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Italian Brazilians

Italian Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of full or partial Italian descent. Italian Brazilians are the largest number of people with full or partial Italian ancestry outside Italy, with São Paulo being the most populous city with Italian ancestry in the world. Nowadays, it is possible to find millions of descendants of Italians, from the southeastern state of Minas Gerais to the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, with the majority living in São Paulo state and the highest percentage in the southeastern state of Espírito Santo. Small southern Brazilian towns, such as Nova Veneza, have as much as 95% of their population of Italian descent. There are no official numbers of how many Brazilians have Italian ancestry, as the national census conducted by IBGE does not ask the ancestry of the Brazilian people. In 1940, the last census to ask ancestry, 1,260,931 Brazilians were said to be the child of an Italian father, 1,069,862 said to be the child of an Italian mother. Italians were 285,000 and naturalized Brazilians 40,000.

Therefore and their children were just over 3.8% of Brazil's population in 1940. A 1999 survey, conducted by the sociologist and former president of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Simon Schwartzman, indicated that 10.5% of Brazilian respondents claimed to have Italian ancestry. An Italian source, from 1996, cites the number of 22,753,000 descendants; the Embassy of Italy in Brazil, in 2013, reported the number of 31 million descendants of Italian immigrants in Brazil, half of them in the state of São Paulo. According to the Italian government, there are 31 million Brazilians of Italian descent, All figures relate to Brazilians of any Italian descent, not linked to Italian culture in any significant way. According to García, the number of Brazilians with actual links to Italian identity and culture would be around 3.5 to 4.5 million people. Scholar Luigi Favero, in a book on Italian emigration between 1876 and 1976, pinpointed that Italians were present in Brasil since the Renaissance: Genoese sailors and merchants were between the first to settle in colonial Brazil since the first half of the 16th century, so, because of the many descendants of Italians emigrated there from Columbus times until 1860, the number of Brazilians with Italian roots should be increased to 35 million.

Although they were victims of some prejudice in the first decades and in spite of the persecution during World War II, Brazilians of Italian descent managed to integrate and assimilate seamlessly into the Brazilian society. Many Brazilian politicians, footballers and personalities are or were of Italian descent. Italian-Brazilians have been state governors, representatives and ambassadors. Four Presidents of Brazil were of Italian descent: Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli, Itamar Franco, Emílio Garrastazu Médici and Jair Messias Bolsonaro. According to the Brazilian Constitution, anyone born in the country is a Brazilian citizen by birthright. In addition, many born in Italy have become naturalized citizens; the Brazilian government used to prohibit multiple citizenship. However, that changed in 1994 by a new constitutional amendment. After the changes, over half a million Italian-Brazilians have requested recognition of their Italian citizenship. According to Italian legislation, an individual with an Italian parent is automatically recognized as an Italian citizen.

To exercise the rights and obligations of citizenship, individual must have all documents registered in Italy, which involves the local consulate or embassy. Some limitations are applied to the process of recognition such as the renouncement of the Italian citizenship by the individual or the parent, a second limitation is that women transferred citizenship to their children only after 1948. After a constitutional reform in Italy, Italian citizens abroad may elect representatives to the Italian Chamber of Deputies and the Italian Senate. Italian citizens residing in Brazil elect representatives together with Argentina and other countries in South America. According to Italian Senator Edoardo Pollastri, over half-a-million Brazilians are waititng to have their Italian citizenship recognized. Italy did not become a sovereign national state until 1861. Before Italy was politically divided in several kingdoms and other small states; that fact influenced the character of the Italian migrant: "Before 1914, the typical Italian migrant was a man without a clear national identity but with strong attachments to his town or village or region of birth, to which half of all migrants returned."In the 19th century, many Italians fled the political persecutions in Italy led by the Imperial Austrian government after the failure of unification movements in 1848 and 1861.

Although small, the well-educated and revolutionary group of emigrants left a deep mark where they settled. In Brazil, the most famous Italian was Líbero Badaró. However, the mass Italian immigration that contributed to shape Brazilian culture after the Portuguese and the German migration movements started only after Italian unification. During the last quarter of the 19th century, the newly-united Italy suffered an economic crisis. Northern Italy had unemployment beca

Carl Kiefert

Carl Johann Kiefert was a German-British conductor and composer, who spent much of his career conducting at the Hippodrome and other London theatres. He was the musical director of the original London productions of such musical theatre pieces as His Excellency, An Artist's Model and The Quaker Girl. Kiefert was born in Germany to French-born mother, his father was a music master in the 19th Field Artillery Regiment of the German Army. He was educated at the Universities of Göttingen, he first came to Britain at 22 years old as a cellist with the Meiningen Ensemble, performing at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Kiefert spent much of his career conducting at other London theatres, he was the musical director of the original London productions of such musical theatre pieces as His Excellency, An Artist's Model and The Quaker Girl. He wrote songs, arranged dance music from shows and wrote or co-wrote the scores to several London musicals, including The Ballet Girl and The Gay Grisette, he orchestrated several West End musicals early in the 20th century those of Lionel Monckton, several Broadway musicals, including Honeydew and The Chiffon Girl.

"His acknowledged expertise and speed at instrumentation made Kiefert the most sought-after arranger of theatre scores and he orchestrated for Lionel Monckton and Osmond Carr." In 1914, Kiefert moved to New York with his wife, Priscilla Leach, daughter Emily, but returned to the UK in 1925. He suffered a stroke in 1928 and died nine years in Barnham, aged 82. Carl Kiefert at the Internet Broadway Database Sheet music to "A Boom", by Kiefert and Adrian Ross

Space Milkshake

Space Milkshake is a 2012 Canadian science fiction comedy film directed and written by Armen Evrensel. Its cast features Robin Dunne, Kristin Kreuk and Amanda Tapping. A mutant rubber ducky terrorizes four workers. Meanwhile, Earth is inexplicably devoid of life; the crew must now work together to defeat the mutant rubber duck and figure out the strange device that has appeared on the ship. Filming was conducted between 14 November – 3 December 2011 at Canada Saskatchewan Production Studios in Regina; the world premiere was held at the London MCM Expo on 26 October 2012. Actors Robin Dunne and Billy Boyd were at the premiere for a answer session; the film premiered on Canadian television channel The Movie Network on 8 February 2013 and aired on Movie Central in Canada starting on 22 March 2013. The film screened at film festivals in February 2013. Space Milkshake at Foundation Features Space Milkshake on IMDb Space Milkshake at Rotten Tomatoes

Tamara Ivanyutina

Tamara Antonovna Ivanyutina was a Soviet serial killer. She was the target of a wide scale investigation in Kiev during the 1980s. Tamara Maslenko was born in a large family as one of six children, in which her parents always told her that material security is the main thing in life. Although forensic psychiatric examination recognized Ivanyutina as sane, she was noted as self-centered and resentful. During the investigations into the poisonings, it turned out that Ivanyutina had been convicted of speculation, had been employed by fake labor in her school. Chemistry teacher Viktor Stadnik, who suffered from Ivanyutina's actions, noted such traits of her character as "perseverance and arrogance", as well as rudeness and lack of discipline. Between March 17 and 18, 1987, several pupils and employees of School #16 in the Podilskyi District in Kiev were hospitalized with signs of food poisoning. Two children - Sergei Panibrat and Andrei Kuzmenko - and two adults died immediately, while the remaining 9 people were in intensive care.

Doctors suspected influenza or an intestinal infection, but some timer the hair began to fall out from the victims, not typical for such diseases. Poisoning was suspected, a criminal investigation and an investigative team was established; the investigators, after interviewing the survivors, found out that they all felt unwell by having lunch the day before in the school cafeteria, after eating kasha and liver. When the question arose if there was quality control in the school canteen, it was found that a dietitian named Natalia Kukharenko had died two weeks before the events, according to official data - from a heart disease. However, the circumstances of Kukharenko's death caused doubts in the investigators, due to this her body was exhumed; as a result of corresponding studies, traces of thallium were found in corpse tissues. After that, searches were carried out for all persons who have access to the kitchen, including in the house Tamara Ivanyutina lived, who worked as a dishwasher in the dining room of School N#16.

