A boarding house is a house in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, sometimes for extended periods of weeks and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied, they provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. Lodgers only obtain a licence to use their rooms, not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Boarders would share washing and dining facilities; such boarding houses were found in English seaside towns and college towns. It was common for there to be two elderly long-term residents. "The phrase "boardinghouse reach" comes from an important variant of hotel life. In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Traditionally, the food was put on the table, everyone scrambled for the best dishes; those with a long, fast reach ate best." Boarders can arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast, half-board or full-board.
For families on holiday with children, boarding was an inexpensive alternative and much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels. In the United Kingdom, boarding houses were run by landladies, some of whom maintained draconian authority in their houses: the residents might not be allowed to remain on the premises during the daytime and could be subject to rigorous rules and regulations, stridently enforced. Boarding houses were common in growing cities until the 1930s. In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods; the boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, from single people to families.
In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals; the boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, away from their families. This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing; this had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, disadvantages, such as meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel.
Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were operated or managed by women "matrons". Groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided supervised boarding houses for young women. Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city; the Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe.
In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities. By the early 1930s, urban reformers were using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home"; as a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Another factor that red
George Alan Cleveland was a Canadian film actor. He appeared in more than 180 films between 1933 and 1954. Cleveland was born in Nova Scotia, Canada. Cleveland moved to Hollywood in 1936 and went on to work in films via acting and directing. Cleveland is best remembered today as George "Gramps" Miller in the early years of the long running US series Lassie; the early seasons in which Cleveland appeared were retitled Jeff's Collie for syndicated reruns and DVD release. He played the grumpy but-kind hearted father-in-law of farm woman Ellen Miller, grandfather of Lassie's owner, Jeff. Cleveland appeared in the first 12 episodes of the fourth season, his death in July 1957 was written into the 13th episode of the fourth season and became the storyline motive for the selling of the farm and the departure of the Millers for Capitol City. Cleveland died of a heart attack on July 15, 1957, in Burbank, California at age 71, he was survived by his spouse Dorothy Melleck, whom he married in 1955. George Cleveland on IMDb George Cleveland at AllMovie George Cleveland at the Internet Broadway Database
Edward Vincent Bracken was an American actor. Bracken became a Hollywood comedy legend with lead performances in the films Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek both in 1944, both have been preserved by the National Film Registry. During this era, he had success on Broadway, with performances in plays like Too Many Girls. Bracken's movie roles include National Lampoon's Vacation, Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, Rookie of the Year. Bracken was born in Astoria, New York, the son of Joseph L. and Catherine Bracken. Bracken performed in vaudeville at the age of nine and gained fame with the Broadway musical Too Many Girls in a role he reprised for the 1940 film adaptation, he had performed in a short film series called The Kiddie Troupers prior to that, but that film was his big break. In 1936, Bracken enjoyed success on Broadway with his starring run in the Joseph Viertel play So Proudly We Hail; the military drama, co-starring Richard Cromwell, opened to much fanfare but closed after 14 performances at the 46th Street Theater.
In the 1940s, director Preston Sturges cast Bracken in two of his best-loved films, The Miracle of Morgan's Creek, opposite Betty Hutton, Hail the Conquering Hero. Due to the popularity of these films, Eddie Bracken was a household name during World War II, he had his own program, The Eddie Bracken Show. In 1953, Bracken left Hollywood, he appeared on Broadway in Shinbone Alley, Dolly!, The Odd Couple and Sugar Babies. His last appearance on Broadway was in the musical Dreamtime, directed by David Niles at the Ed Sullivan Theater at the age of 77. Bracken's extensive television roles between 1952 and 2000 include an episode of The Golden Girls as Rose Nylund's ex-childhood boyfriend from St. Olaf, as well as an episode of Tales from the Darkside playing a stubborn old man who refuses to believe that he has died. After nearly 30 years out of feature films, he returned to perform character roles, including the sympathetic Walley World theme park founder Roy Walley in National Lampoon's Vacation, Duncan's Toy Chest toy store owner Mr. Duncan in Home Alone 2: Lost in New York.
