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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced in the Islamic world. Islamic art is difficult to characterize because it covers a wide range of lands and genres, including Islamic architecture, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic miniature, Islamic glass, Islamic pottery, textile arts such as carpets and embroidery, it comprises both religious and secular art forms. Religious art is represented by calligraphy and furnishings of religious buildings, such as mosque fittings and carpets. Secular art flourished in the Islamic world, although some of its elements were criticized by religious scholars. Early development of Islamic art was influenced by Roman art, Early Christian art, Sassanian art, with influences from Central Asian nomadic traditions. Chinese art had a formative influence on Islamic painting and textiles. Though the concept of "Islamic art" has been criticised by some modern art historians as an illusory Eurocentric construct, the similarities between art produced at different times and places in the Islamic world in the Islamic Golden Age, have been sufficient to keep the term in wide use by scholars.

Islamic art is characterized by recurrent motifs, such as the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is used to symbolize the transcendent and infinite nature of God. Mistakes in repetitions may be intentionally introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection, although this theory is disputed; some interpretations of Islam include a ban of depiction of animate beings known as aniconism. Islamic aniconism stems in part from the prohibition of idolatry and in part from the belief that creation of living forms is God's prerogative. Muslims have interpreted these prohibitions in different ways in different places. Religious Islamic art has been characterized by the absence of figures and extensive use of calligraphic and abstract floral patterns. However, representations of Islamic religious figures are found in some manuscripts from Persianate cultures, including Ottoman Turkey and Mughal India.

These pictures were meant to illustrate the story and not to infringe on the Islamic prohibition of idolatry, but many Muslims regard such images as forbidden. In secular art of the Muslim world, representations of human and animal forms flourished in nearly all Islamic cultures, although because of opposing religious sentiments, figures in paintings were stylized, giving rise to a variety of decorative figural designs. Calligraphic design is omnipresent in Islamic art, where, as in Europe in the Middle Ages, religious exhortations, including Qur'anic verses, may be included in secular objects coins and metalwork, most painted miniatures include some script, as do many buildings. Use of Islamic calligraphy in architecture extended outside of Islamic territories. Other inscriptions include verses of poetry, inscriptions recording ownership or donation. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning and enhancing the visual appeal of the walls and domes of buildings, the sides of minbars, metalwork.

Islamic calligraphy in the form of painting or sculptures are sometimes referred to as quranic art. East Persian pottery from the 9th to 11th centuries decorated only with stylised inscriptions, called "epigraphic ware", has been described as "probably the most refined and sensitive of all Persian pottery". Large inscriptions made from tiles, sometimes with the letters raised in relief, or the background cut away, are found on the interiors and exteriors of many important buildings. Complex carved calligraphy decorates buildings. For most of the Islamic period the majority of coins only showed lettering, which are very elegant despite their small size and nature of production; the tughra or monogram of an Ottoman sultan was used extensively on official documents, with elaborate decoration for important ones. Other single sheets of calligraphy, designed for albums, might contain short poems, Qur'anic verses, or other texts; the main languages, all using Arabic script, are Arabic, always used for Qur'anic verses, Persian in the Persianate world for poetry, Turkish, with Urdu appearing in centuries.

Calligraphers had a higher status than other artists. Although there has been a tradition of wall-paintings in the Persianate world, the best-surviving and highest developed form of painting in the Islamic world is the miniature in illuminated manuscripts, or as a single page for inclusion in a muraqqa or bound album of miniatures and calligraphy; the tradition of the Persian miniature has been dominant since about the 13th century influencing the Ottoman miniature of Turkey and the Mughal miniature in India. Miniatures were an art of the court, because they were not seen in public, it has been argued that constraints on the depiction of the human figure were much more relaxed, indeed miniatures contain great numbers of small figures, from the 16th century portraits of single ones. Although surviving early examples are now uncommon, human figurative art was a continuous tradition in Islamic lands in secular contexts, notably several of the Umayyad Desert Castles, during the Abbasid Caliphate.

