Isle Royale National Park is an American national park consisting of Isle Royale and hundreds of adjacent islands, as well as the surrounding waters of Lake Superior, in the state of Michigan. Isle Royale National Park was established on April 3, 1940 additionally protected from development by wilderness area designation in 1976, declared a UNESCO International Biosphere Reserve in 1980; the park covers 894 square miles, with 209 square miles of land and 685 square miles of surrounding waters. The park's northern boundary lies adjacent to the Canadian Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area along the international border. Isle Royale, the largest island in Lake Superior, is over 45 miles in length and 9 miles wide at its widest point; the park is made up of Isle Royale itself and 400 smaller islands, along with any submerged lands within 4.5 miles of the surrounding islands. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Isle Royale National Park has a mild summer Humid continental climate.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the Plant Hardiness zone is 4b at 1178 ft elevation with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of -24.2 °F. Large quantities of copper artifacts found in indian mounds and settlements, some dating back to 3000 B. C. were most mined on Isle Royale and the nearby Keweenaw Peninsula. The island has hundreds of pits with most in the McCargoe Cove area. Carbon-14 testing of a charred log found at one of these pits yielded an age of 1,500 B. C; the Jesuit missionary Dablon published an account in 1669-70 of "an island called Menong, celebrated for its copper." Menong, or Minong, was the native term for the island, is the basis for Minong Ridge. Prospecting began in earnest when the Chippewas relinquished their claims to the island in 1843, starting with many of the original native pits; this activity had ended by 1855. The Minong Mine and Island Mine were the result of renewed but short-lived activity from 1873 to 1881. In Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, published in 1961, Drier and Du Temple estimated that over 1.5 billion pounds of copper had been mined from the region.
However, David Johnson and Susan Martin contend that their estimate was based on exaggerated and inaccurate assumptions. In the mid-1840s, a report by Douglass Houghton, Michigan's first state geologist, set off a copper boom in the state, the first modern copper mines were opened on the island. Evidence of the earlier mining efforts was everywhere, in the form of many stone hammers, some copper artifacts, places where copper had been worked out of the rock but left in place; the ancient pits and trenches led to the discovery of many of the copper deposits that were mined in the 19th century. The island was once the site of a resort community; the fishing industry has declined but continues at Edisen Fishery. Because numerous small islands surround Isle Royale, ships were once guided through the area by lighthouses at Passage Island, Rock Harbor, Rock of Ages, Isle Royale Lighthouse on Menagerie Island. Within the waters of Isle Royale National Park are several shipwrecks; the area’s notoriously harsh weather, dramatic underwater topography, the island’s central location on historic shipping routes, the cold, fresh water have resulted in intact, well preserved wrecks throughout the park.
These were documented in the 1980s, with follow up occurring in 2009, by the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center. According to the A. W. Kuchler U. S. Potential natural vegetation Types, Isle Royale National Park has a Great Lakes Spruce/Fir potential vegetation type and a Northern Conifer Forest potential vegetation form; the predominant floral habitats of Isle Royale are within the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province. The area is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome transition zone between the true boreal forest to the north and Big Woods to the south, with characteristics of each, it has areas of both broadleaf and conifer forest cover, bodies of water ranging from conifer bogs to swamps. Conifers include jack pines and white spruces, balsam firs, eastern redcedars. Deciduous trees include quaking aspens, red oaks, paper birches, American mountain ash, red maples, sugar maples, mountain maples. Isle Royale National Park is known for its timber wolf and moose populations which are studied by scientists investigating predator-prey relationships in a closed environment.
