Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fifth-largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. Under the name Constantinople it was the Ottoman capital until 1923; the capital was moved to Ankara and the city was renamed Istanbul. The city held the strategic position between the Mediterranean, it was on the historic Silk Road. It controlled rail networks between the Balkans and the Middle East, was the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. In 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara was chosen as the new Turkish capital, the city's name was changed to Istanbul; the city maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs. The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today.
Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city. Over 12 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination; the city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule. Although accurate, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is, as of 2009 considered by Turks to be "politically incorrect". By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks.
Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu; the name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks. This reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity; the importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first
Robert Boyle "Bobbi" Campbell Jr. was a public health nurse and an early United States AIDS activist. In September 1981, Campbell became the 16th person in San Francisco to be diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma, when, a proxy for an AIDS diagnosis, he was the first to come out publicly as a person with what came to be known as AIDS, writing a regular column in the San Francisco Sentinel, syndicated nationwide, describing his experiences and posting photos of his KS lesions to help other San Franciscans know what to look for, as well as helping write the first San Francisco safer sex manual. He became one of the leading activists co-founding People With AIDS San Francisco in 1982 and the following year, with HIV+ men from across the U. S. he co-wrote the Denver Principles, the defining manifesto of the People With AIDS Self-Empowerment Movement. Appearing on the cover of Newsweek and being interviewed on national news reports, Campbell raised the national profile of the AIDS crisis among heterosexuals and provided a recognizable face of the epidemic for affected communities.
He lobbied Margaret Heckler, Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Reagan administration over both practical issues and stigmatising medical practices affecting people with AIDS. He continued to campaign for LGBT+ rights, speaking outside the 1984 Democratic National Convention a month before his death from cryptosporidiosis. Born in Georgia in 1952 and raised in Tacoma, Bobbi Campbell earned a degree in nursing from the University of Washington and volunteered at The Seattle Counseling Services for Sexual Minorities, the first gay-run counseling service for gay people in the country, while being politically active in Seattle during the city's initial wave of gay liberation in the 1970s, he lived communally in Capitol Hill with other gay male activists at what was known informally as the "East John Street Gay Men's Collective", described by his former lover Tom Richards as "a notorious and famous house with colorful and smart people."Campbell moved from Seattle to San Francisco in 1975, getting a job in a hospital near The Castro and immersing himself in the political and social life of the community, which had become a center for the LGBT community over the previous few years.
By 1981, he had enrolled in a training program at University of California, San Francisco, to become an adult health nurse practitioner, with a view to focusing on healthcare in the gay and lesbian community. Starting with a case of shingles in February 1981, Bobbi Campbell suffered a succession of unusual illnesses, including leukopenia that summer. After hiking the Pinnacles National Monument with his boyfriend in September that year, he noticed on his feet lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma thought of as a rare cancer of elderly Jewish men but with alarming numbers of cases appearing in California and New York and now known to be associated with AIDS, he was formally diagnosed as having KS by dermatologist Marcus Conant on October 8, 1981. This would become Conant's first diagnosis of a patient with what would become known as AIDS. While the New York Native was printing several stories about the "gay cancer" beginning to make its way round the city, with detailed medical writing by Lawrence D. Mass, a gay physician and psychiatrist, the San Francisco gay press ignored the nascent epidemic.
Campbell's interest in educational outreach and professional interest in gay sexual health combined to inspire him to raise awareness himself. As a result, in October 1981, the same month he was diagnosed, Campbell put pictures of his KS lesions in the window of the Star Pharmacy at 498 Castro Street, urging men with similar lesions to seek medical attention. In doing so, he displayed San Francisco's first AIDS poster. After speaking with Randy Alfred, a friend and editor of the San Francisco Sentinel, Campbell agreed to write a column, "to demystify the AIDS story". In his first article, on December 10, 1981, he proclaimed himself to be the "KS Poster Boy", becoming the first person in the US to publicly disclose that he was suffering from "gay cancer", writing: The purpose of the poster boy is to raise interest and money in a particular cause, I do have aspirations of doing that regarding gay cancer. I'm writing. You do, too — Don't you? This article turned into a regular column in the Sentinel — and syndicated in newspapers serving the LGBT community nationwide — describing his experiences.
On January 10, 1982, Campbell was interviewed by Alfred for The Gay Life program on KSAN-FM, with doctors Marcus Conant and Paul Volberding. Campbell joined the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence at the time of the health crisis in early 1982; the Sisters were early awareness and fundraisers for the oncoming AIDS pandemic and continue to raise awareness of sexual health. In February 1982, on the invitation of Conant and Volberding and Dan Turner, who had just himself been diagnosed with KS, attended what turned out to be the founding meeting of the KS/AIDS Foundation, which became the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, of which Campbell served on the board. Campbell became involved with the Shanti Project (which moved from its original focus, supporting people with terminal cancer, to help provide emot
Marshall Benton Tymn is an editor and bibliographer of science fiction and fantasy. He received the Pilgrim Award in 1990, he was a founder of the Instructors of Science Fiction in Higher Education. A Directory of Science Fiction and Fantasy Publishing Houses and Book Dealers A Research Guide to Science Fiction Studies: An Annotated Checklist of Primary and Secondary Sources Index to Stories in Thematic Anthologies of Science Fiction The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy: 1972-1975 Recent Critical Studies on Fantasy Literature: An Annotated Checklist A Basic Reference Shelf for Science Fiction Teachers American Fantasy and Science Fiction: Toward a Bibliography of Works Published in the United States, 1948-1973 Fantasy Literature: A Core Collection and Reference Guide Horror Literature: A Core Collection and Reference Guide The Science Fiction Reference Book A Teacher's Guide to Science Fiction Survey of Science Fiction Literature: Biographical Supplement The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy: 1976-1979 The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Horror Literature: 1980 The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Horror Literature: 1981 The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Horror Literature: 1982 Science Fiction and Weird Fiction Magazines Science Fiction: A Teacher's Guide & Resource Book The Celebration of the Fantastic: Selected Papers from the Tenth Anniversary International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts Fantasy and Horror