The largest commissions of illustrated books were classics of Persian poetry such as the epic Shahnameh, alth

Mine, Yamaguchi

Mine is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 25,857 and a population density of 54.70 persons per km². The total area is 472.71 km². The city was founded on March 31, 1954 by a merger of municipalities that departed from Mine District. On March 21, 2008, Mine absorbed the rest of Mine District, which consisted of towns Mitō and Shūhō, while the newly merged city retained the name, Mine. Akiyoshidai Quasi-National Park, which includes the Akiyoshidai and Japan’s longest cave, the Akiyoshido, the latter of, designated a Special Natural Monument. Akiyoshidai is served by a natural history museum, visitor center, rest house, youth hostel and park headquarters building, is traversed by a scenic roadway and several walking trails. Events include a fireworks festival in July, a “Karst Walk” in November, an annual burning off of dry grasses in February called “Yamayaki”. Akiyoshido, Akiyoshido. Towards the southern end of Akiyoshidai is the Akiyoshido cave, named by Emperor Hirohito on May 30, 1926 when he was still crown prince.

This spacious cave is up to 100 meters wide and has 8.79 kilometers of passages, making it the longest in Japan and one of the longest in Asia. At the present time an one-kilometer-long section of the cave is open to the public as a sightseeing course, with a walkway and bridge system, entering at the cave's lowest point and exiting via an artificial elevator; this portion of the cave is well decorated with a variety of large and colorful speleothems. The plateau consists of uplifted reef limestones of Paleozoic age, which were thickened by overfolding during the Akiyoshidai orogenic movement. Subsequent erosion has created an undulating karst landscape dimpled with many dolines and countless limestone pinnacles up to two meters in height. Beneath the surface lie hundreds of caves, a few of them quite significant geologically. Numerous fossils of Pleistocene age have been found in these caves, including those of the Japanese rhinoceros, Stegodont elephant, Naumann elephant, Young tiger, numerous other animals from the last interglacial period.

The area around Akiyoshidai was once forested about 500,000 years ago. In the Jōmon period, the area served as a hunting ground and the bottoms of sinkholes as vegetable fields. Numerous Paleolithic artifacts have been recovered; as farming began in Japan, the local people replaced the forested landscape with Japanese pampas grass for feeding their animals and thatching houses. Repeated cycles of burning the grass have kept trees from growing back since. West Japan Railway Company stations Mine Line Atsu Station Shirōgahara Station Minami-Ōmine Station Mine Station Shigeyasu Station Ofuku Station Chūgoku ExpresswayMine Interchange Mine-nishi Interchange Sekinari Nii, former governor of Yamaguchi Prefecture Mayu Iwatani, acclaimed professional wrestler with World Wonder Ring Stardom and Ring of Honor Media related to Mine, Yamaguchi at Wikimedia Commons Mine City official website Yamaguchi Prefecture official website

1882 in Germany

Events in the year 1882 in Germany. Kaiser – William I Chancellor – Otto von Bismarck King of BavariaLudwig II of Bavaria King of PrussiaKaiser William I King of SaxonyAlbert of Saxony King of WürttembergCharles I of Württemberg Grand Duke of BadenFrederick I Grand Duke of HesseLouis IV Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin – Frederick Francis II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz – Frederick William Grand Duke of OldenburgPeter II Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachCharles Alexander Schaumburg-LippeAdolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-RudolstadtGeorge Albert, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-SondershausenCharles Gonthier, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Principality of LippeWoldemar, Prince of Lippe Reuss Elder LineHeinrich XXII, Prince Reuss of Greiz Reuss Younger LineHeinrich XIV, Prince Reuss Younger Line Waldeck and Pyrmont – George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont Duke of AnhaltFrederick I, Duke of Anhalt Duke of Brunswick – William, Duke of Brunswick Duke of Saxe-AltenburgErnst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaErnst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duke of Saxe-MeiningenGeorg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen 24 March – the Tuberculosis bacillus causing tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis, was identified and described by Robert Koch.

28 March – German company Beiersdorf was founded. 29 April – the Electromote was the world's first vehicle run like a trolleybus, first presented to the public on April 29, 1882, by its inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens in Halensee, a suburb of Berlin, Germany. 20 May – Triple Allicance 23 June – Kiel Week in Kiel started