Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Tanah Abang is a subdistrict of Central Jakarta, Indonesia. The subdistrict hosts the biggest textile market in Tanah Abang Market. Tanah Abang subdistrict is the location of Bung Karno Stadium and the western half of the Sudirman Central Business District. Tanah Abang is the name of two historic roads located in Kelurahan South Petojo, Gambir Subdistrict. One of these roads, Tanah Abang 1, is known as the location of a former Dutch Cemetery, now a museum called Museum Taman Prasasti; the cemetery is the burial place of Eurasian wife of Stamford Raffles. The Textile Museum known to be located in Tanah Abang Subdistrict, is located in West Jakarta; the museum is identified with Tanah Abang Subdistrict because it is located close to the boundary of the two subdistricts. Tanah Abang market is located in the Kelurahan Kebon Kacang; the Kelurahan is served by the Tanah Abang railway station, located in the western border of the administrative village. The market has been known to exist since 1735. Tanah Abang market is the biggest in Southeast Asia.
Before 2003, the market was divided into three areas, known as Metro Tanah Abang, Tanah Abang Lama, Tanah Abang AURI. A small part of the market was destroyed by the fire in February 2003. Since 2003 the market has been rebuilt. Other market areas, Blok A and Blok B, were added to the area in 2005 and 2010. Blok A is the biggest among others with 160,000 square meter with 8,000 kiosks, is visited about 80,000 buyers in busy days with transaction about Rp 500 billions per day and has well known in Africa and Middle East; the subdistrict is divided into seven Kelurahan: Bendungan Hilir: area code 10210 Karet Tengsin: area code 10220 Kebon Melati: area code 10230 Kebon Kacang: area code 10240 Kampung Bali: area code 10250 Petamburan: area code 10260 Gelora: area code 10270 Gelora Bung Karno Stadium Hotel Grand Indonesia Jakarta Convention Center Karet Bivak Cemetery Petamburan Cemetery Senayan City Tanah Abang market Wisma 46 TVRI Tower
Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the war in September 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history; the Dutch East Indies had been a colony of the Netherlands since 1819. However, the Netherlands itself had been occupied by Germany, thus had little ability to defend its colony against the Imperial Japanese Army, less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo, the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters; the sentiment changed, however, as Indonesians realized that they were expected to endure more hardship for the Japanese war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra; as such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of its surrender in August 1945.
The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia and ended the Dutch colonial rule, and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. In Java and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese educated and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus, through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for the proclamation of Indonesian independence within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies, a bitter five-year diplomatic and social struggle ensued, resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949; until 1942, Indonesia was known as the Dutch East Indies.
In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause. The Japanese spread the word that they were the'Light of Asia'. Japan was the only Asian nation that had transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the 19th century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, had beaten a European power, Russia, in war. Following its military campaign in China, Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia, advocating to other Asians a'Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere', which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership; the Japanese had spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.
The Japanese population peaked in 1931 with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government. A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan; such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an'Asia for the Asians'. While most Indonesians were hopeful for the Japanese promise of an end to the Dutch racially based system, Chinese Indonesians, who enjoyed a privileged position under Dutch rule, were less optimistic. Concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Union's popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organisation of religious and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilisation of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat. The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago. On 8 December 1941, the Dutch government-in-exile declared war on Japan. In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the command of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile, taking political prisoners and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese - and Dutch-owned properties were destroyed.
The invasion in early 1942 was complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control. By February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 19 February, having taken Ambon, the Japanese Eastern Task Force landed in Timor, dropping a special parachute unit into West Timor near Kupang, landing in the Dili area of Portuguese Timo
Menteng is a subdistrict of Central Jakarta, one of the administrative municipalities in the special capital territory of Jakarta, Indonesia. The subdistrict is best known as the location of the Menteng residential area, a new urban design developed in the 1910s to become a residential area for Dutch people and high officials. At the time of its development, the area was the first planned garden suburb in colonial Batavia. Supported by easy access to service centers and nearby to the central business district, this area has become one of the most expensive areas for residential real estate in Jakarta. Several important people such as former president Suharto take up residence in Menteng; the President of the United States Barack Obama spent his childhood in Menteng, attending local schools including Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School. Menteng Subdistrict is located to the south of Merdeka Square, it is bounded by Kebon Sirih Road to the north, a canal to the west, the canal Kali Malang to the south, the Ciliwung river to the east.
Menteng Subdistrict is served by several railway stations, including Gondangdia Station, Sudirman Station, Cikini Station, Mampang Station. Mohammad Husni Thamrin Road, the main artery of Jakarta, is in the western part of Menteng Subdistrict; the subdistrict of Menteng is divided into five kelurahan or administrative villages: Menteng - area code 10310The southern area of the Menteng Project. Pegangsaan - area code 10320Known as the location of the house where the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was read. Cikini - area code 10330 Kebon Sirih - area code 10340 Gondangdia - area code 10350The northern area of the Menteng Project. Menteng residential area is located in Menteng Subdistrict; the residential area spread over the administrative villages of Gondangdia. Menteng residential area is the first modern housing estate in Jakarta, it was developed by the private real estate company N. V. de Bouwploeg, established by P. A. J. Moojen, active in Batavia since 1930; the plan of Menteng residential area was designed by Moojen and F.
