Paul Brigham was an American Revolutionary soldier and Democratic-Republican politician. He was the first lieutenant governor of Vermont after that state was admitted to the Union in 1791, upon the death of Vermont's first governor Thomas Chittenden, served as governor for the last seven weeks of Chittenden's term. Brigham, son of Paul and Catherine Brigham, was born in January 1746, in Coventry in the Colony of Connecticut; the exact date of his birth varies from source to source. Some give his birthday as January 6, he married Lydia Sawyer on October 3, 1767, the couple had five children. Brigham served from January 1, 1777 to April 22, 1781 as a captain in the Connecticut Militia during the American Revolutionary War, he was a company commander of Continental troops under the command of General George Washington and wintered in Valley Forge during the winter of 1777. In the spring of 1782 Brigham and his family moved to Norwich, where he was a farmer and a land speculator, he served as high sheriff of Windsor County, for five years and as major general of the Vermont Militia.
He was chief judge of the county court for five years, was a presidential elector for Vermont in 1792. He was on the Governor's Council from 1792 to 1796. Brigham was annually elected lieutenant governor of Vermont for 16 consecutive years, from 1796 to 1813. After conclusion to the War of 1812, which gave life to the moribund Federalist Party all across New England for their opposition, Brigham was again lieutenant governor, this time from 1815 until 1820. Upon the death of Governor Thomas Chittenden, he served for a short time as the second Governor of Vermont from August 25 to October 16, 1797, when the new governor, Isaac Tichenor was sworn in. Brigham resumed his duties as lieutenant governor, he retired and returned to his home in Norwich in 1820. Brigham died in Norwich on June 16, 1824, he was interred at Fairview Cemetery in his hometown of Norwich. The journal of his army experiences was published as A Revolutionary Diary of Captain Paul Brigham, November 19, 1777 – September 4, 1778.
The obituary from the New-Hampshire Patriot, July 12, 1824, p. 3, reads: In Norwich, Vt. on the 15th ult. PAUL BRIGHAM, in the 79th year of his age. Extensively known, eulogy would add nothing to the right which the virtuous actions of a good man justly claim for the deceased. For four years he served as a Captain in the war for Independence. In all these offices he sustained the reputation of discharging their several duties to the satisfaction of his fellow citizens. Information from the Vermont Archives Political Graveyard A History of Norwich Vermont by M. E. Goddard & H. V. Partridge Inventory of the Paul Brigham Papers, Special Collections, University of Vermont Library Paul Brigham at Find a Grave National Governors Association
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi
Vermont House of Representatives
The Vermont House of Representatives is the lower house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Vermont. The House comprises 150 members, with each member representing around 4,100 citizens. Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits. Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836, it added a senate by constitutional amendment. The House meets in Representatives Hall at the Vermont State House in Montpelier; the Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the full House by Australian Ballot. If there is only one candidate, the election is held by voice vote. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker controls committee assignments and the flow of legislation. Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders and whips, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the chamber. There are three party caucuses in the Vermont House. Independent members of the House may choose to caucus with a none at all.
As of 2018, the Speaker was Democrat Mitzi Johnson of the Grand Isle-Chittenden District. The Majority Leader was Democrat Jill Krowinski of the Chittenden-6-3 District; the Republican Minority Leader was Republican Donald H. Turner of the Chittenden-9 District; the Progressive Minority Leader was Progressive Robin Chesnut-Tangerman of the Rutland-Bennington district. The Clerk of the House was William M. MaGill. ↑: Member was appointed Nearly all of the Governors of the state and most of its U. S. representatives and U. S. senators were first members of this house. Other prominent members include: Consuelo N. Bailey, first woman elected lieutenant governor in the United States Edna Beard, first woman to be elected to the Vermont House, the first elected to the Vermont Senate Francis William Billado, adjutant general of the Vermont National Guard Ray W. Collins, Boston Red Sox John Calvin Coolidge Sr. father of President Calvin Coolidge Donald E. Edwards, adjutant general of the Vermont National Guard Roger Enos, commander of the Vermont Militia during the American Revolution William H. Gilmore, adjutant general of the Vermont National Guard Lyman Enos Knapp, Governor of the District of Alaska Bruce M. Lawlor, major general in the Army National Guard and one of the creators of the Department of Homeland Security Trenor W. Park and philanthropist Alden Partridge, founder of Norwich University Lewis Samuel Partridge, adjutant general of the Vermont National Guard Edward H. Ripley, Union Army officer in the American Civil War and horse breeder James Watson Webb II, businessman and champion polo player William Seward Webb and philanthropist The house meets Tuesday through Friday during the session.