Bracken had a long career with Papermill Playhouse in New Jersey, starring in dozens of productions in the 1980s–early 2000s. One high point was their production of Show Boat; this production was broadcast on PBS in 1990. He played a cameo in Patrick Read Johnson's 1994 film, Baby's Day Out, as one of the veterans in the old soldier's home. Bracken has acted in films with two actors who became U. S. Presidents. Bracken co-starred in The Girl from Jones Beach with Reagan in 1949, thirty-one years before Reagan was elected president, Bracken and Trump played minor parts in Home Alone 2: Lost in New York in 1992, twenty-four years before Trump was elected president. On November 14, 2002, Bracken died in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, of complications from an undisclosed surgery at the age of 87, his wife of 63 years, Connie Nickerson, a former actress, died in August 2002, just three months before his death. He met Connie when they performed together in a road company of the Broadway play What a Life in 1938.
Together Eddie and Connie had five children: three daughters. For his contributions to radio and television, Bracken has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 1651 Vine Street and 6751 Hollywood Boulevard respectively. Eddie Bracken on IMDb Eddie Bracken at the Internet Broadway Database Eddie Bracken at AllMovie Eddie Bracken at Find a Grave
Time travel in fiction
Time travel is a common theme in fiction and has been depicted in a variety of media, such as literature, television and advertisements. The concept of time travel by mechanical means was popularized in H. G. Wells' 1895 story, The Time Machine. In general, time travel stories focus on the consequences of traveling into the future; the central premise for these stories oftentimes involves changing history, either intentionally or by accident, the ways by which altering the past changes the future and creates an altered present or future for the time traveler when they return home. Some stories focus on the paradoxes and alternate timelines that come with time travel, rather than time traveling itself, they provide some sort of social commentary, as time travel provides a "necessary distancing effect" that allows science fiction to address contemporary issues in metaphorical ways. Time travel in modern fiction is sometimes achieved by space and time warps, stemming from the scientific theory of general relativity.
Stories from antiquity featured time travel into the future through a time slip brought on by traveling or sleeping, or in other cases, time travel into the past through supernatural means, for example brought on by angels or spirits. The idea of changing the past is logically contradictory, results in a grandfather paradox. Paul J. Nahin, who has written extensively on the topic of time travel in fiction, states that "ven though the consensus today is that the past cannot be changed, science fiction writers have used the idea of changing the past for good story effect". Time travel to the past and precognition without the ability to change events may result in causal loops; the possibility of characters inadvertently or intentionally changing the past gave rise to the idea of "time police", people tasked with preventing such changes from occurring by themselves engaging in time travel to rectify such changes. An alternative future or alternate future is a possible future that never comes to pass when someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternative future cannot occur, or when a communication from the future to the past effected a change that alters the future.
Alternative histories may exist "side by side", with the time traveller arriving at different dimensions as he changes time. The butterfly effect is the notion that small events can have widespread consequences; the term describes events observed in chaos theory where a small change in initial conditions results in vastly different outcomes. The term was coined by mathematician Edward Lorenz years; the butterfly effect has found its way into popular imagination. For example, in Ray Bradbury's 1952 short story A Sound of Thunder, the killing of a single insect millions of years in the past drastically changes the world, in the 2004 film The Butterfly Effect, the protagonist's small changes to their past results in extreme changes. In literature, communication from the future as a plot device is encountered in various science fiction and fantasy stories. Forrest J. Ackerman noted in his 1973 anthology of the best fiction of the year that "he theme of getting hold of tomorrow's newspaper is a recurrent one".
An early example of this device can be found in the H. G. Wells 1932 short story "The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper", which tells the tale of a man who receives such a paper from 40 years in the future; the 1944 film It Happened Tomorrow employs this device, with the protagonist receiving the next day's newspaper from an elderly colleague. Ackerman's anthology highlights a short story by Robert Silverberg, "What We Learned From This Morning's Newspaper". In that story, a block of homeowners wake to discover that on November 22, they have received the New York Times for the coming December 1; as characters learn of future events affecting them through a newspaper delivered a week early, the ultimate effect is that this "so upsets the future that spacetime is destroyed". The television series Early Edition, inspired by the film It Happened Tomorrow revolved around a character who daily received the next day's newspaper, sought to change some event therein forecast to happen. A newspaper from the future can be a fictional edition of a real newspaper, or an fictional newspaper.
John Buchan's novel The Gap in the Curtain, is premised on a group of people being enabled to see, for a moment, an item in Times newspaper from one year in the future. During the Swedish general election of 2006, the Swedish liberal party used election posters which looked like news items, called Framtidens nyheter, featuring things that Sweden in the future had become what the party wanted. A communication from the future raises questions about the ability of humans to control their destiny. If the recipient is allowed to presume that the future is malleable, if the future forecast affects them in some way this device serves as a convenient explanation of their motivations. In It Happened Tomorrow, the events that are described in the newspaper do come to pass, the protagonist's efforts to avoid those events set up circumstances which instead cause them to come about. By contrast, in Early Edition, the protagonist is able to prevent catastrophes predicted in the newspaper, although if the protagonist does nothing, these catastrophes do come about.
The visual novel Steins. Where such a device is used, the source of the future news may not be explained, le
Early Edition is an American television drama series that aired on CBS from September 28, 1996 to May 27, 2000. Set in the city of Chicago, Illinois, it follows the adventures of a man who mysteriously receives each Chicago Sun-Times newspaper the day before it is published, who uses this knowledge to prevent terrible events every day. Created by Ian Abrams, Patrick Q. Page, Vik Rubenfeld, the series starred actor Kyle Chandler as Gary Hobson, featured many real Chicago locations over the course of the series' run. Despite fan efforts to save it, the show was canceled in May 2000, it began airing in syndication on Fox Family Channel that same month. Fan conventions about the show were held for multiple years. CBS Home Entertainment released the first two seasons on the DVD format in the United States in 2008 and 2009; the show chronicles the life of Gary Hobson, a resident of Chicago, who mysteriously receives the Chicago Sun-Times newspaper a day in advance giving him knowledge of the potential future.
His newspaper is delivered by a mysteriously unknown entity at least once each day, is accompanied by a ginger tabby cat, with the first copy arriving every morning at 6:30am, no matter what his physical location is. Armed with knowledge of the future, he tries to prevent tragedies described in "tomorrow's" Sun-Times from occurring, thus changing the story text and headlines in the newspaper to reflect the outcome of his actions. Gary doesn't wish to be saddled with the responsibility of performing these deeds; the paper presents him with many Sophie's choices: where he must choose between helping different people in need of assistance. The first season begins by showing Hobson coming home from his job as a stockbroker, only to be thrown out of the house for no apparent reason by his wife Marcia. Upon taking up residence in the Blackstone Hotel, Hobson begins receiving a copy of the Chicago Sun-Times, accompanied by "The Cat", every morning. Hobson realizes the paper's contents reflect events that are to happen during that day, confers with his co-workers and friends Chuck Fishman and Marissa Clark.
After deciding to use his knowledge of the future only for "good," Hobson is soon consumed by trying to prevent tragedies and help people, leading him to quit his job. During the season, Chuck tries to use "The Paper" to make money, while Gary develops a precarious relationship with police Detective Marion Zeke Crumb. By the season's end, Gary has begun to uncover some of the mystery surrounding the paper, including confirmation that a man named Lucius Snow received the paper from the cat before him. Season two continues Hobson's adventures with his friends. Detective Crumb sometimes joins Gary and Marissa after retiring from the police force. Gary is working part-time at McGinty's as a bartender. Despite being closer to the paper, Crumb does not want to know how Gary gets his so-called "hunches," and never learns of the paper. At the end of season two, Chuck leaves the show as a regular character, leading to some major changes in season three. Within the course of the series, Gary discovers that a few other people share his gift of receiving a newspaper early.
The only people, besides Gary, who know about his gift are his parents, his friends Chuck Fishman and Marissa Clark, Erica and Henry Paget, a single mother and her son. On some occasions, he is given the ability to wake up in another time to change the past. People who encounter Gary strongly suspect that he has a secret, but do not know what it is, e.g. Crumb. During the course of the series, it is never stated where the paper comes from. In one episode, Gary meets the group of people responsible for giving him the Paper. Nothing much is revealed about them except that they have some sort of supernatural abilities, such as being able to mysteriously appear at any location. In season four, episode 20, "Time", it is explained why Gary started receiving the paper, he was given the responsibility by Lucius Snow, after Snow saved Gary's life when Gary was a child. The responsibility is represented by a pocket knife imprinted with the initials of the person next to receive the paper; the initials mysteriously change every time the current person decides on a new person to receive the responsibility.
