administrative county of Cumberland, C2 shire county of Cumbria. Note: Dates for representation before 1509 are provisional. Wikipedia:Index of article on UK Parliament constituencies in England Wikipedia:Index of articles on UK Parliament constituencies in England N-Z Parliamentary representation by historic counties First Protectorate Parliament Unreformed House of Commons Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Constituencies: A Statistical Compendium, by Ivor Crewe and Anthony Fox British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig The House of Commons 1509-1558, by S. T. Bindoff The House of Commons 1558-1603, by P. W. Hasler The House of Commons 1660-1690, by Basil Duke Henning The House of Commons 1715-1754, by Romney Sedgwick The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke The House of Commons 1790-1820, by R. G. Thorne The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith, second edition edited by F.
W. S. Craig out of copyright