Israel, formally known as the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and Mandatory Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, has the 31st or 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product, is the richest and the most developed country in conflict, it has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy and happiness. Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led
The Spiritualist Association of Great Britain is a British spiritualist organisation. It was established in 1872; the SAGB grew out of the Marylebone Spiritualist Association. The story of the association's early struggles "to propagate spiritual truths in the Marylebone area of London" is told in an SAGB publication, "One Hundred Years of Spiritualism", which states that Queen Victoria held several séances after the death of the Prince Consort. A famous and outspoken supporter of the SAGB was Arthur Conan Doyle, who in years "often expressed a wish that he should be remembered for his psychic work rather than for his novels". Serving the principles of the Spiritualist movement, open to members and non-members alike, the SAGB offers rooms where the public, whether Spiritualist or not, may sit for readings with spirit mediums. Sunday services include a public Demonstration of mediumship. Private 30-minute sittings are available daily during opening hours for a fee, they may be recorded. The nature of the sittings is limited by a policy which states that the mediums are "to try to provide evidence of survival and not to predict the future."The library of the SAGB was named after the spiritualist William Crookes.
The SAGB's current headquarters is at the Victoria Charity Centre at London. As an organization, the SAGB describes their goals as: To offer evidence to the bereaved that man survives the change called death and, because he is a spiritual being, retains the faculties of individuality and intelligence, can willingly return to those left on earth, ties of love and friendship being the motivating force. To offer spiritual healing to those suffering from dis-ease, whether in mind, body or spirit, in a warm and loving environment. With both of these objectives in mind, to offer only the best and highest so that those on both sides of the veil can progress in a spiritual sense; the SAGB and its mediums abide by the following seven principles of belief: That there is an Infinite Intelligence, Who governs all That personal identity and all sentient forms of life survive physical death That continuous existence and eternal progress occur for all in the Hereafter That there is communion with the spiritual realms That all of humanity is spiritually linked That in the Hereafter, all must account for their actions on earth and will judge themselves accordingly That all are responsible for the way they conduct their earthly lives.
Emma Hardinge Britten Doris Collins Lord Dowding Arthur Conan Doyle Thomas Everitt James Manby Gully G. Wilson Knight Florence Marryat Estelle Roberts W. T. Stead Ena Twigg The SAGB historic headquarters at 33 Belgrave Square was sold in 2010 for 6 million pounds, it relocated to a new home in the Victoria Charity Centre at 11 Belgrave Road, near Victoria Station. In 2013, the Charity Commission for England and Wales launched an investigation in to the sale of the property, after discovering that the subsequent owners sold the property for 21 million pounds shortly after purchasing it from the SAGB; the Committee published a report of its findings on 30 March 2017. The Commission's report concluded SAGB's trustees had failed to fulfil their legal duties and responsibilities towards the charity, that ‘the failures and breaches were not minor or technical in nature’ but ‘amount to basic and serious mismanagement’; the charity responded to the Commission's report claiming that they "could not have foreseen what would happen in future" regarding property prices.
Looking Glass Township is one of fifteen townships in Clinton County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,354 and it contained 2,439 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 50.71 square miles, of which 50.42 square miles is land and 0.29 square miles is water. Albers Damiansville New Baden New Memphis New Memphis Station Wertenberg The township contains these four cemeteries: Green Mount, New Baden and Saint Bernard. Interstate 64 Illinois Route 160 Illinois Route 161 Illinois Route 177 Fischers RLA Airport Kaskaskia River Broeckling Lake Cooper Lake Little Cooper Lake Long Lake Muskrat Lake Queens Lake Wesclin Community Unit School District 3 Illinois' 15th congressional district State House District 108 State Senate District 54 "Looking Glass Township, Clinton County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-10. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives