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Islamophobia

Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against the Islamic religion or Muslims especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism. The meaning of the term continues to be debated, some view it as problematic. Several scholars consider Islamophobia to be a form of xenophobia or racism, although the legitimacy of this definition is disputed; some scholars view Islamophobia and racism as overlapping phenomena, while others dispute the relationship on the grounds that religion is not a race. The causes and characteristics of Islamophobia are subjects of debate; some commentators have posited an increase in Islamophobia resulting from the September 11 attacks, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, other terror attacks in Europe and the United States by Islamic extremists. Some have associated it with the increased presence of Muslims in the United States and in the European Union, while others view it as a response to the emergence of a global Muslim identity.

There are a number of other possible terms which are used in order to refer to negative feelings and attitudes towards Islam and Muslims, such as anti-Muslimism, intolerance against Muslims, anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Muslim bigotry, hatred of Muslims, anti-Islamism, demonisation of Islam, or demonisation of Muslims. In German and Islamfeindlichkeit are used; the Scandinavian term Muslimhat means "hatred of Muslims". When discrimination towards Muslims has placed an emphasis on their religious affiliation and adherence, it has been termed Muslimphobia, the alternative form of Muslimophobia, Islamophobism and antimuslimism. Individuals who discriminate against Muslims in general have been termed Islamophobes, anti-Muslimists, islamophobiacs, anti-Muhammadan, Muslimphobes or its alternative spelling of Muslimophobes, while individuals motivated by a specific anti-Muslim agenda or bigotry have been described as being anti-mosque, anti-Shiites, anti-Sufism and anti-Sunni; the word Islamophobia is a neologism formed from Islam and -phobia, a Greek suffix used in English to form "nouns with the sense'fear of – –','aversion to – –'."According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word means "Intense dislike or fear of Islam, esp. as a political force.

It is attested in English as early as 1923 to quote the French word islamophobie, found in a thesis published by Alain Quellien in 1910 to describe a "a prejudice against Islam, widespread among the peoples of Western and Christian civilization". The expression did not turned into the vocabulary of the English-speaking world though, which preferred the expression "feelings inimical to Islam", until its re-appearance in an article by Georges Chahati Anawati in 1976; the term did not exist in the Muslim world, was translated in the 1990s as ruhāb al-islām in Arabic "phobia of Islam". The University of California at Berkeley's Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project suggested this working definition: "Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure, it is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve'civilizational rehab' of the target communities.

Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended." In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. The Commission's report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was published in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination." The introduction of the term was justified by the report's assessment that "anti-Muslim prejudice has grown so and so in recent years that a new item in the vocabulary is needed". Johannes Kandel, in a 2006 comment wrote that Islamophobia "is a vague term which encompasses every conceivable actual and imagined act of hostility against Muslims", proceeds to argue that five of the criteria put forward by the Runnymede Trust are invalid.

In 2008, a workshop on'Thinking Thru Islamophobia' was held at the University of Leeds, organized by the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, the participants included S. Sayyid, Abdoolkarim Vakil, Liz Fekete, Gabrielle Maranci among others; the symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the idea of Islamophobia as being the product of closed and open views of Islam, focused on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity. The symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. At a 2009 symposium on "Islamophobia and Religious Discrimination", Robin Richardson, a former director of the Runnymede Trust and the editor of Islamophobia: a challenge for us all, said that "the disadvantages of the term Islamophobia are significant" on seven different grounds, including that it implies it is a "severe mental illness" affecting "only a tiny minority of people".

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science is a 1786 book by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. The book is divided into four chapters; the chapters are concerned with the metaphysical foundations of phoronomy, dynamics and phenomenology. Kant's book was a basic influence on the rise of science departments of the universities in the German-speaking countries in the nineteenth century. Hans Christian Ørsted wrote "Differential and integral calculus consist of nothing but.. Thought experiments and considerations of them.... In his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant has given us the most beautiful examples of this kind of presentation, however, drawing attention to it himself."Kurt Gödel was influenced by Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft. Gödel studied it while a member of the Vienna Circle. Works related to The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science at Wikisource

Parks and open spaces in the London Borough of Brent

The London Borough of Brent, an Outer London borough to the north west of the conurbation, has about 100 parks and open spaces within its boundaries. These include recreation and sports grounds, a large country park, a large reservoir; the main areas of open space are: Barham Park, Sudbury: formal Victorian park, about 10.5 hectares Brent Reservoir: in Barnet, about 170 hectares, Local Nature Reserve and the borough's only Site of Special Scientific Interest Fryent Country Park, Kingsbury: about 103 hectares, Local Nature Reserve Gladstone Park, Dollis Hill: opened May 1901, formal park named after William Ewart Gladstone, about 35 hectares Roundwood Park, Willesden: opened May 1895, formal Victorian park, about 10.27 hectares Queen's Park, Victorian park, administered by the City of London Roe Green Park, first opened c. 1920, about 16.83 hectares. Northwick Park, Kenton/Harrow Brent parks and open spaces

1979 San Francisco Giants season

The 1979 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 97th season in Major League Baseball, their 22nd season in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, their 20th at Candlestick Park. The team finished in fourth place in the National League West with a 71-91 record, 19½ games behind the Cincinnati Reds. December 4, 1978: Max Venable was drafted by the Giants from the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 1978 rule 5 draft. December 5, 1978: Darrell Evans was signed as a free agent by the Giants. February 24, 1979: Bill Bordley was signed as an amateur free agent by the Giants. Vida Blue Jack Clark Darrell Evans Marc Hill Mike Ivie Bill Madlock Roger Metzger Billy North Terry Whitfield April 1, 1979: Joe Coleman was signed as a free agent by the Giants. April 21, 1979: Joe Coleman was released by the Giants. June 5, 1979: Scott Garrelts was drafted by the Giants in the 1st round of the 1979 Major League Baseball draft. June 13, 1979: John Tamargo was traded by the Giants to the Montreal Expos for a player to be named and cash.