Vermont State House Vermont General Assembly Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives Vermont Senate Members of the Vermont House of Representatives, 2005–2006 session Members of the Vermont House of Representatives, 2007–2008 session Vermont Representative Districts, 2002–2012 Vermont General Assembly Speaker of the House
Rupert is a town in Bennington County, United States. The population was 714 at the 2010 census. Rupert is located in the northwest corner of Bennington County, bordered by Washington County, New York, to the west and Rutland County, Vermont, to the north; the town is situated in the Taconic Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.6 square miles, of which 44.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.08%, is water. The northern portion of the town is drained by the Mettawee River and Indian River, tributaries of Lake Champlain, while the rest of the town drains to the Batten Kill in New York and the Hudson River; the northeast corner of town is crossed following the Mettawee River. Vermont Route 153 runs north–south through the western part of the town before crossing into New York. Vermont Route 315 runs east–west through the center of the town, connecting to VT 30 in East Rupert and to VT 153 in Rupert proper; the town has the hamlets of West Rupert and North Rupert.
Many historians agree that Benning Wentworth, colonial governor of New Hampshire, gave Rupert its name, after Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Prince Rupert was a prominent figure in the English Civil War and afterwards. One of Rupert's first settlers was Reuben Harmon, a metalsmith, given the right to mint coins, called Vermont coppers, for the Republic of Vermont. Harmon's Mint is still standing today at Southwind Farm in North Rupert, the building was moved from the original site in East Rupert on a small stream known as Hagar's Brook. Rupert is the filming location for seasons; the iconic white country house, known as Carver House, is located near the center of town on the corner of Rupert Avenue and West Pawlett Road 43.25988°N 73.22325°W / 43.25988. Christopher Kimball, former Executive Producer and Host of Cook's Country, maintains a residence nearby. At the 2000 census, there were 704 people, 295 households and 205 families residing in the town; the population density was 15.8 per square mile.
There were 449 housing units at an average density of 10.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 0.14 % Native American and 0.14 % Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.99% of the population. There were 295 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or Civil Union, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.86. 22.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median household income was $36,429 and the median family income was $41,339.
Males had a median income of $27,500 compared with $21,797 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,480. About 2.7% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.4% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Frederick Buechner, American writer and theologian William H. Meyer, member of the United States House of Representatives. Israel Smith, member of the United States House of Representatives, member of the United States Senate and fourth Governor of Vermont. Christopher Kimball, American chef, editor and radio/TV personality. Sheldon Roberts, American semi conductor pioneer-member of the "traitorous eight" to form Fairchild Semiconductor One of the three founders of Teledyne corp. Media related to Rupert, Vermont at Wikimedia Commons
Israel A. Smith
Israel Alexander Smith was the fourth son of Joseph Smith III and a grandson of Joseph Smith Jr. the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Israel A. Smith succeeded his brother, Frederick M. Smith, as Prophet-President of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints on April 9, 1946. Smith was born in Plano, Illinois, on February 2, 1876, the third son and fourth child of Joseph Smith III and his second wife Bertha Madison. In 1881, he moved with his family to Lamoni, the site of a growing colony of Latter Day Saints of the Reorganization, he attended Graceland College from 1898 to 1900 and received a B. A. in law from Lincoln-Jefferson University of Hammond, Indiana. From 1911 to 1913 he served as a Republican in the Iowa House of Representatives. Smith's brother, became Prophet-President in 1914. Smith became a counselor in the Presiding Bishopric in 1920. In 1922, many believed that Smith would be called to fill a vacancy in the First Presidency, but Frederick instead called Floyd M. McDowell.
Frederick introduced the concept of "Supreme Directional Control" regarding authority over leadership and finances, which Israel opposed as contrary to the teachings of their father, Joseph Smith III. In 1925, Israel was released from the Presiding Bishopric. Meanwhile, Supreme Directional Control and other changes related to Frederick's leadership precipitated a schism. Many members including Otto Fetting renounced the Reorganization and joined with the Church of Christ. From 1929 to 1940, Israel served as the church's general secretary and in 1940, he was called to fill a vacancy as First Counselor in the First Presidency. Frederick designated Israel as his successor at this time. In 1946, upon Frederick's death, Israel became Prophet-President of the Church; the end of World War II, saw further expansion of the Church overseas. In 1950, Smith went on a Pacific tour, visiting members of the Church in Hawaii, New Zealand and Tahiti. In 1952, he toured branches of the Church in Europe. Smith died in a car accident on June 14, 1958, while driving north along U.