During the search, Ivanyutina found some "small but heavy jar" that interested operatives and investigators, given for examination. A laboratory study showed that the can contained "Clerici solution" - a toxic solution based on thallium used in some branches of geology. Ivanyutina was arrested and wrote a confession, confessing to the poisoning in the school canteen on March 16, 1987; the reason for the crime, according to Ivanyutina, was that the sixth graders who dined in the dining room refused to set up tables and chairs, "she decided to punish them". However, she stated that the confessions were made up from investigators who pressured her, refused to give further testimony. Further investigation of the "Ivanyutina-Maslenko-Matzobory case" showed that Ivanyutina and her family used thallium for poisoning for 11 years; the family members purchased the substance from a friend who worked at the geological institute, explaining to her that the poison was for killing rats. The acquaintance admitted that for 15 years she had not less than nine times given Ivanyutina, her sister and parents a portion of the substance.

At the beginning of her criminal activities, Ivanyutina poisoned her first husband to get his apartment. After his death, she married a second time, but poisoned her father-in-law and mother-in-law poisoning her second husband in small portions. In September 1986, Ivanyutina got a job as a dishwasher for the school. According to investigators, she needed this work in order to gain access to food and food waste, since she kept a large farm with pigs and chickens. During her time in the dining room, Ivanyutina poisoned the school party organizer Ekaterina Arsentyevna Scherban and the chemistry teacher who prevented her from stealing food from the canteen, two first and fifth grade students, who had asked her for the remnants of cutlets for their pets; the investigation proved that Tamara's elder sister, Nina Matzobory, using the same solution, had poisoned her husband and taken possession of their Kiev apartment. Numerous poisonings were committed by their parents as well: in particular, they killed a neighbor in a communal apartment and a cousin, who made remarks about them.

While detained, Maria Maslenko explained her life position to her cellmates: "To achieve what you want, you do not need to write complaints, but to treat everybody as friends. But for harmful ones, just add poison to food"; the geography of the criminal activities of the family was not limited to Ukraine. Members of the family poisoned neighbors' pets. 45-year-old Tamara Ivanyutina, her older sister Nina Matzobory, as well as their parents - Anton Mitrofanovich and Maria Fedorovna Maslenko, appeared before the court on charges of committing numerous poisonings, including fatalities. The investigators and the court found that the family for 11, in selfish interests, personal hostility, committed numerous murders and attempted murders to kill various persons by poisoning them. According to the current deputy chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, S. M. Vinokurov, who worked during the investigation as a senior investigator for important cases in the city pro

Aleš Vodseďálek

Aleš Vodseďálek is a Czech Nordic combined skier from Jilemnice who has competed since 2003. Competing in two Winter Olympics, he earned his best finish of eighth twice. Vodseďálek's best finish at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships was sixth in the 4 x 5 km team event at Liberec in 2009 while his best individual finish was 31st in the individual large hill event at those same games, his best World Cup finish was eighth in a 4 x 5 km team event at Germany in 2009 while his best individual finish was 23rd in an individual large hill event at Finland that same year. Ales Vodsedalek at the International Ski Federation


Cyffylliog is a village and community in Denbighshire, Wales. It is situated to the west of Ruthin on the banks of the River Clywedog; the community covers an area of 31.59 km2 and includes the hamlet of Bontuchel and a section of Clocaenog Forest. It had a population of 495 at the time of the 2011 census, a slight increase from 484 during the 2001 census; the name of the village means "place of pollard trees/stumps" and comes from the Welsh word cyffyll meaning stumps. The village has a small, bilingual primary school, Ysgol Cyffylliog, which had 25 pupils in 2011; the village church, St. Mary's, dates from the late 12th century but has been extensively renewed since that time including an complete rebuilding in 1876. Although the church has been arduously restored, it retains its late medieval ceiling and an unusual Georgianhearse house’; the church is open for private prayer at all times. The village has a Presbyterian chapel, Salem Chapel