Islington is a district in Greater London and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's High Street to Highbury Fields, encompassing the area around the busy High Street, Upper Street, Essex Road, Southgate Road to the east. Islington grew as a sprawling Middlesex village along the line of the Great North Road, has provided the name of the modern borough; this gave rise to some confusion, as neighbouring districts may be said to be in Islington. This district is bounded by Liverpool Road to the west and City Road and Southgate Road to the south-east, its northernmost point is in the area of Canonbury. The main north–south high street, Upper Street splits at Highbury Corner to Holloway Road to the west and St. Paul's Road to the east; the Angel business improvement district, an area centered around the Angel tube station, exists within southern Islington district and northern portions of two other districts in the London Borough of Islington – Finsbury and Pentonville.
Islington was named by the Saxons Giseldone Gislandune. The name means "Gīsla's hill" from the Old English personal name dun; the name mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors thereabouts, along with Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury and Canonesbury; some roads on the edge of the area, including Essex Road, were known as streets by the medieval period indicating a Roman origin, but little physical evidence remains. What is known is that the Great North Road from Aldersgate came into use in the 14th century, connecting with a new turnpike up Highgate Hill; this was along the line of modern Upper Street, with a toll gate at The Angel defining the extent of the village. The Back Road, the modern Liverpool Road, was a drovers' road where cattle would be rested before the final leg of their journey to Smithfield. Pens and sheds were erected along this road to accommodate the animals.
The first recorded church, St Mary's, was erected in the twelfth century and was replaced in the fifteenth century. Islington lay on the estates of the Dean and Chapter of St Pauls. There were substantial medieval moated manor houses in the area, principally at Canonbury and Highbury. In 1548, there were 440 communicants listed and the rural atmosphere, with access to the City and Westminster, made it a popular residence for the rich and eminent; the local inns harboured sheltered recusants. The Royal Agricultural Hall was built in 1862 on the Liverpool Road site of William Dixon's Cattle Layers; the hall was 75 ft high and the arched glass roof spanned 125 ft. It was built for the annual Smithfield Show in December of that year but was popular for other purposes, including recitals and the Royal Tournament, it was the primary exhibition site for London until the 20th century and the largest building of its kind, holding up to 50,000 people. It was requisitioned for use by the Mount Pleasant sorting office during World War II and never re-opened.
The main hall has now been incorporated into the Business Design Centre. The hill on which Islington stands has long supplied the City of London with water, the first projects drawing water through wooden pipes from the many springs that lay at its foot, in Finsbury; these included Sadler's London Spa and Clerkenwell. By the 17th century these traditional sources were inadequate to supply the growing population and plans were laid to construct a waterway, the New River, to bring fresh water from the source of the River Lea, in Hertfordshire to New River Head, below Islington in Finsbury; the river was opened on 29 September 1613 by the constructor of the project. His statue still stands; the course of the river ran to the east of Upper Street, much of its course is now covered and forms a linear park through the area. The Regent's Canal passes through Islington, for much of which in an 886-metre tunnel that runs from Colebrook Row east of the Angel, to emerge at Muriel Street near Caledonian Road.
The stretch is marked above with a series of pavement plaques so walkers may find their way from one entrance to the other. The area of the canal east of the tunnel and north of the City Road was once dominated by much warehousing and industry surrounding the large City Road Basin and Wenlock Basin; those old buildings that survive here are now residential or small creative work units. This stretch has one side accessed from the towpath; the canal was constructed in 1820 to carry cargo from Limehouse into the canal system. There is no tow-path in the tunnel so bargees had to walk their barges through, braced against the roof. Commercial use of the canal has declined since the 1960s. In the 17th and 18th centuries the availability of water made Islington a good place for growing vegetables to feed London; the manor became a popular excursion destination for Londoners, attracted to the area by its rural feel. Many public houses were therefore built to serve the needs of both the excursionists and travellers on the turnpike.
