Trams in Istanbul
The former capital of the Ottoman Empire was once served, on both its Asian and European sides, by a large network of trams in Istanbul. Its first-generation tram network first operated as a tram system. The original tram network closed in 1966. Trams returned in 1990, and a generation of modern tram service began service in 1992. In this modern era, Istanbul is served by three separate tramway systems, the Asian side has a heritage tramline, whereas the European side has both a heritage tramline and a modern tram system. Istanbul inaugurated horse trams in 1872 and these served the people of Istanbul until 1912, following this date, electric trams were put in place and they were the main means for urban public transport until 1966. Many additional tramlines were added over time, and the system reached its greatest extent in 1956 with 108 million passengers carried by 270 tram-cars on 56 tram lines, but starting from the mid-1950s, automobile traffic congestion in Istanbul increased rapidly.
Bus and taxi services grew rapidly over the period of time. The number of cars increased greatly, and many narrow streets. Tramcars were not modernized for many decades, and some of the 1911 electric cars were running in the 1960s. At that time, modern buses provided faster and smoother journeys, whereas the trams were slower, poor maintenance of tracks caused derailments and bumpy rides. Due to the rapid growth, reconstruction of Istanbuls infrastructure became urgent. The transport authority thought that slow tram transport sharing road space with fast bus transport would cause problems in trying to guarantee smoother city transportation. In sum, the tramway had little comfort and was slow because it was caught in the traffic jam caused by the cars, cars had to pass the tramway on the right, causing danger for the pedestrians boarding and alighting the tramway. Comparatively, electric trolleybuses had proved to be an alternative to trams in many countries. Due to all of these factors, the transport department decide to replace trams with trolleybuses in Istanbul, the uncontrolled increase in petrol-based vehicles like buses and private cars began to choke the streets of Istanbul.
For being situated mostly in Asia, Turkey suffered by many common to developing countries, including pollution, traffic jams, illegal migration, low literacy and increasing population. Increasing population led to the urbanization of Istanbul, which spawned increasing motor vehicles, increasing air and noise pollution
Pedestrian zones are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. Converting a street or an area to use is called pedestrianisation. However, pedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation, in some cases traffic in surrounding areas may increase, due to displacement rather than substitution of car traffic. Pedestrian zones have a variety of approaches to human-powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates, skateboards. Some have a ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic. Many Middle Eastern kasbahs have no wheeled traffic, but use donkey-driven or hand-driven carts for freight transport, the idea of separating pedestrians from wheeled traffic is an old one, dating back at least to the Renaissance. However, the earliest modern implementation of the idea in cities seems to date from about 1800, separated shopping arcades were constructed throughout Europe in the 19th century, precursors of modern shopping malls.
The first pedestrianisation of an existing street seems to have taken place around 1929 in Essen and this was in a very narrow shopping street that could not accommodate both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Two other German cities followed this model in the early 1930s, by 1955 twenty-one German cities had closed at least one street to traffic, although only four were true pedestrian streets, designed for the purpose. At this time pedestrianisation was not seen as a traffic restraint policy, pedestrianisation was common in the United States during the 1950s and 60s as downtown businesses attempted to compete with new suburban shopping malls. However, most of these initiatives were not successful in the long term, a car-free zone is different from a typical pedestrian zone, in that it implies a development largely predicated on modes of transport other than the car. A pedestrian zone may be more limited in scope, for example a single square or street being for pedestrians. A number of towns and cities in Europe have never allowed motor vehicles, archetypal examples are, which occupies many islands in a lagoon, divided by and accessed from canals.
The city has been car-free for more than three decades, motor traffic stops at the car park at the head of the viaduct from the mainland, and water transport or walking takes over from there. However, motor vehicles are allowed on the nearby Lido, mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state under the sovereignty of Greece, does not permit automobiles on its territory. Trucks and work-related vehicles only are in use there, the medieval city of Mdina in Malta does not allow automobiles past the city walls. It is known as the Silent City because of the absence of traffic in the city. Sark, an island in the English Channel, is a zone where only bicycles, carriages
Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the countrys economic and historic center. Istanbul is a city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side, the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around 14.7 million residents. Istanbul is one of the worlds most populous cities and ranks as the worlds 7th-largest city proper, founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as a capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine, the Latin. Overlooked for the new capital Ankara during the period, the city has since regained much of its prominence.
The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in, music and cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network, considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years, the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin.
He attempted to promote the name Nova Roma and its Greek version Νέα Ῥώμη Nea Romē, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect, even if not historically inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase εἰς τὴν Πόλιν and this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name Der Saadet meaning the gate to Prosperity in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first, a Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol plenty of Islam because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution, Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times when man created the first fires, metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of horses in concentrated areas made the cities the cesspools of pollution. The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply, king Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem. But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow and it was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.
London recorded one of the extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded view ability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem, reformers began to demand sewer systems, and clean water. In 1870, the conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. There were no toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called, in the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive. As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881, as historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as miracles of cleanliness. By the 1940s, automobile-caused smog was an issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country early in the 20th century.
Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of fallout from atomic warfare. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London and this prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956
A taxicab, known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice, Taxicab is a compound word formed from contractions of taximeter and cabriolet. Taximeter is an adaptation of the German word taxameter, which was itself a variant of the earlier German word, taxe is a German word meaning tax, charge, or scale of charges. The Medieval Latin word, means tax or charge, meter is from the Greek metron meaning measure. A cabriolet is a type of carriage, from the French word cabrioler, from Italian capriolare. Both instituted fast and reliable postal services across Europe, the taxicabs of Paris were equipped with the first meters beginning on March 9,1898. They were originally called taxamètres, renamed taximètres on October 17,1904, horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century.
The first documented public hackney coach service for hire was in London in 1605, in 1625 carriages were made available for hire from innkeepers in London and the first taxi rank appeared on the Strand outside the Maypole Inn in 1636. In 1635 the Hackney Carriage Act was passed by Parliament to legalise horse-drawn carriages for hire, coaches were hired out by innkeepers to merchants and visitors. A further Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent was approved by Parliament in 1654, a similar service was started by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1637. His vehicles were known as fiacres, as the vehicle depot apparently was opposite a shrine to Saint Fiacre. The hansom cab was designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, Hansoms original design was modified by John Chapman and several others to improve its practicability, but retained Hansoms name. These soon replaced the hackney carriage as a vehicle for hire and they quickly spread to other cities in the United Kingdom, as well as continental European cities, particularly Paris, and St Petersburg.
The cab was introduced to other British Empire cities and to the United States during the late 19th century, being most commonly used in New York City. The first cab service in Toronto, The City, was established in 1837 by Thornton Blackburn, Electric battery-powered taxis became available at the end of the 19th century. Bersey designed a fleet of cabs and introduced them to the streets of London on 19 August 1897. They were soon nicknamed Hummingbirds’ due to the idiosyncratic humming noise they made, in the same year in New York City, the Samuels Electric Carriage and Wagon Company began running 12 electric hansom cabs. The company ran until 1898 with up to 62 cabs operating until it was reformed by its financiers to form the Electric Vehicle Company, the modern taximeter was invented and perfected by a trio of German inventors, Wilhelm Friedrich Nedler, Ferdinand Dencker and Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, and sometimes on a segregated right of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways, Tramways powered by electricity, the most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were used in urban areas before the universal adoption of electrification. Tram lines may run between cities and/or towns, and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very occasionally, trams carry freight, Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit trains, but the size of trams is rapidly increasing. Some trams may run on railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line. For all these reasons, the differences between the modes of rail transportation are often indistinct. In the United States, the tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tired trackless trains. Today, most trams use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph, in some cases by a sliding shoe on a third rail.
If necessary, they may have dual power systems — electricity in city streets, trams are now included in the wider term light rail, which includes segregated systems. The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring respectively to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, the identical word la trame with the meaning crossbeam is used in the French language. The word Tram-car is attested from 1873, although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, and originally referred to horsecars, when electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. The troller design frequently fell off the wires, and was replaced by other more reliable devices.
The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller, Modern trams often have an overhead pantograph mechanical linkage to connect to power, abandoning the trolley pole altogether. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US, the term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e. g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Over time, the trolley has fallen into informal use
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the stream, this results in some congestion. As demand approaches the capacity of a road, extreme traffic congestion sets in, when vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage. Mathematically, congestion is usually looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for greater than the available street capacity. About half of U. S. traffic congestion is recurring, Traffic research still cannot fully predict under which conditions a traffic jam may suddenly occur.
It has been found that individual incidents may cause ripple effects which spread out and create a traffic jam when, otherwise. Some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic. Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerners three-phase traffic theory, because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models. These models are typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network. That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s, congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons.
Privatization of highways and road pricing have both proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of the benefits of having a relatively standard work day. In a capitalist economy, goods can be allocated either by pricing or by queueing and they determined that the number of vehicle-kilometers traveled increases in direct proportion to the available lane-kilometers of roadways. The implication is that new roads and widening existing ones only results in additional traffic that continues to rise until peak congestion returns to the previous level
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, located 20 kilometres west of Erfurt and 25 km east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000. The city is the capital of the district of Gotha and was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins from 1640 until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918. The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originating here spawned many European rulers, including the houses of England, Portugal. The first duke, Ernest the Pious was famous for his wise rule, in the 18th century, the Almanach de Gotha was first published in the city. The cartographer Justus Perthes and the encyclopedist Joseph Meyer made Gotha a leading centre of German publishing around 1800, in the early 19th century, Gotha was a birthplace of the German insurance business. The SPD was founded in Gotha in 1875 by merging two predecessors, in that period Gotha became an industrial centre, with companies such as the Gothaer Waggonfabrik, a producer of trams and aeroplanes. Gotha lies in the part of the Thuringian Basin in a flat.