At the end of the same episode, Gary passes on the same pocket knife to a young girl named Lindsey Romick who had just lost her grandfather, it is implied that Lindsey will begin receiving the paper when Gary is no longer able to carry on the responsibilities. The origin of Early Edition stems from a collaborative idea between writers Vik Rubenfeld and Pat Page. After meeting each other while playing volleyball in Manhattan Beach, the pair began discussing ideas for feature films. While talking on the phone one day, they each contributed key parts for the idea of Early Edition. Rubenfeld believed the idea was more suited to television than a feature film, noting that, "it was a unique way to put a character in physical jeopardy each week." The duo proceeded to write a document that described the show's characters and setting, treatments for the first twelve episodes (a document known as a show's "bible" in the TV industry
Siegfried Carl Alban Rumann billed as Sig Ruman, was a German-American character actor known for his portrayals of pompous and stereotypically Teutonic officials or villains in more than 100 films. Born in Hamburg, German Empire to Alban Julius Albrecht Ludwig Rumann and his wife, Caroline Margarethe Sophie Rumann on 11 October 1884, he studied electrical engineering began working as an actor and musician before serving with the Imperial German Army during World War I, he resumed his acting career after the war. After his emigration to the United States in 1924, his acting career blossomed. Befriending playwright George S. Kaufman and theater critic Alexander Woollcott, he enjoyed success in many Broadway productions. Ruman made his film debut in Lucky Boy, he became a favorite of the Marx Brothers, appearing in A Night at the Opera, A Day at the Races, A Night in Casablanca. His German accent and large stature kept him busy during World War II, playing sinister Nazi characters in a series of wartime thrillers.
During this period, he appeared in several films by director Ernst Lubitsch, a fellow German émigré, including Ninotchka and To Be or Not to Be. He played the role of Professor Herman Von Reiter in Shining Victory, an adaptation of an A. J. Cronin play. Ruman continued his trend of portraying over-the-top German characters in his career for Lubitsch's protege Billy Wilder, in his films The Emperor Waltz, Stalag 17, Two and The Fortune Cookie. Around 1936, Ruman modified his screen name from Siegfried Rumann to Sig Ruman in an attempt to make it a little less German-sounding, as anti-German prejudice was rising at this time, just prior to the beginning of the Second World War. Despite declining health during the 1950s and 1960s, Ruman continued to appear in films and made many guest appearances on television. Ruman died of a heart attack on February 1967, outside his home in Julian, California, he was survived by his wife Else and their daughter Senta. Sig Ruman at Find a Grave Sig Ruman on IMDb Sig Ruman at the Internet Broadway Database
Film noir is a cinematic term used to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is regarded as extending from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression; the term film noir, French for "black film" or "dark film", was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, but was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively. Before the notion was adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic film noir were referred to as "melodramas". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator, a plainclothes policeman, an aging boxer, a hapless grifter, a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime, or a victim of circumstance. Although film noir was associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs of the classical period, treat its conventions self-referentially; some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s; the questions of what defines film noir, what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, erotic and cruel..."—this set of attributes constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton in their 1955 book Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953, the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject.
They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike. The authors' caveats and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon... always just out of reach". Though film noir is identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions, films identified as noir evidence a variety of visual approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. Film noir embraces a variety of genres, from the gangster film to the police procedural to the gothic romance to the social problem picture—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was to be described as a melodrama at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue. Foster Hirsch defines a genre as determined by "conventions of narrative structure, characterization and visual design". Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre. Others argue. Film noir is associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, rural areas, or on the open road. While the private eye and the femme fatale are character types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of film noirs feature neither. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical. An analogous case is that of the screwball comedy accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but and never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films.
Because of the diversity of noir, certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style". Alain Silver, the most published American critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle" and a "phenomenon" as he argues that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes. Other critics treat film noir as a "mood", characterize it as a "series", or address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the noir "canon". There is no consensus on the matter; the aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionism, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s that involved theater, painting and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and the threat of Nazism, led to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany, involved in the Expressionist movement or studied wit