Israeli new shekel

The Israeli new shekel known as the Israeli shekel, is the currency of Israel and is used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The new shekel is divided into 100 agora; the new shekel has been in use since 1 January 1986, when it replaced the hyperinflated old shekel at a ratio of 1000:1. The currency sign for the new shekel ⟨ ₪ ⟩ is a combination of the first Hebrew letters of the words shekel and ẖadash, it was known as the new Israeli shekel and the non-official abbreviation of NIS is still used domestically to denominate prices and appears on the Bank of Israel's web site. However, the official international currency code of the Israeli new shekel is ILS, as set by the International Organization for Standardization under ISO 4217; the origin of the name "shekel" is from the ancient biblical currency by the same name. Shekel is any of of currency in ancient Israel, it may have referred to a weight of barley. In ancient Israel, the shekel was known to be about 180 grains.

From the formation of the modern State of Israel on 14 May 1948 through 1952 banknotes continued to be issued by the Anglo-Palestine Bank as the Palestine pound, pegged to the British Pound. In 1952, the Anglo-Palestine Bank changed its name to Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael and the currency name became the Israeli pound; the Israeli pound was the currency of the State of Israel from June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980. From 1955, after the Bank of Israel was established and took over the duty of issuing banknotes, only the Hebrew name was used, along with the symbol "I£"; the pegging to the British Pound was abolished on 1 January 1954, in 1960, the sub-division of the Israeli pound was changed from 1000 prutot to 100 agorot. During the 1960s, a debate over the non-Hebrew name of the Israeli currency resulted in a law ordering the Minister of Finance to change the name pound into a Hebrew name, shekel; the law allowed the minister to decide on a proper date for the change.

The law did not come into effect until February 1980, when the Israeli government decided to change the monetary system and introduce the shekel at a rate of 1 shekel = I£10. The shekel, now known as the old shekel, was the currency of the State of Israel between 24 February 1980 and 31 December 1985. Both it and its predecessor the Israeli pound experienced frequent devaluations against foreign currencies during the 1960s and'70s; this trend culminated in the old shekel experiencing hyperinflation in the early 1980s. After inflation was contained as a result of the 1985 Economic Stabilization Plan, the new shekel was introduced, replacing the old shekel on 1 January 1986 at a rate of IS 1,000 to ₪1. Since the economic crisis of the 1980s and the subsequent introduction of the new shekel in 1985, the Bank of Israel and the government of Israel have maintained much more careful and conservative fiscal and monetary policies, have introduced various market-based economic reforms. In addition, the signing of free trade agreements helped the Israeli economy become more competitive, while heavy investment in its industrial and scientific base allowed the country to take advantage of opportunities associated with the rise of the global knowledge economy, thus increasing exports and opening new markets for its products and services.

As a result of these factors, inflation has been low and the country now maintains a positive balance of payments, with a current account surplus equivalent to about 3% of its GDP in 2010. Its currency has strengthened rising 20% in value relative to the US dollar in the 2000s decade, thereby reversing the trend of historical weakness the Israeli currency exhibited in the decades prior. Since 1 January 2003, the new shekel has been a convertible currency. Since 7 May 2006, new shekel derivative trading has been available on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange; this makes the new shekel one of only twenty or so world currencies for which there are available currency futures contracts in the foreign exchange market. It is a currency that can be exchanged by consumers in many parts of the world. On 26 May 2008, CLS Bank International announced that it would settle payment instructions in new shekels, making the currency convertible. In 1985, coins in denominations of 1 agora, 5 and 10 agorot and ₪½ and ₪1 were introduced.

In 1990, ₪5 coins were introduced, followed by ₪10 coins in 1995. Production of 1 agora pieces ceased in 1990, they were removed from circulation on 1 April 1991. A ₪2 coin was introduced on 9 December 2007; the 5 agorot coin, last minted in 2006, was removed from circulation on 1 January 2008. In April 2011, it was reported that new coins would be minted that would use less metal and thus lower costs. Counterfeiting would be harder; the Bank of Israel is considering dropping the word "new" on the planned coins series. If approved, this would be the first replacement of all coins since the introduction of the new shekel coins in September 1985; the coins are minted by the Korea Security Printing Corporation. Note that all dates on Israeli coins are given in the Hebrew calendar and are written in Hebrew numerals. Beginning on 4 September 1985. Banknotes are introduced in denominations of ₪5, ₪10, ₪50. An ₪1 note followed on 8 May 1986 and the ₪100 note issued in 19 August 1986. In 2 April 1988, the ₪20 note issued and the ₪20

Thomas Martyn (rugby league)

Thomas "Tommy" Martyn was an English professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1970s and 1980s. He played at representative level for Great Britain, at club level for Batley and Leigh, as a second-row, i.e. number 11 or 12, during the era of contested scrums. Tommy Martyn won caps for England while at Warrington in 1975 against Wales, in the 1975 Rugby League World Cup against France, Wales, in 1979 against Wales, France, while at Warrington was selected for Great Britain to go on the 1979 Great Britain Lions tour. Tommy Martyn played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in Warrington's 7-14 defeat by Widnes in the 1975 Challenge Cup Final during the 1974–75 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 10 May 1975, in front of a crowd of 85,998. Tommy Martyn played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, scored a try in Warrington's 26-10 victory over Wigan in the 1980 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1980–81 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens, on Saturday 4 October 1980, played left-second-row in Leigh's 8-3 victory over Widnes in the 1981 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1981–82 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 26 September 1981.

Tommy Martyn played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, in Warrington's 9-4 victory over Widnes in the 1977–78 Players No.6 Trophy Final during the 1977–78 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Saturday 28 January 1978, played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in the 14-16 defeat by Widnes in the 1978–79 John Player Trophy Final during the 1977–78 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Saturday 28 April 1979, played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, was man of the match in the 12-5 victory over Barrow in the 1980–81 John Player Trophy Final during the 1980–81 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 24 January 1981. Tommy Martyn played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, in Warrington's 15-12 victory over Australia at Wilderspool Stadium, Warrington on Wednesday 11 October 1978. Tommy Martyn is the father of the rugby league footballer Tommy Martyn, the younger brother of the Leigh and Great Britain rugby league second-row Mick Martyn. Warrington's World Cup heroes - Tommy Martyn Statistics at

Lady Melody (song)

"Lady Melody" is a 2009 song recorded by French singer-songwriter Tom Frager with his group Gwayav'. It is his debut single from his 2008 album Better Days; the promotional CD was sent to the radio in the first days of August and was much aired on radio, becoming a summer hit was released physically in early September 2009. The song achieved success in France where it reached number-one, both on the singles and digital charts for four and two weeks. On physical chart, it remained for 17 weeks in the top ten and 34 weeks in the top 100. However, the song was a relative failure in Switzerland. According to Frager, the song was aired on radio, he though the song would be popular. The song, composed in his room, is simple and is for everybody. Although the title is in English, lyrics are in French