J. Kubatz during the course of the 1910s. Moojen was a member of a development group established by Batavia city government, the Commisie van toesicht op het Geheer van het Land Menteng, responsible for planning and developing the larger area of Gondangdia of which Menteng was the centerpiece. Menteng Project was the most ambitious residential planning project between 1910 and 1939; the project was meant to be the southern expansion of the city Batavia. Karsten, in his 1939 memorandum to the colonial government, referring to Menteng Project and several other residential projects in the Indies - pointed out that real estate offices and the building trade have turned their attention to the needs of the upper middle class - those of the Europeans, but moreover those of the small category categories of the other population groups in that class; the land, now Menteng residential area was privately owned estates Menteng and Gondangdia. Between 1755-1762, the Menteng estate belonged to a Moor Assan Nina Daut.
In 1790, the land was handed over to Pieter J. du Chene de Vienne. In 1815, the land was handed over to Jakob P. Barends. In 1867, the land was handed over to an Arab man from Hadramaut, one of the recorded descendants was the Shahap/Shahab family who were the landlord of the private land in what is now Menteng from 1881 to 1990, as recorded in the 1817 Regerings-Almanak. In 1890, this private land was an estate of 73 hectares inhabited by 3,562 peasants, situated south of Kebon Sirih neighborhood. In 1901 the land recorded as being used for rice paddies and coconut plantation; when the city of Batavia was confident to absorb new supply of middle-class housing – as well as to prevent further illegal kampung development from encroaching onto this area – the city decided to purchase the Menteng land and created the technical commission to oversee its development. De Bouwploeg was established to acquire a plot of land in Menteng and another 73 hectare of land from the Gondangdia private estate.
The land in Gondangdia private estate was bought by Bouw- en Cultuur Maatschappij Gondangdia from a Dutch widow J. V. D. Bergh in 1892, which at that time inhabited by 3,052 peasants. Moojen's original plan for Menteng resembles the garden city model of Ebenezer Howard; the plan combined wide cross-cutting boulevards with concentric rings of streets and a central public square. At the northern entrance to the Menteng residential area, he designed civic landmarks: the Art Center, the cultural center of early 20th-century Batavia. Although planning for Menteng began in 1910, it was not until 1912 that Moojen's revised plan was unveiled. Key difference with the original garden city model was that Menteng was not intended to be a freestanding, self-contained place, but to link up with adjacent residential areas. For example, the broad Nassau Boulevard that bisected the Menteng residential area adjacent to the central square was intended to connect Tanah Abang to the west and Meester Cornelis to the east.
The Java Street was to serve as a north-south connector from Kebon Sirih to the southern fringe of Batavia, the boundary was marked at that time by the line of a flood canal. Moojen's plan was extensively modified by F. J. Kubatz as part of the city's next development plan. In the Kubatz plan, the street pattern was changed and a small pond was added to the east of the central park area named Bisschooplein after G. J. Bishop, mayor of Batavia. Other architects contributed to the character of
Karet Bivak Cemetery
Karet Bivak is a cemetery in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is the second largest in the city. Karet Bivak is located in Jakarta, it covers an area of 16.2 hectares. In 2007 it contained 48,000 graves; the graves of poor people are located in a special block at the back of the graveyard. As of 2007, the cemetery is at full capacity. To deal with the lack of graveyard space, common throughout Jakarta, families have begun using a single plot for several family members, stacking them on top of each other. Another method proposed is reassigning the 18,000 graves that have been abandoned or have had their lease run out. Maintenance is done by self-employed gravekeepers, who receive funds from the families of those interred; the gravekeepers do not attend to the graves of families who do not pay them. Although the cemetery is devoid of visitors, during Ramadhan, the cemetery is filled with pilgrims and families visiting the dead. In 2009 the government of Jakarta began the plakatisasi program to ensure the graves in Karet Bivak followed the rules for gravestones as outlined by a 2007 bylaw.
By September 2009 the government had replaced 2,000 graves with plain gray tombstones and grassy mounds. The head of the Jakarta Parks and Cemetery Agency, Ery Basworo, noted that the program was to improve water retention in the city and to eliminate the “spooky” perception of cemeteries. Although the government stated that families were notified, some families of those interred were not; the mass-produced new gravestones at times misspelled the names of the interred. Benyamin Sueb and singer Bing Slamet, comedian and songwriter Chairil Anwar, poet Chairul Saleh, politician Fatmawati, wife of Sukarno and National Hero of Indonesia HIM Damsyik and actor Hadi Thayeb, diplomat and co-founder of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Iwan Tirta, batik fashion designer Lies Noor, actress Prince Jayakarta, colonial prince of what is now Jakarta Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin and National Hero of Indonesia Footnotes Bibliography
Automobile repair shop
An automobile repair shop is an establishment where automobiles are repaired by auto mechanics and technicians. Automotive garages and repair shops can be divided into following categories: The auto parts stores or motor-factors that maintain service operations; this is not common in the United Kingdom but more common in the US. Automobile repair workshops that are independently operated businesses; these may include regional or national chains and franchises including OEM car dealership sites. In the United States, these sites are certified by their respective manufacturer to perform warranty and recall repairs by that manufacturer or distributor. Independent automobile repair shops in the US may achieve certification through manufacturer sponsored programs. European Union law permits motorists more flexibility in selecting. Maintenance and service work does not have to be done by the main dealer providing the garage uses Original Equipment'Matching Quality' parts follows the manufacturer's service schedules.