By 1716, there were 56 ale-house keepers in Upper Street offering pleasure and tea gardens, activities such as archery, skittle alleys and bowling. By the 18th century and dancing were offered, together with billiards, firework displays and balloon ascents; the King's Head Tavern, now a Victorian building with a theatre, has remained on the same site, opposite the parish c
Satanic Slaughter was a black metal band from Sweden. Having performed under the name Evil Cunt, the group first adopted the name Satanic Slaughter in 1985; the group went through several guitarists and other lineup changes in its early years before releasing its first demo, One Night in Hell, in 1988. The group split late in 1989 due to lead guitarist Ztephan "Dark" Karlsson's imprisonment for assault. In 1992, the group re-formed with former members of Seance, began playing again in November 1994; this lineup recorded its first album in 1996, issued on Necropolis Records. In 1997, this incarnation of the group disbanded, all of the members except Dark went on to reunite under the name Witchery. Further lineup changes occurred between 1997 and the release of their next LP, 2000's Afterlife Kingdom, followed by touring in Europe with Ragnarok. In the wake of Witchery's success, Necropolis reissued Satanic Slaughter and Land of the Unholy Souls as a two-fer in 2001. 2002 saw the group release Banished to the Underworld and more European touring with Lord Belial and Corporation 187.
In 2004, the group returned to Europe to tour with Avenger. After a short hiatus the group reassembled, again with new members, announced new plans in March 2006. However, these were cut short when Dark, the only remaining original member of the group, died of heart failure in April 2006. One Night in Hell demo Satanic Slaughter Land of the Unholy Souls Afterlife Kingdom The Early Years: Dawn of Darkness Banished to the Underworld Lineup as of 2006 Ztephan Dark - Guitar Stefan Johansson - Guitar Simon Axenrot - Bass Fredrik Nilsson - Drums Former membersVocals: Toxine Andreas Deblèn Guitar: Mikki Fixx Jörgen Sjöström Patrik Strandberg Jonas Hagberg Janne Karlsson Patrik Jensen Richard Corpse Kecke Ljungberg Bass: Ron B. Goat Patrik "Kulman" Peter Blomberg Filip Carlsson Drums: Pontus Sjösten, Peter Svedenhammar Robert Falstedt Evert Karlsson Gerry Malmström Mique Robert Eng Martin Axenrot
James Dunn was an American soccer forward who spent nine seasons with Ben Millers in the St. Louis Soccer League and was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1974. Dunn began his career with Christian Brothers College of the St. Louis Municipal League, the city’s de facto second division. CBC won the league title. Dunn won a second Municipal League title that season before turning professional with the Ben Millers of the St. Louis Soccer League. Dunn played the 1916-1917 season with Ben Millers. At the end of the season, Dunn enlisted in the U. S. Navy for two years; when he returned to St. Louis in 1919, he re-signed with Ben Millers becoming the team’s starting center forward. Ben Millers won the 1919-1920 league title. In May 1920, Ben Millers won the National Challenge Cup over Fore River of the Southern New England Soccer League. Dunn, captain for the game, scored the winning goal, twelve minutes into the second half for the 2-1 win. Ben Millers did not win another league title until the 1924-1925 season.
However, that championship put them into the one-time American Professional Soccer Championship. In 1925, the St. Louis Soccer League and American Soccer League boycotted the National Challenge Cup. In its place, they competed in what they called the American Professional Soccer Championship which pitted the champions of the two leagues; the Ben Millers faced the Boston Wonder Workers for a two-game series. The first, played in St. Louis, went with Dunn scoring the game's lone goal. On the return game in Boston, the Wonder Workers won 3-1, with Dunn again scoring; the final, deciding, game took place two weeks in St. Louis; the Wonder Workers won the title with a 3-2 victory. Dunn again scored in the loss. Ben Millers repeated as league champion in each of the next two seasons and finished runner-up to Bethlehem Steel in the 1926 National Challenge Cup. Over his nine seasons with Ben Miller, Dunn scored fifty-three goals. Dunn was inducted into the St. Louis Soccer Hall of Fame in 1971 and the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1974.
National Soccer Hall of Fame profile