Pos Indonesia is the state-owned company responsible for providing postal service in Indonesia. It now operates 11 regional divisions. Postal service in colonial Dutch East Indies was provided by the Post- Telegraaf- en Telefoondienst, established in 1906. On 27 September 1945, following the proclamation of Indonesia's independence, the central PTT office in Bandung was seized from occupying Japanese forces, it became a state-owned company in 1961 and split in 1965 to form two separate companies, one providing telecommunication services and the other mail and giro. The new mail services company was reorganised in 1978. A government decree came into effect on 6 June 1995 to create the current Pos Indonesia. Pos Indonesia operates in 11 regional divisions across the country, each covering multiple provinces; each region operates several hundred inner city, outer city, remote locations. There are 3,700 post offices nationwide with 3,190 post offices providing money transfer services in co-operation with Western Union.
Region I: Aceh, North Sumatra Region II: Riau, Riau Islands, West Sumatra Region III: Bengkulu, South Sumatra, Bangka–Belitung Islands, Lampung Region IV: Banten, West Java Region V: Banten, West Java Region VI: Central Java, Yogyakarta Region VII: East Java Region VIII: Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara Region IX: West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan Region X: North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi Region XI: North Maluku, West Papua, Papua Postal codes in Indonesia Point of Sale Malware Cyber security standards List of cyber attack threat trends Cyber electronic warfare Malware Point of Sale System Notes BibliographyKartajaya, Hermawan. Pos Indonesia official website EMS Pos Indonesia official website
A courier is a company that delivers messages, packages, or mail. Couriers are distinguished from ordinary mail services by features such as speed, tracking, signature and individualization of express services, swift delivery times, which are optional for most everyday mail services; as a premium service, couriers are more expensive than standard mail services, their use is limited to packages where one or more of these features are considered important enough to warrant the cost. Courier services operate on all scales, from within specific towns or cities, to regional and global services. Large courier companies include DHL, DTDC, FedEx, EMS International, TNT, UPS, India Post and Aramex; these offer services worldwide via a hub and spoke model. In ancient history, messages were hand-delivered using a variety of methods, including runners, homing pigeons and riders on horseback. Before the introduction of mechanized courier services, foot messengers physically ran miles to their destinations.
Xenophon attributed the first use of couriers to the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger. Famously, the Ancient Greek courier Pheidippides is said to have run 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to bring the news of the Greek victory over the Persians in 490 BCE; the long-distance race known as a marathon is named for this run. Starting at the time of Augustus, the ancient Greeks and Romans made use of a class of horse and chariot-mounted couriers called anabasii to bring messages and commands long distances; the word anabasii comes from the Greek αναβασις. They were contemporary with the Greek hemeredromi. In Roman Britain, Rufinus made use of anabasii, as documented in Saint Jerome's memoirs: "Idcircone Cereales et Anabasii tui per diversas provincias cucurrerunt, ut laudes meas legerent?" In the Middle Ages, royal courts maintained their own messengers who were paid little more than common labourers. In cities, there are bicycle couriers or motorcycle couriers but for consignments requiring delivery over greater distance networks, this may include Trucks and aircraft.
Many companies who operate under a Just-In-Time or "JIT" inventory method use on-board couriers. On-board couriers are individuals who can travel at a moment's notice anywhere in the world via commercial airlines. While this type of service is the second costliest—general aviation charters are far more expensive—companies analyze the cost of service to engage an on-board courier versus the "cost" the company will realize should the product not arrive by a specified time. International courier services in China include TNT, EMS International, DHL, FedEx and UPS; these companies provide nominal worldwide service for both inbound and outbound shipments, connecting China to countries such as the USA, United Kingdom, New Zealand. Of the international courier services, the Dutch company TNT is considered to have the most capable local fluency and efficacy for third- and fourth- tiered cities. EMS International is a unit of China Post, as such is not available for shipments originating outside of China.
