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Islands of Shanghai

The islands of Shanghai are those under the jurisdiction of the Shanghai municipal government. They comprise a shifting number of smaller, uninhabited ones. Most are alluvial islands in the Yangtze River Delta in China, although a number of islands in Hangzhou Bay off Jinshan District are administered by Shanghai; the alluvial islands are young and their number varies over time. In 2006, the city's 19 uninhabited islands covered 226.27 square kilometers, with a total coastline length of 309 kilometers. The Yangshan area of the Port of Shanghai is located on two islands and Lesser Yangshan in Hangzhou Bay, but these are administered as part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County. All three inhabited islands of Shanghai are alluvial islands in the Yangtze estuary between the Municipality of Shanghai and Jiangsu Province, they are administered with its seat at Chengqiao on Chongming Island. The county was added to Shanghai from Jiangsu in 1958 and remains rural: In 2008, its registered population of 693 000 included 450 300 farmers.

Chongming Island is now the second-largest island of mainland China. The natural expansion of the island has been accelerated by reclamation projects, which doubled its size between 1950 and 2010; this growth caused it to absorb the former island of Yonglongsha, creating a long pene-exclave of Jiangsu on its northern shore administered as the townships of Haiyong and Qilong. The island was connected to Changxing by the Yangtze Bridge in 2009 and to Qidong in Jiangsu by the Chongqi Bridge in 2011; the Chonghai Bridge, to Haimen in Jiangsu, remains under construction and plans for Shanghai's S7 Expressway call for the creation of a bridge directly from Baoshan District to Chengqiao. Changxing Island lies between Chongming and Shanghai in the southern channel of the Yangtze opposite the mouth of the Huangpu, the major river of central Shanghai, it is connected to Chongming by the Yangtze Bridge and Shanghai's Pudong New Area by the Yangtze Tunnel. Hengsha Island lies to Changxing's east and is connected with the mainland and other islands by ferry service.

Jiuduansha is an intertidal wetland. The 114.6 km2 area above sea level comprises four major shoals: Upper, Middle and South Jiuduansha. These shoals and the waters surrounding them to a depth of 6 meters or 20 feet form the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, a nationally-protected area of Shanghai; the shoals began forming during the Yangtze floods of the late 1940s and early 1950s, but were developed and protected as a replacement for the wetlands of eastern Pudong during the construction of Shanghai's international airport in the 1990s. The cordgrass introduced in 1995 has succeeded in stabilizing the shoals but is now considered to be invasive, displacing the native reeds and bullrushes and degrading parts of the wetlands. A wetland museum, as well as a Science Popularization Park on about 5 square kilometers of the island, are planned to increase public awareness and support. Dajinshan Island, Xiaojinshan Island, Fushan Island in Jinshan District are nature reserves under city jurisdiction.

They are located in Hangzhou Bay. Dajinshan has the highest point in Shanghai with an elevation of 103.4 meters. Islands of China "Islands and Shoals of Shanghai" at the Office of Shanghai Chronicles

Piala Sumbangsih

Piala Sumbangsih known as Piala Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, is the Malaysian super cup competition. It is the curtain raiser match to the new Malaysian football season, pitting the reigning Malaysia Super League champions against the previous year’s winners of the Malaysia Cup; the match the cup contested upon known as Perlawanan Sumbangsih. The 2020 edition was held between the Malaysia Super League champions, Johor Darul Ta'zim, the Malaysia Cup runners-up, with Johor winning their fifth Piala Sumbangsih title after winning the match 1–0; the Piala Sumbangsih was first held in 1985, contested between Selangor and Pahang where Selangor became the first winner with the score of 2–1. The cup format has changed when during early days it was contested by the previous year winners of the Malaysia FA Cup against the Malaysia Cup winners, only in recent years it has changed to be contested between the last year league winners against the Malaysia Cup winners; the Piala Sumbangsih match act as the curtain raiser match to the new Malaysian football season, pitting the reigning Malaysia Super League champions against the previous year’s winners of the Malaysia Cup where in the 2016 edition it double as the first match of the league season where the match point was awarded.

Malaysia Super League Malaysia Cup Malaysia FA Cup Piala Emas Raja-Raja

Commensurability (philosophy of science)

Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science whereby scientific theories are commensurable if scientists can discuss them using a shared nomenclature that allows direct comparison of theories to determine which theory is more valid or useful. On the other hand, theories are incommensurable if they are embedded in starkly contrasting conceptual frameworks whose languages do not overlap sufficiently to permit scientists to directly compare the theories or to cite empirical evidence favoring one theory over the other. Discussed by Ludwik Fleck in the 1930s, popularized by Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the problem of incommensurability results in scientists talking past each other, as it were, while comparison of theories is muddled by confusions about terms and consequences. In 1962, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend both independently introduced the idea of incommensurability to the philosophy of science. In both cases, the concept came from mathematics; the term commensurability was coined because of a series of problems that both authors found when trying to interpret successive scientific theories.

Its implementation is better understood thanks to the critiques that both Kuhn and Feyerabend have made in response to certain theses proposed by followers of the received view of theories. These include the famous thesis on the accumulation of scientific knowledge, which states that the body of scientific knowledge has been increasing with the passage of time. Both Kuhn and Feyerabend reject this thesis, in favor of a model that sees both revolutions and periods of normalcy in the history of science. Another important thesis proposes the existence of a neutral language of comparison which can be used to formulate the empirical consequences of two competing theories; this would allow one to choose the theory with the greatest empirically verified contents or explanatory powers—or the greatest content, not falsified if the formulation is Popperian. The idea at the root of this second thesis does not just relate to the existence of said language but implies at least two further postulates. Firstly, this choice between theories presupposes that they can be intertranslated, for example between theory A and its successor B – and in the case of Popper that B can be deduced from A. Secondly, it is assumed that the choice is always carried out under the same standards of rationality.

In both cases, the concept of incommensurability makes the viability of the thesis impossible. In the first, by showing that certain empirical consequences are lost between successive theories. In the second case, by confirming that it is possible to make a rational choice between theories when they can not be translated into a neutral language. However, although the reasons for the introduction of these counter arguments, the criticism from which they arise, are the same, the sense in which the coauthors use them are in no way identical. For this reason the idea of incommensurability will be discussed for each coauthor separately. Feyerabend locates incommensurability within a principle from the field of semantics which has the underlying idea that the change in significance in the basic terms of a theory changes the totality of the terms of the new theory, so that there are no empirically common meanings between T and T'. Feyerabend is credited with coining the modern philosophical sense of "incommensurability," which lays the foundation for much of his philosophy of science.

He first presented his notion of incommensurability in 1952 to Karl Popper's London School of Economics seminar and to a gathering of illustrious Wittgensteinians in Anscombe's Oxford flat. Feyerabend argued that frameworks of thought, thus scientific paradigms, can be incommensurable for three reasons. Put, Feyerabend's notion of incommensurability is as follows: The interpretation of observations is implicitly influenced by theoretical assumptions, it is therefore impossible to evaluate observations independently of theory. Paradigms have different assumptions about which intellectual and operational scientific methods result in valid scientific knowledge. Paradigms can be based on different assumptions regarding the structure of their domain, which makes it impossible to compare them in a meaningful way; the adoption of a new theory is dependent upon the adoption of new terms. Thus, scientists are using different terms; those who hold different, competing theories to be true will be talking over one another, in the sense that they cannot a priori arrive at agreement given two different discourses with two different theoretical language and dictates.