The Expos completed the deal by sending Joe Pettini to the Giants on March 15, 1980. June 17, 1979: Dan Gladden was signed by the Giants as an amateur free agent. June 28, 1979: Bill Madlock, Lenny Randle and Dave Roberts were traded by the Giants to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Ed Whitson, Fred Breining, Al Holland. June 28, 1979: Héctor Cruz was traded by the Giants to the Cincinnati Reds for Pedro Borbón. Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average.

Ashfaq Ali Khan

Ashfaq Ali Khan is an Indian politician and a member of the 16th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh of India. He represents the Naugawan Sadat constituency of Uttar Pradesh and is a member of the Samajwadi Party political party. Ashfaq Ali Khan was born in Uttar Pradesh, he attended the and attained Bachelor of Laws degree. Ashfaq Ali Khan has been a MLA for one term, he represented the Naugawan Sadat constituency and is a member of the Samajwadi Party political party. He lost the election in 17th Assembly Election in Uttar Pradesh from Rashtriya Lok Dal ticket. Naugawan Sadat Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Penicillium expansum

Penicillium expansum is a psychrophilic blue mold, common throughout the world in soil. It causes Blue Mold of apples, one of the most prevalent and economically damaging post-harvest diseases of apples. Though known as a disease of apples, this plant pathogen can infect a wide range of hosts, including pears, tomatoes and rice. Penicillium expansum produces the carcinogenic metabolite patulin, a neurotoxin, harmful when consumed. Patulin is produced by the fungus as a virulence factor. Patulin levels in foods are regulated by the governments of many developed countries. Patulin is a particular health concern for young children, who are heavy consumers of apple products; the fungus can produce the mycotoxin citrinin. Penicillium expansum has a wide host range, causing similar symptoms on fruits which include apples, pears and citrus. Initial infection most occurs at sites of fruit injury, such as bruises or puncture wounds. Although infections may start in the field, infected spots become evident post-harvest, expand while fruit is in storage.

Infected areas are delineated and light brown, soft decaying tissue can be "scooped" out of the surrounding healthy tissue. Spore masses appear on the surfaces of infected fruit appearing as white mycelium turning blue to blue-green in color as the asexual spores mature. Fruit affected by P. expansum has an earthy, musty odor. Lesions measure 1–1.25 inches in diameter eight to ten weeks after infection if kept under cold storage conditions. Age factors into P. expansum infection, in that overripe or mature fruits are most susceptible to infection, while those picked underripe are less to become infected. In apples, the colors of the lesions may vary with variety, from lighter-brown on green and yellow apple varieties to dark-brown on the deeper-red and other darker-color varieties. Varieties susceptible to P. expansum infection include McIntosh, Golden Supreme, Golden Delicious. Both sweet and sour cherries are affected by P. expansum. Cherry varieties found to be susceptible to P. expansum infection were early varieties, including Navalinda and Burlat.

Penicillium expansum can be identified by its morphological characteristics and secondary metabolites in fruit or in axenic culture The presence of the secondary metabolite patulin can suggest P. expansum infection, but this method is not species-specific as a number of different Penicillium species and their allies produce patulin. Patulin presence can be assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Molecular methods based on species-specific genes can speed identification. Penicillium expansum grows best in cool conditions. P. expansum was found to grow most efficiently in a temperature range of 15-27 degrees Celsius, with slower growth at lower and higher temperatures. P. expansum grows best in wet conditions. P. expansum infection acidifies host tissues via the secretion of organic acids, that acidification enhances fungal development, indicating a link between environmental acidity and P. expansum virulence. P. expansum infects a fruit via wounds. Puncturing and limb rubs occur during harvesting and processing of the fruit, all of which provide sites through which spores can enter the fruit.

Conidia can be found in soil, decaying debris, tree bark, can survive cold temperatures. Conidia may be isolated from the air of the orchard and packaging house, on the walls of the packaging houses, from the water and fungicide solution into which harvested fruits are dunked before packaging or storage. Exposure to conidia at any step of growth, processing and storage can lead to inoculation and disease. Conidia that have gained access via a wound can germinate to form a germ tube; this germ tube will continue to grow as hyphae which colonize the fruit, killing fruit cells in an expanding infection. If the fungus has colonized the fruit with mycelium, the formation of conidiophores occurs on the surface or subsurface of the hyphae; the conidiophores are smooth-walled terverticillate penicilli. A terverticillate pencilii has multiple branch points below the phialides, the cells that the conidia are attached to. However, at times, the penicilli may be biverticillate; the phialides are packed close together with nearly a cylindrical shape.

The conidia are dry, elliptical, "dull-green" in color and are disseminated by wind currents. Sexual reproduction has not been observed in nature for P. expansum. Due to the susceptibility to infection of mature and overripe fruit, post-harvest treatment of fruit with fungicides is the most common method of combating P. expansum. Proper sanitation and careful handling of the fruit are two non-chemical methods that can help control the disease. Good sanitation reduces contact with orchard soil either on the fruit or in transportation containers, and since the fungus needs a wound to infect, careful handling can reduce infection when the fungus is present. Chemical treatment with a chlorine bath can be effective in killing spores. Biofungicides using active ingredients such as bacteria and yeast have been successful in preventing infection but are ineffective against existing infections. Penicillium expansum produces the mycotoxin patulin, a neurotoxin that can enter the food supply via apples and apple products such as juice and cider.

China and the United States are the leading producers of apples in the world. In all 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide. In the Unite