Domestic courier services include SF Express, YTO Express, E-EMS and many other operators of sometimes microscopic scales. E-EMS, is the special product of a co-operative arrangement between China Post and Alipay, the online payment unit of Alibaba Group, it is only available for the delivery of online purchases made using Alipay. Within the Municipality of Beijing, TongCheng KuaiDi a unit of China Post, provides intra-city service using cargo bicycles; the genus of the UK sameday courier market stems from the London Taxi companies but soon expanded into dedicated motorcycle despatch riders with the taxi companies setting up separate arms to their companies to cover the courier work. During the late 1970s small provincial and regional companies were popping up throughout the country. Today, there are many large companies offering next-day courier services, including DX Group, UKMail and UK divisions of worldwide couriers such as FedEx, DHL, UPS and TNT City Sprint. There are many'specialist' couriers for the transportation of items such as freight/palettes, sensitive documents and liquids.
The'Man & Van'/Freelance courier business model, is popular in the United Kingdom, with thousands upon thousands of independent couriers and localised companies, offering next-day and same day services. This is to be so popular because of the low business requirements and the lucrative number of items sent within the UK every day. However, since the dawn of the electronic age the way in which businesses use couriers has changed dramatically. Prior to email and the ability to create PDFs, documents represented a significant proportion of the business. However, over the past five years, documentation revenues have decreased by 50 percent. Customers are demanding more from their courier partners. Therefore, more organisations prefer to use the services of larger organisations who are able to provide more flexibility and levels of service, which has led to another level of courier company, regional couriers; this is a local company which has expanded to more than one office to cover an area. Some UK couriers offer next-day services to other European countries.
FedEx offers next-day air delivery to many EU countries. Cheaper'by-road' options are available, varying from two days' delivery
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Islam as the Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a small segment of a far longer ancient retaining wall, known in its entirety as the "Western Wall"; the wall was erected as part of the expansion of the Second Jewish Temple begun by Herod the Great, which resulted in the encasement of the natural, steep hill known to Jews and Christians as the Temple Mount, in a large rectangular structure topped by a huge flat platform, thus creating more space for the Temple itself and its auxiliary buildings. For Muslims, it is the site where the Islamic Prophet Muhammad tied his steed, al-Buraq, on his night journey to Jerusalem before ascending to paradise, constitutes the Western border of al-Haram al-Sharif; the Western Wall is considered holy due to its connection to the Temple Mount. Because of the Temple Mount entry restrictions, the Wall is the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray, though the holiest site in the Jewish faith lies behind it.
The original and irregular-shaped Temple Mount was extended to allow for an ever-larger Temple compound to be built at its top. This process was finalised by Herod, who enclosed the Mount with an rectangular set of retaining walls, built to support extensive substructures and earth fills needed to give the natural hill a geometrically regular shape. On top of this box-like structure Herod built a vast paved esplanade. Of the four retaining walls, the western one is considered to be closest to the former Temple, which makes it the most sacred site recognised by Judaism outside the former Temple Mount esplanade. Just over half the wall's total height, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, is believed to have been built around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, although recent excavations indicate that the work was not finished by the time Herod died in 4 BCE; the large stone blocks of the lower courses are Herodian, the courses of medium-sized stones above them were added during the Umayyad era, while the small stones of the uppermost courses are of more recent date from the Ottoman period.
The term Western Wall and its variations are used in a narrow sense for the section traditionally used by Jews for prayer. During the period of Christian Roman rule over Jerusalem, Jews were barred from Jerusalem except to attend Tisha be-Av, the day of national mourning for the Temples, on this day the Jews would weep at their holy places; the term "Wailing Wall" was thus exclusively used by Christians, was revived in the period of non-Jewish control between the establishment of British Rule in 1920 and the Six-Day War in 1967. The term "Wailing Wall" is not used by Jews, not by many others who consider it derogatory. In a broader sense, "Western Wall" can refer to the entire 488-metre-long retaining wall on the western side of the Temple Mount; the classic portion now faces a large plaza in the Jewish Quarter, near the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount, while the rest of the wall is concealed behind structures in the Muslim Quarter, with the small exception of a 25 ft section, the so-called Little Western Wall.