S. Highway 69 from Missouri, to Lamoni, Iowa. After his death, the First Presidency continued to function, composed of the two counselors W. Wallace Smith and F. Henry Edwards until a World Conference of the church confirmed W. Wallace Smith as his brother's successor that fall. Norma Derry Hiles, Gentle Monarch: The Presidency of Israel A. Smith, Herald House: 1991. Richard P. Howard, The Church Through the Years, Herald House: 1992
Suffield is a town in Hartford County, United States. It was once been within the boundaries of Massachusetts; the town is located in the Connecticut River Valley with the town of Enfield neighboring to the east. In 1900, 3,521 people lived in Suffield; the town center is a census-designated place listed as Suffield Depot in U. S. Census records. Bordering Massachusetts, Suffield is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts NECTA. Suffield is only 8 miles from Springfield, is more oriented toward it than toward Connecticut's capital of Hartford, which lies 16 miles to the south. Known as Southfield—pronounced "Suffield," on May 20, 1674, the committee for the settling of the town petitioned:...that the name of the place may be Suffield, it being the southernmost town that either at present is, or like to be in that Countrey, neere adjoining to the south border of our Patent in those parts. The petition was granted by the Massachusetts Bay court on June 8, 1674. Suffield was incorporated as a town in March 1682.
On early 17th and 18th century maps, Suffield was alternatively spelled as Suthfield. Suffield and the surrounding area were part of the Equivalent Lands compromise with Massachusetts in 1715–16. Suffield's native and adopted sons include The Rev. Ebenezer Gay, a renowned Congregational minister. S. Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Thanks to the town's early prominence and wealth, it boasts an astonishing collection of early New England architecture; the Kent family, for whom the town's library is named, originated in Gloucester and boasted relations to many prominent early New England families, including the Dwight family of Northampton, the Hooker family of Hartford, the Dudleys of Guilford and the Leavitts of Suffield. Descendants of Robert Olds, who arrived from Sherborne, Dorset, in 1667, include automotive pioneer Ransom Eli Olds, Copperhead Ohio politician Edson Baldwin Olds, his great-grandson USAAF General Robert Olds, his son, iconic USAF fighter pilot Robin Olds. Slavery was common throughout the Connecticut River Valley during the 18th century, the 1774 Census for the Colony of Connecticut listed 37 slaves in Suffield.
Throughout the Connecticut valley, wealthy merchants, tavern owners and town ministers owned slaves. When Major John Pynchon purchased from the Pequonnocks and Agawam tribes a six-mile tract of land, which he called Stoney Brooke Plantation, he first ordered the construction of a sawmill, used two of his slaves and Roco, for the construction. Suffield's third minister, Reverend Ebenezer Devotion, became minister in 1710, "sixteen years the town voted to give him £20 to purchase a slave. Reverend Ebenezer Gay, Devotion's successor, owned six slaves throughout his long term, 1742-1796. Reverend Ebenezer Gay Jr. manumitted the family three remaining slaves in 1812. They were Titus and Dinah. "Princess," a slave belonging to early Suffield settler, Lieut. Joshua Leavitt, died November 5, 1732; some of Leavitt's descendants became ardent abolitionists, including Joshua Leavitt and his cousin Roger Hooker Leavitt, who operated an Underground Railroad station in Charlemont, Massachusetts. One of the earliest graduates of the Yale Medical School was one of Suffield's earliest physicians.
Dr. Asaph Leavitt Bissell, born in 1791 at Hanover, New Hampshire, to parents from Suffield, attended Dartmouth College, graduated in the second class of the Yale Medical School. Bissell moved to Suffield. Bissell's saddlebags are today in the collection of the Yale Medical School's Historical Society. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.9 square miles, of which 42.3 square miles is land and 0.69 square miles, or 1.58%, is water. The town center has a total area of all of it land. Suffield is on the west bank of the Connecticut River, 8 miles south of the river's largest city, Massachusetts, 16 miles north of Connecticut's capital, Hartford. Two bridges span the river to the town of Enfield: the Amtrak/Springfield Terminal Railroad Bridge and the Enfield–Suffield Veterans Bridge; the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border, runs through the center of Suffield from south to north as West Suffield Mountain.
The 51-mile Metacomet Trail traverses the ridge. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,552 people, 4,660 households, 3,350 families residing in the town; the population density was 321.0 people per square mile. There were 4,853 housing units at an average density of 115.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 88.67% White, 6.95% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.03% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.25% of the population. There were 4,660 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U. S. states. The state capital is the least populous state capital in the United States; the most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory, now Vermont and was claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont.
The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. A group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War; the Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were sovereign states, given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants and Catholics make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion.
Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total. The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture; the state's climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product, it has been ranked 42nd as a state in. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Democratic governors. Voters have chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; the origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but comes from the French Les Monts Verts, meaning "the Green Mountains".
Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Mont Verd may have inspired Young. Another source points out the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason; the Green Mountains form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state, it is the only state. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is smaller than Haiti, it is the only landlocked state in New England, it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long, its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border; the width averages 60.5 miles. The state's geographic center is three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Canada. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state. Areas in Vermont a