Isopropyl alcohol is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. As an isopropyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms, it is a structural isomer of ethyl methyl ether. It is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of industrial and household chemicals, is a common ingredient in chemicals such as antiseptics and detergents. Isopropyl alcohol is known as 2-propanol, sec-propyl alcohol, IPA, or isopropanol. IUPAC considers isopropanol an incorrect name. Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol and chloroform, it dissolves ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids and natural resins. Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride; the process is colloquially called salting out, causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer.
Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C and a composition of 87.7 wt% isopropyl alcohol. Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points, it has a bitter taste, is not safe to drink. Isopropyl alcohol becomes viscous with decreasing temperature and freezes at −89 °C. Isopropyl alcohol has a maximum absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum. Isopropyl alcohol can be oxidized to acetone, the corresponding ketone; this can be achieved using oxidizing agents such as chromic acid, or by dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol over a heated copper catalyst: 2CHOH → 2CO + H2Isopropyl alcohol is used as both solvent and hydride source in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction and other transfer hydrogenation reactions. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to 2-bromopropane using phosphorus tribromide, or dehydrated to propene by heating with sulfuric acid. Like most alcohols, isopropyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides that can be called isopropoxides.
The reaction with aluminium is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide. In 1920, Standard Oil first produced isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene, its major use at the time was not rubbing alcohol but for oxidation to acetone, whose first major use was in World War I for the preparation of cordite, a smokeless, low explosive propellant. In 1994, 1.5 million tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were produced in the United States and Japan. It is produced by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction or by hydrogenating acetone. There are two routes for the hydration process and both processes require that the isopropyl alcohol be separated from water and other by-products by distillation. Isopropyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope and simple distillation gives a material, 87.9% by weight isopropyl alcohol and 12.1% by weight water. Pure isopropyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the wet isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexane as azeotroping agents.
Indirect hydration reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. This process can use low-quality propene, is predominant in the USA; these processes give isopropyl alcohol rather than 1-propanol, because adding water or sulfuric acid to propene follows Markovnikov's rule. Subsequent hydrolysis of these esters by steam produces isopropyl alcohol, by distillation. Diisopropyl ether is a significant by-product of this process. Direct hydration reacts propene and water, either in gas phase or in liquid phase, at high pressures in the presence of solid or supported acidic catalysts; this type of process requires higher-purity propylene. Direct hydration is more used in Europe. Crude acetone is hydrogenated in the liquid phase over Raney nickel or a mixture of copper and chromium oxide to give isopropyl alcohol; this process is useful, when it is coupled with excess acetone production, such as the cumene process. In 1990, 45,000 metric tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were used in the United States as a solvent for coatings or for industrial processes.
In that year, 5400 metric tons were used in personal care products. Isopropyl alcohol is popular in particular for pharmaceutical applications, due to its low toxicity; some isopropyl alcohol is used as a chemical intermediate. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to acetone, it is used as a gasoline additive. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds, it evaporates leaves nearly zero oil traces, compared to ethanol, is non-toxic, compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid for dissolving oils. Together with ethanol, n-butanol, methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents, about 6.4 million tonnes of which were used worldwide in 2011. Isopropyl alcohol is used for cleaning eyeglasses, electrical contacts, audio or video tape heads, DVD and other optical disc lenses, removing thermal paste from heatsinks on CPUs and other IC packages, etc. Isopropyl alcohol is esterified to give isopropyl acetate, it reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to give sodium isopropylxanthate, a herbicide and an ore flotation reagent.
Isopropyl alcohol reacts with titanium te
SS Clearton was a 5,219 gross register tons British cargo steamship. She was built in 1919 by Richardson and Company, Stockton-on-Tees for the shipping firm of R. Chapman & Son, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, her homeport was Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In the Second World War she sailed in convoys, her last convoy, SL-36, took her from Rosario, Argentina to Manchester, via Freetown, Sierra Leone, where she arrived on 15 June 1940. She was carrying a cargo of 7,320 tons of cereals, commanded by John Edward Elsdon. At 1155 hours on 1 July 1940 German submarine U-102 torpedoed and damaged Clearton about 180 miles west of Ushant; the ship fell behind the convoy and at 1325 hours U-102 torpedoed her again, sinking her 042° 240 miles from Smalls. Eight crew members were lost out of a total complement of 34; the Admiralty-modified W-class destroyer HMS Vansittart sank the submarine, rescued Clearton's Master, 24 crew members and one DEMS gunner, brought the survivors to Plymouth. "SS Clearton at Uboat.net"
Mansewood is a residential district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde and is surrounded by the districts of Eastwood, Pollokshaws in Glasgow, Thornliebank and Giffnock in East Renfrewshire. Mansewood is located on the summit and slopes of a boulder clay drumlin lying NE to SW and rises 63 metres above sea level. Mansewood was Church or'Glebe' land belonging to nearby Eastwood Parish Church; the name is derived from ` Manse' and ` Wood' referring to the trees. In 1871, the Reverend George Campbell, Minister of Eastwood Parish, submitted an application to feu the land to developers. Soon after, the building of houses began; the first houses in Mansewood were constructed from 1880 onwards from blonde sandstone in plots located in the triangle formed by Statute Labour Road, Bemersyde Avenue and Turnpike Road leading from Glasgow by Pollokshaws to Stewarton. The original residents were employed in a wide variety of trades such as wine merchant, bleach works manager, ship owner, fancy box maker and Minister.
The fields on which Hillpark Secondary School now stands were known colloquially as the'Kirkie'. Before the school was built, the land was part farmed and grazed as well as being the site of Hillhead house. Hillhead house appears on Roy's map of Scotland, 1747 and stood where the grocers shop is located on Hillpark Drive. In the Renfrewshire OS Name Books, 1856-1857, Hillhead House is described as "An excellent dwelling house surmounted by a square tower & having a fine appearance as seen from any point of view & owing to its elevated position it can be seen from any part of the Parish; the house was built by Sir John Maxwell for his own use but is now occupied by Mr William Colledge Factor to the Pollok Estate." Hillhead West lodge house stood at the Mansewood Road entrance to the school. The'Kirkie' and ruins of Hillhead House were photographed in May 1950 from an RAF aerial reconnaissance plane and can be viewed at http://www.theglasgowstory.com/images/TGSE00507.jpg. The'Kirkie' is the area of fields in the South West of the photograph.
Hillhead House and gardens is on the east of this area. There was a farm located at what is now the corner of Mansewood Road and Burnfield Road known as Henryscroft Farm. Older residents remember the farmer driving his cows to and from the fields in the morning and evening and seeing the farmer plough his fields by horse; the main depot of the Postal Service for the postcodes G43-G46 is based on Burnfield Rd in Mansewood. There is a Mini car dealership next door, a Morrisons supermarket and several local shops and other businesses along Burnfield Rd. Famous past residents in the area include Kai Johansen, of Rangers FC, Scottish Screen Amateur Filmmaker Harry Birrell, as well as Michelle Mone, founder of international lingerie brand, Ultimo
William Morris Leiserson was a notable labor relations scholar and mediator. Leiserson the twentieth century's most influential labor mediator during the rise of labor unions and collective bargaining in the United States, was a professor and federal government administrator, arbitrator, a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s "brain trust" which developed and wrote legislation such as the Railway Labor Act of 1934. Born in 1883, in Reval, Tsarist Russia, William Morris Leiserson came to the United States at the age of seven with his mother and two brothers; as a student at the University of Wisconsin, he studied under Professor John R. Commons, whose life and work inspired Leiserson to pursue the fields of economics and labor relations. After graduation, he continued at Columbia University where he earned his Ph. D. under Henry Rogers Seager in 1911. Leiserson began a distinguished career as a research scholar and public administrator, marked by four decades of high level service in an era of profound economic and cultural change.
Shortly after receiving his Ph. D. he returned to Wisconsin where he originated the State Employment Service. Returning to academia, he held professorships at the University of Antioch College, his U. S. government service included Chief of the Labor Administration Division of the United States Department of Labor, Secretary of the National Labor Board of the National Recovery Administration and member of the National Labor Relations Board. The NLRB was the administrative arm of the Wagner Act, seminal legislation that guaranteed the right of workers to bargain collectively. Leiserson's favorite government position was chairman of the National Mediation Board; this organization became the U. S. government's administrative arm for implementing the Railway Labor Act, which Leiserson was instrumental in writing for the U. S. Congress; the Act was amended to include the airline industry. This seminal, legislation provided thorough, effective procedures for solving labor-management disputes among transportation workers and industries providing essential services to the U.