The segment of the Western retaining wall traditionally used for Jewish liturgy, known as the "Western Wall", derives its particular importance to it having never been obscured by medieval buildings, displaying much more of the original Herodian stonework than the "Little Western Wall". In religious terms, the "Little Western Wall" is presumed to be closer to the Holy of Holies and thus to the "presence of God", the underground Warren's Gate, out of reach since the 12th century more so. Whilst the wall was considered Muslim property as an integral part of the Haram esh-Sharif and waqf property of the Moroccan Quarter, a right of Jewish prayer and pilgrimage existed as part of the Status Quo; the earliest source mentioning this specific site as a place of worship is from the 16th century. The previous sites used by Jews for mourning the destruction of the Temple, during periods when access to the city was prohibited to them, lay to the east, on the Mount of Olives and in the Kidron Valley below it.
From the mid-19th century onwards, attempts to purchase rights to the wall and its immediate area were made by various Jews, but none was successful. With the rise of the Zionist movement in the early 20th century, the wall became a source of friction between the Jewish and Muslim communities, the latter being worried that the wall could be used to further Jewish claims to the Temple Mount and thus Jerusalem. During this period outbreaks of violence at the foot of the wall became commonplace, with a deadly riot in 1929 in which 133 Jews were killed and 339 injured. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Eastern portion of Jerusalem was occupied by Jordan. Under Jordanian control Jews were expelled from the Old City including the Jewish quarter, Jews were barred from entering the Old City for 19 years banning Jewish prayer at the site of the Western Wall; this period ended on June 10, 1967, when Israel gained control of the site following the Six-Day War. Three days after establishing control over the Western Wall site the Moroccan Quarter was bulldozed by Israeli authorities to create space for what is now the Western Wall plaza.
Early Jewish texts referred to a "western wall of the Temple", but there is doubt whether the texts were referring to the outer, retaining wall called today "the Western Wal
HayPost CJSC is the official national postal operator of Armenia which provides postal and retail services. Haypost operates through 900 postal offices across Armenia, from urban to the most remote rural regions. Official website
Postal savings system
Postal savings systems provide depositors who do not have access to banks a safe and convenient method to save money. Many nations have operated banking systems involving post offices to promote saving money among the poor. In 1861, Great Britain became the first nation to offer such an arrangement, it was supported by Sir Rowland Hill, who advocated the penny post, William Ewart Gladstone Chancellor of the Exchequer, who saw it as a cheap way to finance the public debt. At the time, banks were in the cities and catered to wealthy customers. Rural citizens and the poor had no choice but to keep their funds on their persons; the original Post Office Savings Bank was limited to deposits of £30 per year with a maximum balance of £150. Interest was paid at the rate of 2.5 percent per annum on whole pounds in the account. The limits were raised to a maximum of £500 per year in deposits with no limit on the total amount. Within five years of the system's establishment, there were over 600,000 accounts and £8.2 million on deposit.
By 1927, there were twelve million accounts—one in four Britons—with £283 million on deposit. The British system first offered. In 1880, it became a retail outlet for government bonds, in 1916 introduced war savings certificates, which were renamed National Savings Certificates in 1920. In 1956, it launched a lottery bond, the Premium Bond, which became its most popular savings certificate. Post Office Savings Bank became National Savings Bank in 1969 renamed National Savings and Investments, an agency of HM Treasury. While continuing to offer National Savings services, the General Post Office, created the National Giro in 1968. Many other countries adopted such systems soon afterwards. Japan established a postal savings system in 1875 and the Netherlands government started a systems in 1881 under the name Rijkspostspaarbank, this was followed by many other countries over the next 50 years; the part of the 20th century saw a reversal where these systems were abolished or privatized. In Austria, the Österreichische Post used to own the Österreichische Postsparkasse.
This financial institute was bought and merged by the BAWAG in 2005. Brazil instituted a postal banking system in 2002, where the national postal service formed a partnership with the largest private bank in the country to provide financial services at post offices; the current partnership is with Bank of Brazil. In Bulgaria, the postal banking system was a subsidiary of Bulgarian Posts until 1991, when Bulgarian Postbank was created. In the years that followed, Bulgarian Postbank was privatized and the relationship between post offices and bank offices became weaker. Postal banking services ceased to be available in post offices in 2011. Canada Post offered banking services via its Post Office Savings Bank, created by the Post Office Act in April 1868, less than a year following the nation's confederation. A century the Post Office Savings Bank was shut down in 1968-69. Since at least the early 2010s, postal banking has been discussed and studied periodically, with postal unions backing the idea.