Gotha has existed at least since the 8th century, when it was mentioned in a document signed by Charlemagne as Villa Gotaha in 775, the first settlement was probably located around todays Hersdorfplatz outside the north-eastern edge of the city centre. During the 11th century, the nearby Ludowingians received the village and established the city in the late 12th century, as Gotha became their second most important city after Eisenach. One of the oldest pieces of evidence of trade in the city is the Gotha cache of coins with nearly 800 Bracteates. In 1180, Gotha was first mentioned as a city, when the area between Brühl and Jüdenstraße became the core of urban development, highlighting the early presence of Jews in this old trading town. The parish church of this first urban settlement was St. Marys Church at Schlossberg, the castle was first mentioned in 1217. As the Ludowingians died out in 1247, Gotha became part of the Wettins territories, the new town east of Querstraße was established in the early 15th century.
The monastery was founded before 1251 and abandoned in 1525, until 1665, the bourse of Gotha was located in the centre of Hauptmarkt square inside the Renaissance building, which hosts the town hall today. The medieval town hall was located on the edge of Hauptmarkt. Water supply was a big problem, because Gotha is not located on a river, in 1369, Landgrave Balthasar had the Leinakanal built. This channel, over 25 kilometres long, brought water from the Thuringian Forest to the city. The main businesses of medieval Gotha were cloth-making and the woad trade, the Reformation was introduced in Gotha in 1524 and the castle was rebuilt as a larger fortress between 1530 and 1541
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to the change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed, the United Nations projected that half of the worlds population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and that is equivalent to approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be absorbed by cities. Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including geography, economics, urban planning, the phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a condition at a set time or as an increase in that condition over time.
The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many years ago. This unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the few decades. Outside Asia, Mexico City, São Paulo, New York City, Lagos, in England the proportion of the population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891. Growing trade around the world allowed cereals to be imported from North America and refrigerated meat from Australasia, cities expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the working class. Urbanization rapidly spread across the Western world and, since the 1950s, at the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived in cities. According to the UN the year 2007 witnessed the turning point when more than 50% of the population were living in cities. Living in a city can provide opportunities of proximity, diversity, as against this, there may be alienation issues, increased cost of living, and negative social aspects that result from mass marginalization.
In cities, services and opportunities are centralized, many rural inhabitants come to the city to seek their fortune and alter their social position. Businesses, which provide jobs and exchange capital, are concentrated in urban areas. Whether the source is trade or tourism, it is through the ports or banking systems, commonly located in cities, many people move into cities for the economic opportunities, but this does not fully explain the very high recent urbanization rates in places like China and India. Rural flight is a factor to urbanization. Farm living has always been susceptible to environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Jena is a centre of education and research, the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and has 21,000 students today, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies. Jena was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the 19th century, for most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss and Jenoptik. As one of only a few medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some buildings in the city centre. These have their origin in the former Carl Zeiss factory, between 1790 and 1850, Jena was a focal point of the German Vormärz as well as of the student liberal and unification movement and German Romanticism. Notable persons of this period in Jena were Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the citys economy is based on the high-technology industry and research. The optical and precision industry is the branch to date, while software engineering, other digital businesses.
Furthermore, Jena is a hub for the surrounding regions. Jena lies in a landscape in the east of Thuringia. Until the High Middle Ages, the Saale was the border between Germanic regions in the west and Slavic regions in the east, owing to its function as a river crossing, Jena was conveniently located. The first unequivocal mention of Jena was in an 1182 document, the first local rulers of the region were the Lords of Lobdeburg with their eponymous castle near Lobeda, roughly 6 km south of the city centre on the eastern hillside of the Saale valley. Around 1230, Jena received town rights and a city grid was established between todays Fürstengraben, Löbdergraben and Leutragraben. The city got a marketplace, main church, town hall and city walls during the late 13th, in this time, the citys economy was based mainly on wine production on the warm and sunny hillsides of the Saale valley. The two monasteries of the Dominicans and the Cistercians rounded out Jenas medieval appearance, as the political circumstances in Thuringia changed in the middle of the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold Jena to the aspiring Wettins in 1331.
Jena obtained the Gotha municipal law and the citizens strengthened their rights, the Wettins were more interested in their residence in the nearby city of Weimar, and so Jena could develop itself relatively autonomously. The Protestant Reformation was brought to the city in 1523, Martin Luther visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena became an early centre of his doctrine. In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen, an important step in Jenas history was the foundation of the university in 1558. Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous founded it, because he had lost his old university in Wittenberg to the Albertines after the Schmalkaldic War