The Block Exemption Regulation covers service and maintenance during the warranty period and prohibits vehicle manufacturers’ warranties from including restrictive conditions. Specialty automobile repair shops are shops specializing in certain parts such as brakes and exhaust systems, body parts, automobile electrification, automotive air conditioner repairs, automotive glass repairs and installation, wheel alignment or those who only work on certain brands of vehicle or vehicles from certain continents of the world. There are automotive repair shops that specialize in vehicle modifications and customization. Oftentimes, various specialized auto repair shops will have varied infrastructure and facilities, as well as technicians and mechanics with different qualifications. Online automobile repair shops providing doorstep repair services and home delivery of new and used auto parts of different late model and classic cars whose parts are not available in the market. In countries such as the UK, the mobile car body repair sectors has experienced high growth by way of mobile SMART Repair companies providing mobile car body repair services, such as Bumper Repairs, auto body repair, paintless dent repair and paintwork defect repairs to private and commercial consumers within the industry framework of refinishing vehicle damage on a localised basis, where the area of damage being repaired is not in excess of an A4 sheet of paper.
Some repair shops offer both bodywork repair. Automotive repair shops that specialize in bodywork repair are known as body shops, they offer paintwork repairs to scratches and dents, as well as repairs to the bodies of vehicles damaged by collisions. Many body shops now offer paintless dent repair. Other repair shops offer auto glass repair. Automotive repair shops that specialize in auto glass repair are known as auto glass repair shops, they offer auto glass repairs to chips and shattered glass. The types of glass they repair include car windows, quarter glass and rear windows; this type of damage is caused by hail, wild animals, fallen trees, automobile theft and vandalism. Automotive Service Excellence Breakdown Preventive maintenance Reliability centered maintenance Service Labor Time Standards
Indonesian National Revolution
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949; the four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch military forces were able to control the major towns and industrial assets in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra but could not control the countryside. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that it recognised Indonesian independence; the revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for Netherlands New Guinea. It significantly changed ethnic castes as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers.
It did not improve the economic or political fortune of the majority of the population, although a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce. The Indonesian independence movement began in May 1908, commemorated as the "Day of National Awakening". Indonesian nationalism and movements supporting independence from Dutch colonialism, such as Budi Utomo, the Indonesian National Party, Sarekat Islam and the Indonesian Communist Party, grew in the first half of the 20th century. Budi Utomo, Sarekat Islam and others pursued strategies of co-operation by joining the Dutch initiated Volksraad in the hope that Indonesia would be granted self-rule. Others chose a non-cooperative strategy demanding the freedom of self-government from the Dutch East Indies colony; the most notable of these leaders were Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, two students and nationalist leaders who had benefited from the educational reforms of the Dutch Ethical Policy. The occupation of Indonesia by Japan for three and a half years during World War II was a crucial factor in the subsequent revolution.
The Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, within only three months of their initial attacks, the Japanese had occupied the Dutch East Indies. In Java, to a lesser extent in Sumatra, the Japanese spread and encouraged nationalist sentiment. Although this was done more for Japanese political advantage than from altruistic support of Indonesian independence, this support created new Indonesian institutions and elevated political leaders such as Sukarno. Just as for the subsequent revolution, the Japanese destroyed and replaced much of the Dutch-created economic and political infrastructure. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, but no date was set. For supporters of Sukarno, this announcement was seen as vindication for his collaboration with the Japanese. Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda groups and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence, on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific.
The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee elected Sukarno as President, Hatta as Vice-President. PROCLAMATION We, the people of Indonesia, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters which concern the transfer of power etc. will be executed by careful means and in the shortest possible time. Djakarta, 17 August 1945 In the name of the people of Indonesia, Soekarno—Hatta It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it; as the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, a mood of revolution swept across the country. External power had shifted; these strikes were only broken in July 1946. The Japanese, on the other hand, were required by the terms of the surrender to both lay down their arms and maintain order; the resulting power vacuums in the weeks following the Japanese surrender, created an atmosphere of uncertainty, but one of opportunity for the Republicans.
Many pemuda joined pro-Republic struggle groups. The most disciplined were disbanded Giyugun and Heiho groups. Many groups were undisciplined, due to both the circumstances of their formation and what they perceived as revolutionary spirit. In the first weeks, Japanese troops withdrew from urban areas to avoid confrontations. By September 1945, control of major infrastructure installations, including railway stations and trams in Java's largest cities, had been taken over by Republican pemuda who encountered little Japanese resistance. To spread the revolutionary message, pemuda set up their own radio stations and newspapers, graffiti proclaimed the nationalist sentiment. On most islands, struggle committees and militia were set up. Republican newspa