In the People's Republic of China, the Postal Savings Bank of China was split from China Post in 2007 and established as a state-owned limited company. It continues to provide banking services at post offices. In Finland, Postisäästöpankki was founded in 1887. In 1970 its name was shortened to Postipankki. In 1998 it was changed to a commercial bank named Leonia Bank, it was merged with an insurance company to form Sampo Group, the bank was renamed Sampo Bank. It had a few own offices, but post offices performed its banking operations until 2000. In 2007, Sampo Bank was sold to the Danish Danske Bank. France's La Poste, similar to the UK's Post Office, offer banking services called "La Banque Postale". Deutsche Postbank has a postal banking system. Deutsche Postbank was a subsidiary of Deutsche Post until 2008, when 30% of Deutsche Post's shares were sold to Deutsche Bank. Postal banking services are still available at all branches of Deutsche Postbank. Greek Postal Savings Bank provided banking services from post offices until 2013 when it was replaced by New TT Hellenic Postbank a subsidiary of Eurobank Group.
In 1919 the Postal Savings Bank notes were issued under the decree of the Revolutionary Governing Council of the Hungarian Soviet Republic by the Magyar Postatakarékpénztár. India post, operated by Government of India, under Indian Postal services providing small savings banking and financial services, including National Savings Certificates. Postal savings in Indonesia began with the establishment of the Netherlands Indian Post Office Savings Bank in 1897. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, it was replaced by the Savings Office and savings were encouraged by the military administration to support the Greater East Asia War; the Savings Office became the Post Office Savings Bank again after independence, before renamed into the current State Savings Bank, or Bank Tabungan Negara in 1963. Between 1963 and 1968, it became the Fifth Unit of Bank Negara Indonesia during the single-bank system, made to support the guided democracy. BTN offers a savings plan that allows its users to deposit in post offices.
In Italy, the Postal savings system is run by the Italian postal service company. Poste italiane run this service along with Cassa Depositi e Prestiti. In I
Postage stamps and postal history of Israel
The postage stamps and postal history of Israel is a survey of the postage stamps issued by the state of Israel, its postal history, since independence was proclaimed on May 14, 1948. The first postage stamps were issued two days on May 16, 1948. Pre-1948 postal history is discussed in postal history of Palestine; the postal history of Israel builds upon the centuries-long development of postal services in Palestine. During the rule of the Mamluks, mounted mail service was operated in Deir al-Balah and other towns on the Cairo to Damascus route. During the Ottoman period, postal services relied upon Turkey's stamps. Foreign consulates set up the early post offices. During World War I, the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force occupied Palestine and demarcated stamps as "E. E. F." in 1918. During the British Mandate, postage stamps and services were provided by British authorities. At first using temporary stamps issued in February 1918 by the British Expeditionary Forces in Palestine, in February 1920 issuing permanent stamps bearing the imprint: "Palestine Eretz Israel."
From 1933 to 1948, mandate services included airmail stamps and, as an innovation, air letter cards. In April 1948, the British discontinued all postal services, post offices and operations were, in part, turned over to the Israeli government. In May 1948, as the British withdrew and postal services broke down, the provisional government issued overprints on Jewish National Fund stamps and ad hoc postage was created in Nahariya and Safed. Stamps have been issued by Israel Post, the Israeli postal operator, since Sunday, 16 May 1948, the first business day after Israel declared independence, Saturday being a day of rest; the first set of stamps was entitled Doar Ivri. The first set of definitive stamps included values of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 250, 500, 1000 mils; the stamps were printed by letterpress, perforated or as a rouletted variation, with Israel's emblematic "tabs" with marginalia about the stamp. Stamp booklets were issued for the 10, 15 and 20 mil stamps; the Doar Ivri stamps were designed by Otte Wallish using ancient coins from the First Jewish–Roman War and Bar Kokhba revolt.