According to Feyerabend, the idea of incommensurability cannot be captured in formal logic, because it is a phenomenon outside of logic's domain. In 1989, Feyerabend presented an idea informed by Popper's critical rationalism whereby "investigation starts with a problem; the problem is the result of a conflict between an expectation and an observation, which, in its turn, is formed by the expectation.". Scientific methodology resolves problems by inventing theories that should be relevant and falsifiable, at least to a greater degree than any other alternative solution. Once an alternative theory is presented the critical phase commences regarding T' which must answer the following questions: why has theory T been successful up until now and why has it failed. If the new theory T' answers both questions T is discarde


The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem written around 1200 in Middle High German. Its anonymous poet was from the region of Passau; the Nibelungenlied is based on an oral tradition that has some of its origin in historic events and individuals of the 5th and 6th centuries and that spread throughout all of Germanic-speaking Europe. Parallels to the German poem from Scandinavia are found in the heroic lays of the Poetic Edda and in the Völsunga saga; the poem is split into two parts: in the first part, Siegfried comes to Worms to acquire the hand of the Burgundian princess Kriemhild from her brother King Gunther. Gunther agrees to let Siegfried marry Kriemhild if Siegfried helps Gunther acquire the warrior-queen Brünhild as his wife. Siegfried does marries Kriemhild. In the second part, the widow Kriemhild is married to king of the Huns, she invites her brother and his court to visit Etzel's kingdom intending to kill Hagen. Her revenge results in the death of all the Burgundians who came to Etzel's court as well as the destruction of Etzel's kingdom and the death of Kriemhild herself.

The Nibelungenlied was the first heroic epic put into writing in Germany, helping to found a larger genre of written heroic poetry. The poem's tragedy appears to have bothered its medieval audience, early on a sequel was written, the Nibelungenklage, which made the tragedy less final; the poem was forgotten after around 1500, but was rediscovered in 1755. Dubbed the "German Iliad", the Nibelungenlied began a new life as the German national epic; the poem was appropriated for nationalist purposes and was used in anti-democratic and National-Socialist propaganda before and during the Second World War. Its legacy today is most visible in Richard Wagner's operatic cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, however, is based on Old Norse sources. In 2009, the three main manuscripts of the Nibelungenlied were inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in recognition of their historical significance, it has been called "one of the most impressive, the most powerful, of the German epics of the Middle Ages."

The poem in its various written forms was lost by the end of the 16th century, but manuscripts from as early as the 13th century were re-discovered during the 18th century. There are thirty-seven known manuscripts of its variant versions. Eleven of these manuscripts are complete; the oldest version seems to be the one preserved in manuscript "B". Twenty-four manuscripts are in various fragmentary states of completion, including one version in Dutch; the text contains 2,400 stanzas in 39 Aventiuren. The title under which the poem has been known since its discovery is derived from the final line of one of the three main versions, "hie hât daz mære ein ende: daz ist der Nibelunge liet". Liet here means lay, tale or epic rather than song, as it would in Modern German; the manuscripts' sources deviate from one another. Philologists and literary scholars designate three main genealogical groups for the entire range of available manuscripts, with two primary versions comprising the oldest known copies: *AB and *C.

This categorization derives from the signatures on the *A, *B, *C manuscripts as well as the wording of the last verse in each source: "daz ist der Nibelunge liet" or "daz ist der Nibelunge nôt". Nineteenth-century philologist Karl Lachmann developed this categorisation of the manuscript sources in "Der Nibelunge Noth und die Klage nach der ältesten Überlieferung mit Bezeichnung des Unechten und mit den Abweichungen der gemeinen Lesart"; the famous opening of the Nibelungenlied is thought to be an addition by the editor of the "C" version of the Nibelungenlied, as it does not appear in the oldest manuscripts. It may have been inspired by the prologue of the Nibelungenklage. Original Uns ist in alten mæren || wunders vil geseit von helden lobebæren,|| von grôzer arebeit, von fröuden, hôchgezîten, || von weinen und von klagen, von küener recken strîten || muget ir nu wunder hœren sagen. Modern German Uns ist in alten Geschichten viel Staunenswertes gesagt von ruhmwürdigen Helden, von großer Mühsal, von Freuden und Festen, von Weinen und Klagen, vom Kampf kühner Helden könnt ihr jetzt viel Staunenswertes sagen hören.