This is made easier because Isle Royale has been colonized by just one third of the mainland mammal species, because it is so remote. In addition, the environment is unique in that it is the only known place where wolves and moose coexist without the presence of bears. Neither moose nor wolves inhabited Isle Royale. Just prior to becoming a national park the large mammals on Isle Royale were Canada lynx and the boreal woodland caribou. Archeological evidence indicates both of these species were present on Isle Royale for 3,500 years prior to being removed by direct human actions; the last caribou documented on Isle Royale was in 1925. Though lynx were removed by the 1930s some have periodically crossed the ice bridge from neighboring Ontario, the most recent being an individual sighti
A blocked milk duct is a blockage of one or more ducts carrying milk to the nipple for the purpose of breastfeeding an infant. The symptoms are localised lump in one breast, with redness in the skin over the lump; the cause of a blocked milk duct is the failure to remove milk from part of the breast. This may be due to infrequent breastfeeding, poor attachment, tight clothing or trauma to the breast. Sometimes the duct to one part of the breast is blocked by thickened milk. A blocked milk duct can be managed by improving the removal of milk and correcting the underlying cause. Blocked milk ducts are a common breastfeeding problem and can be caused due to a number of reasons: When the infant does not latch properly Wearing a tight bra or tight clothing can restrict the breasts and put pressure on them leading to a blocked milk duct A bad or weak pump could lead to a drainage issue When the breast milk is not removed the milk can back up and create a blockage A nipple bleb can block the milk duct When the body produces milk in over abundance, it can engorge the breast and hence lead to a blockage Other reasons include fatigue, over exercise and weaning.
A blocked milk duct has the following common symptoms: Low fever and breast infection Pain in a particular side of the breast Swollen or tender lump in the breast Slower milk flow a small white blister on the nipple called a milk bleb swelling or redness of the breast areas of the breast that are hot or warm to touch the infant may feel fussy when feeding from the affected breast The most effective treatment against blocked milk ducts is to empty the affected breasts by frequent breastfeeding or pumping. Numerous other treatment approaches have been suggested, there is insufficient clinical research to determine the effectiveness. Treatments that have been studied but have no strong evidence for or against their use: A gentle massage of the affected breast Sometimes after gentle massage over the lump, a string of the thickened milk comes out through the nipple, followed by a stream of milk, rapid relief of the blocked duct. Ensuring a correct positioning and latching of the baby Wearing loose clothing items that do not bind the breasts Applying warm compresses Drinking a specialized herbal tea Accupuncture Gua-Sha Proteolytic enzymesA blocked milk duct can result from a nipple bleb.
Both of these can lead to mastitis
The Twelve Months is a 1973 Soviet Lenfilm fantasy film directed by Anatoliy Granik based on the play by Samuil Marshak adapted from the fairy tale with the same name. Liana Zhvaniya Nikolay Volkov Marina Maltseva Tatiyana Pelttser as Gofmejsterina Lev Lemke as The Eastern Ambassador Konstantin Adashevskiy Leonid Kuravlyov as Soldier A young beautiful orphan Girl lives with her uncaring Stepmother, who treats her like a servant, her spoiled foolish Stepsister; the two of them send her to gather firewood on New Year's Eve. While in the forest, the Girl discovers that odd things are happening: animals begin to talk and play like humans. An elderly Soldier, whom she befriends, tells her that, he mentions that an ancestor of his was lucky enough to meet the Twelve Months in person on New Year's Day. Meanwhile, the Queen of that land, a selfish teenager, has one of her wild ideas: she wants a whole basket of fresh snowdrops as a New Year present; the person who brings it is promised an equal basket filled with gold.
The main heroine's Stepmother and Stepsister, obsessed with the thought of gold, do not care that snowdrop will not bloom till spring. At least, they don't care as long. After a heated argument about which of them will go, they realize the easiest decision is to send the Stepdaughter. So she comes home only to find out; the Girl gives up after a little while, she prepares to die in the frost. But she accidentally comes across a bonfire lit by twelve people – who turn out to be the Twelve Months themselves, she asks permission to warm herself by the fire. The sterner Winter Months hesitate, but the softer-hearted Spring and Summer Months welcome the Girl, her hosts find out about her impossible task. The Girl is about to leave, but the Month of April begs his brothers to let him rule the earth for an hour, so that the Girl could gather her snowdrops, they agree without much protest, soon April brings a temporary springtime, the ground is white with snowdrops. While the Girl picks the flowers, the Months talk about her.
It is revealed that they know her well by sight and have been always moved by her kind and generous spirit, that April is much in love with her. Upon her return, April presents her with a magical ring that would allow her to call on them whenever she's in trouble; the Months forbid her to tell anyone about her acquaintance with them. The Girl returns home contented. All seems to be well, but her envious Stepsister steals her ring while she's asleep, the Queen demands to know where the snowdrops were found… The Twelve Months on IMDb