Israeli stamps are trilingual, in Arabic and Hebrew, following the practice of the British Mandate of Palestine. Israel Post first issued postage due stamps, tête-bêche and gutter pairs in 1948, airmail stamps in 1950, service stamps, for government offices, in 1951 and provisional stamps in 1960; the tabs have gone through three unofficial phases. From 1948 to 1954, the tabs were written in Hebrew. From 1954 until 1967, the inscriptions were in Hebrew and French. Since 1967, the tabs are Hebrew and English. A tab is matched with the wrong stamp, as with two mix-ups on some Doar Ivri stamps. From the outset, Israel created its own commemorative cancellations, including a first day cancel for the new Doar Ivri on May 16, 1948, cancels for the Maccabiah Games and its major cities the same year. By 1960, more than 325 unique postmarks had been designed. Beginning with the Doar Ivri stamps, Israel has provided first day covers. For instance, on July 5, 1967, a first day cover featuring Moshe Dayan was issued from the new post office in Jerusalem, soon after the Six-Day War.
Israel has 64 post offices in 1950, expanding to 114 by 1960 and, after the Six-Day War, to 178 branches by 1970. In 1955, two settlements in the Negev began a red truck. By 1990, Israel ran 53 routes for 1,058 locations, including Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. Due to hyperinflation, in 1982 and 1984 Israel issued non-denominated stamps with an olive branch design; these stamps were said to be dreary yet convenient, insofar as they avoided the need for both the government and the customers to update their postage. During the 1990s, Israel experimented with vending machines for postal labels; the Klussendorf machines and their labels were withdrawn from service in 1999. Twenty-two colorful designs were issued, including 12 tourist sites and seven holiday season designs. Israel Post provides the Express Mail Service in cooperation with 143 other postal suthorities; the Israel Defense Forces provide mail services for the military. During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, for example, the IDF postal agency issued a series of postcards with cartoons to boost morale.
Postcards show an Israeli cartoon character looming over Damascus and fire raining down on Egyptian pyramids, "Judgment Day, pictured here." In its early years, Israel issued stamps picturing the Jewish holidays, Petah Tikva, the Negev, the Maccabiah Games, Independence bonds. Every year, Israel issues a festival series to commemorate Rosh Hashanah. In 1948, the festival series featured the "flying scrolls." In a self-reflective gesture, the postal authority issued a souvenir sheet commemorating its own first stamps. In 1952, Israel issued its first stamp honoring Chaim Weizmann. Other honorees of the 1950s included Theodor Herzl, Edmond de Rothschild, Albert Einstein, Sholem Aleichem, Hayim Nahman Bialik and Eliezer Ben-Yehuda; the first woman honored was Henrietta Szold, the first rabbi was the Baal Shem Tov, the first non-Jew was Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1998, Israel was the first country to honor Chiune Sugihara, who has since been honored on stamps from Gambia, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Stamps were issued in memory of two Arab leaders, King Hassan II of Morocco and King Huss
Givat Shaul (Hebrew: גבעת שאול, lit. is a neighborhood in western Jerusalem, Israel. The neighborhood is located at the western entrance to the city, east of the neighborhood of Har Nof and north of Kiryat Moshe. Givat Shaul stands 820 meters above sea level. Givat Shaul is named after the Rishon Lezion, Rabbi Yaakov Shaul Elyashar, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, not, as believed, for the biblical King Saul, whose capital was located on the hill Gibeah of Saul near Pisgat Ze'ev, on the way to Ramallah. Givat Shaul was established in 1906 on land purchased from the Arab villages of Deir Yassin and Lifta by a society headed by Rabbi Nissim Elyashar, Arieh Leib and Moshe Kopel Kantrovitz. Difficulties in registering the land delayed construction until 1919; the first residents were needy families who were given small plots to grow fresh produce, marketed in Jerusalem. These families Yemenite Jews, were joined by others from Meah Shearim and the Old City; the Ashkenazim built Beit Knesset HaPerushim.