English In ancient tales many marvels are told us: of renowned heroes worthy of praise, of great hardship, of joys, festivities, of weeping and lamenting, of bold warriors' battles—now you may hear such marvels told. The original version instead began with the introduction of the protagonist of the work; the epic is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the story of Siegfried and Kriemhild, the wooing of Brünhild and the death of Siegfried at the hands of Hagen, Hagen's hiding of the Nibelung treasure in the Rhine. The second part deals with Kriemhild's marriage to Etzel, her plans for revenge, the journey of the Burgundians to the court of Etzel, their last stand in Etzel's hall; the first chapter introduces the court of Burgundy. Kriemhild has a dream of a falcon, killed by two eagles, her mother interprets this to mean that Kriemhild's future husband will die a violent death, Kriemhild resolves to remain unmarried. The second chapter tells of the background of Siegfried, crown prince of Xan

Hans Christoph Friedrich Graf von Hacke

Hans Christoph Friedrich Graf von Hacke was a Prussian General and Commandant of Berlin. The Hackescher Markt in Berlin is named after him. In 1715, at the age of sixteen, Hacke went to join the army of the Soldier King, Frederick William I of Prussia, at 6'3" tall was assigned the 6th Royal Regiment, the Potsdam Giants, he attracted attention through his particular attentiveness and adherence to orders, which would earn him a great career. At eighteen, he was an ensign, at twenty a lieutenant, twenty-six a first lieutenant, twenty-nine a staff captain, thirty-two a Hofjägermeister, his services were appreciated by the King, who permitted him in 1722 to have an oil portrait painted with his hand on his sword. In 1740, he was appointed Royal Adjutant General, making him one of the most significant figures in the King's circle and one of the most influential officers; the royal courts of Berlin and Wusterhausen were under his control, he had wide-ranging control in personnel decisions. On 28 July 1740, he was raised to the hereditary title of Graf.

After the King's death, Hacke was commander of the military police who protected the new King, Frederick II. He was present in both Silesian Wars, the capture of Prague and the King's campaigns in Saxony and Bohemia. In 1745, he was responsible for the defence of Berlin against the threat of siege by Austrian and Saxon forces. In 1747, Hacke was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and given oversight of the royal buildings of Berlin. On 10 November 1749, Frederick II named Hacke the Stadtkommandant of Berlin, giving him the added responsibilities of personnel decisions, public policy, the timber trade and press censorship. In 1750, to facilitate expansion of Berlin, the King ordered the city's fortifications and the Spandau Gate to be torn down. Under Hacke's leadership, new houses and streets were built on what had been swamp land, a spacious square was set out here; as a sign of his absolute satisfaction with the work, in recognition of Hacke's services, the King commanded the square to be named the Hackescher Markt.

His marriage to Sophia Albertine von Creutz and heiress of Privy Councillor Ehrenreich Bogislaus von Creutz, produced one son, Prussian Major Friedrich Wilhelm von Hacke. Hans Christoph Friedrich Graf von Hacke died on 17 August 1754 in Berlin. A profile of Graf von Hacke at the Berlinischen Monatsschrift

Craig Estey

Richard Craig Estey is the founder of Dotty's, a chain of taverns with slot machines with about 175 locations in Nevada and Montana, another 150 locations planned in Illinois. The business model is controversial, with sites "offering minimal food and beverage choices with a heavy focus on gambling." The chain caters to women aged 35 and older, with a clean, well-lit atmosphere meant to invoke "your grandmother's kitchen". In 2006, Estey came under investigation by the Lottery for alleged incidents of domestic violence against his wife, for lying to Nevada gaming regulators about the incidents. Faced with the threat of losing Dotty's lottery retailer contract, Estey was forced to sell Dotty's locations in Oregon to a group of investors from South Dakota, including Dan Fischer and Marwin Hofer, at a sales price higher than $15 million. Estey has donated money to, a group dedicated to electing conservative Republicans. Estey was a major donor to Super PACs supporting Mitt Romney in 2012