S. economy. To this day the legislation provides a prototype for resolving disputes that involve essential services. Most of the foregoing positions were appointments by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II. After leaving government service, he retired and returned to research and teaching at Johns Hopkins University. Leiserson died in 1957 at the age of 74. While he devoted much scholarly and research effort to increasing the government's awareness of the status and needs of the wage earner, Leiserson understood well the role of the mediator and the art of balancing the interests of labor and management in industrial disputes. Leiserson was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by Oberlin College, June 24, 1947. William Morris Leiserson at Find a Grave
Eduardo Afonso Viana was a Portuguese painter. He was one of the members of the first modern generation in Portuguese painting, like Amadeo de Souza Cardoso and Almada Negreiros, he was more conservative in his approach to modern painting. The best examples of his assimilation of the modern styles in his work appears in the paintings he did in 1916, due to the influence of both Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay, who he befriended during their presence in Portugal, he latter followed. He's represented in some of the best Portuguese museums, like Chiado Museum, in Lisbon, the National Museum Soares dos Reis, in Porto. From 1905 Eduardo Afonso Viana studied in Paris with Jean-Paul Laurens. During this time, he painted natural landscapes; when World War I broke out he returned to Lisbon with his friend Amadeo de Souza Cardoso and other fellow Portuguese. He spent 1915-16 working with the Orphist painters Sonia Delaunay in Vila do Conde, he was fascinated by their experiments in simultaneity. Viana's painting were a mirror of the life of his country.
One of the best examples of this motif is his 1916 painting'In Revolt', in which he showed Portuguese life through colorful arcs. But Viana was fond of Nature, he had a strong attachment to naturalism. In 1917, he painting'K4: The Blue Square', considered a homage to Portuguese modernism, was inspired by the book of the same name by Almada Negreiros and was dedicated to Amadeo
The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are a member of the Eastern Division of Major League Baseball's National League; the team has played under two names since beginning play in 1883: the current moniker, as well as the "Quakers", used in conjunction with "Phillies" during the team's early history. The team was known unofficially as the "Blue Jays" during the World War II era. Since the franchise's inception, 2,006 players have made an appearance in a competitive game for the team, whether as an offensive player or a defensive player. Of those 2,006 Phillies, 58 have had surnames beginning with the letter T, 6 have had names beginning with U, 24 have had surnames beginning with the letter V. One player, Sam Thompson, has been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; the Hall of Fame lists the Phillies as Thompson's primary team, he is a member of the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame, as are second baseman Tony Taylor. In addition to three tenures as a player, Vukovich was a coach and team advisor from 1983 to 2004.
Among the 54 batters in this list, Tuck Turner has the best batting average. Other players with an average above.300 include Thompson, Cotton Tierney, Andy Tracy. Chase Utley leads all players on this list with 188 home runs, Thompson's 963 runs batted in are best. In home runs, Jim Thome and Shane Victorino lead all players with surnames starting with T and V, with 96 and 79, respectively. Of this list's 34 pitchers, Bobby Thigpen has the best win–loss record, in terms of winning percentage. Jack Taylor leads this list with 96 victories and 77 defeats, Wayne Twitchell has the most strikeouts, with 573. Erskine Thomason's 0.00 earned. Among pitchers whose surnames begin with U, Tom Underwood has the best win–loss record, in terms of winning percentage. Underwood's 28 victories are the best among pitchers on this list whose names begin with U. Dutch Ulrich has the most defeats among pitchers whose surnames start with U, with 27 in three seasons. Underwood has best among the U-named pitchers. Al Verdel has the best earned run average among pitchers whose surnames start with V.
Ulrich's 3.48 ERA leads the pitchers whose surnames begin with U. KeyH The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum determines which cap a player wears on their plaque, signifying "the team with which he made his most indelible mark"; the Hall of Fame considers the player's wishes in making their decision, but the Hall makes the final decision as "it is important that the logo be emblematic of the historical accomplishments of that player's career". P Players are listed at a position if they appeared in 30% of their games or more during their Phillies career, as defined by Baseball-Reference.com. Additional positions may be shown on the Baseball-Reference website by following each player's citation. R Franchise batting and pitching leaders are drawn from Baseball-Reference.com. A total of 1,500 plate appearances are needed to qualify for batting records, 500 innings pitched or 50 decisions are required to qualify for pitching records. S Statistics are correct as of the end of the 2010 Major League Baseball season.
Tablea Turkey Tyson is listed by Baseball-Reference without a position. B Fred Van Dusen is listed by Baseball-Reference without a position. General"Philadelphia Phillies Player Career Batting Register". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 21, 2010. "Philadelphia Phillies Player Career Pitching Register". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 21, 2010. Inline citations