In 1912, an embroidery and sewing workshop was opened with the help of a Jewish philanthropist, Rabbi Slutzkin. Other industries established in Givat Shaul were the Froumine biscuit factory, a factory for kerosene heaters that manufactured arms for the British army during the British Mandate of Palestine, a matza factory. In 1927, the Diskin Orphanage moved to Givat Shaul from the Old City; this building, designed by a local architect named Tabachnik, was home to 500 orphan boys. According to a census conducted in 1931 by the British Mandate authorities, Givat Shaul had a population of 966 inhabitants, in 152 inhabited houses. A long, dirt track separated Givat Shaul from a cluster of Arab villages, including Deir Yassin, with whom the Jews maintained good relations. In late 1946, the Haganah straightened and paved the dirt track in order to use it as a landing strip. During the Battle for Jerusalem in 1948, the Haganah flew in supplies, armaments and troops on this runway. After the war, this road became known as Kanfei Nesharim Street.
In January 1948, the leaders of Givat Shaul met with the mukhtar of Deir Yassin to work out a non-aggression pact: if armed militia entered Deir Yassin, the villagers would hang out laundry in a certain sequence or place lanterns in a particular location. In return, patrols from Givat Shaul guaranteed safe passage to Deir Yassin residents, in vehicles or on foot, passing through their neighborhood on the way to Jerusalem. Over time, Deir Yassin became a halfway site for Arab forces moving from Ein Karem and Malha to al-Qastal and Kolonia, which overlooked the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway. On 9 April 1948, Deir Yassin was attacked by Irgun and Lehi forces and between 100 and 110 villagers were killed during the fights or massacred afterward; the population that had not fled was expelled. The rumours about this massacre contributed to the trigger of the 1948 Palestinian exodusIn 1951, the abandoned buildings were used to house a therapeutic community of 300 patients called the Kfar Shaul Government Work Village for Mental Patients.
The majority of patients were Holocaust survivors. After 1948, the Givat Shaul industrial zone expanded with warehouses. Angel's Bakery moved to its present location here in 1958; the Angel brothers and co-CEOs Avraham and Danny, commissioned a Texas company to construct a 750-foot pipeline to convey flour directly from the mill to the silo to the bakery. Today this pipeline brings 120 tons of flour to the bakery daily; the invention opposed by the Jerusalem municipality for being above-ground, won the Kaplan Prize for distinction in productivity and efficiency. The bakery's landmark factory store opened in 1984. Berman's Bakery, founded in 1875 by Mrs. Kreshe Berman as a cottage industry in the Old City, moved to its present location down the road from Angel's in 1965. A new street, Beit Hadfus Street, was constructed to reach the new bakery; this new street was named "Street of the Printing Press" for the many printing establishments located here. These include two large book publishing houses, Keter Publishing House and Feldheim Publishers, which established its Israel branch in the 1960s.
Old City Press has operated here since 1969. Since the late 1980s, aging industrial plants have been replaced by housing projects in Givat Shaul Bet; the population consists of a mix of Religious Zionist Jews. The northernmost part of the neighborhood, directly above Highway 1, is Haredi, while residents of the southern part, bordering Kiryat Moshe, are Modern Orthodox Religious Zionists; the northern part of Givat Shaul is populated by Haredim, the main street is closed to traffic on Shabbat and Jewish holidays. Several major synagogues are located here, including the Pressburg Yeshiva and neighborhood synagogue, the Zupnik - Ner Yisroel synagogue, the ivy Yeshiva, Ner Moshe, headed by Rabbi Avraham Gurewitz and Rabbi Shalom Shechter; the population consists of a mix of Hasidic and Sephardi/Mizrahi Haredim, a small minority of National-Religious Jews. The rabbi of the Zupnik - Ner Yisroel synagogue is Avrohom Yitzchok Ulman, a senior member of the rabbinical high court, or Badatz, of the Edah HaChareidis.
Other important rabbis living in Givat Shaul are Rabbi Yehoshua Karlinsky, rabbi of the Beer Avrohom synagogue. In the southern part of Givat Shaul, the population predominantly consists of Modern Orthodox Jews, affiliating with Religious Zionism; this section borders Kiryat Moshe and is also referred to as such. Institutions in this area include the main synagogue of Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu, a major center of Sephardic Religious Zionis