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Italian East Africa

Italian East Africa was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa. It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia. Italian East Africa was divided into six governorates. Eritrea and Somalia, Italian possessions since 1869 and 1889 became Eritrea Governorate and Somalia Governorate, while Ethiopia was made of Harrar, Galla-Sidamo and Scioa Governorate. Fascist colonial policy had a divide and conquer characteristic and favored the Somali and Tigrayan peoples in order to weaken the Amhara people, the ruling ethnic group in the Ethiopian Empire. During the Second World War, Italian East Africa was occupied by a British-led force including colonial and Ethiopian units. After the war, Italian Somaliland and Eritrea came under British administration, while Ethiopia regained its independence. In 1949, Italian Somaliland was reconstituted as the Trust Territory of Somaliland, administered by Italy from 1950 until its independence in 1960.

When established in 1936, Italian East Africa consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, the annexed Empire of Ethiopia. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy adopted the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia", although having not been recognized by any country other than Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan; the territory was divided into the six governorates of Italian East Africa: Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, plus four provinces of Ethiopia each under the authority of an Italian governor, answerable to a viceroy, who in turn represented the Emperor. Italian East Africa was enlarged in 1940, as Italian forces conquered British Somaliland, thereby bringing all Somali territories under Italian administration. However, the enlarged colony was dismembered only a year when in the course of the East African Campaign the colony was occupied by British forces. Italian East Africa, in Italian "Africa Orientale Italiana", was acronymed in official documents as "AOI".

The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory. The maintanence and creation of Ethiopian colonies was costly. Historians are still divided about the reasons for the Italian attack on Ethiopia in 1935; some Italian historians such as Franco Catalano and Giorgio Rochat argue that the invasion was an act of social imperialism, contending that the Great Depression had badly damaged Mussolini's prestige, that he needed a foreign war to distract public opinion. Other historians such as Pietro Pastorelli have argued that the invasion was launched as part of an expansionist program to make Italy the main power in the Red Sea area and the Middle East. A middle way interpretation was offered by the American historian MacGregor Knox, who argued that the war was started for both foreign and domestic reasons, being both a part of Mussolini's long-range expansionist plans and intended to give Mussolini a foreign policy triumph that would allow him to push the Fascist system in a more radical direction at home.

Unlike forty years earlier, Italy's forces were far superior to the Abyssinian forces in air power, they were soon victorious. Emperor Haile Selassie was forced to flee the country, with Italian forces entering the capital city, Addis Ababa, to proclaim an empire by May 1936, making Ethiopia part of Italian East Africa; some Ethiopians welcomed the Italians and collaborated with them in the government of the newly created Italian Empire, like Ras Sejum Mangascià, Ras Ghetacciù Abaté and Ras Kebbedé Guebret. In 1937 the friendship of Sejum Mangascia with the Italian Viceroy Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta enabled this Ras to play an influential role in securing the release of 3,000 Ethiopian POWs being held in Italian Somaliland; the Italian victory in the war coincided with the zenith of the international popularity of dictator Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime, during which colonialist leaders praised Mussolini for his actions. Mussolini's international popularity decreased as he endorsed the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, beginning a political tilt toward Germany that led to the downfall of Mussolini and the Fascist regime in Italy in World War II.

On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on Britain and France, which made Italian military forces in Libya a threat to Egypt and those in the Italian East Africa a danger to the British and French territories in the Horn of Africa. Italian belligerence closed the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British supply routes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were vulnerable to invasion, but the Comando Supremo had planned for a war after 1942. In the summer of 1940, Italy was far from ready for a long war or for the occupation of large areas of Africa. Hostilities began on 13 June 1940, with an Italian air raid on the base of 1 Squadron Southern Rhodesian Air Force at Wajir in the East Africa Protectorate. In August 1940, the protectorate of British Somaliland was occupied by Italian forces and absorbed into Italian East Africa; this occupation lasted around six months. By early 1941, Italian forces had been

Armenians in Istanbul

Armenians in Istanbul are a major part of the Turkish Armenian community and one of the largest ethnic minorities of Istanbul, Turkey. The city is referred to as Bolis by Armenians, derived from the ending of the historical name of the city Constantinople. Today, most estimations put the number of Armenian-Turkish Citizens in Istanbul at 50,000, 60,000 or 70,000. At present, the Armenian community in Istanbul has 20 schools, 17 cultural and social organizations, three newspapers called Agos and Marmara, two sports clubs, named Şişlispor and Taksimspor, two health establishments as well as numerous religious foundations set up to support these activities. Getronagan Armenian High School is in Istanbul; the following is the list of prominent Armenians who either were born in Istanbul or have worked there. Ottoman era Aram Andonian, journalist Arpiar Arpiarian, writer Balyan family, dynasty of architects Hagop Baronian, satirist Nazaret Daghavarian, doctor Erukhan, writer Hagop Kazazian Pasha, minister of Finance Komitas Vardapet, musician Mkrtich Khrimian, religious leader, writer Yervant Odian, satirist Ruben Sevak, writer Levon Shant, writer Mimar Sinan, architect Siamanto, writer Papken Siuni, political activist Bedros Tourian, poet Daniel Varujan, poet Rupen Zartarian, educator Krikor Zohrab, authorRepublican era Arman Manukyan, writer, economist Hrant Dink, editor, columnist Agop Dilâçar, linguist of the Turkish language and co-founder of the Turkish Language Association Udi Hrant Kenkulian, Turkish classical musician Ara Güler, photographer Demographics of Istanbul Organization of Istanbul Armenians Armenians in Turkey Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople Hovannisian, Richard G. Armenian Constantinople.

Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2010. Tchilingirian, Hratch, "The'Other' Citizens: Armenians in Turkey between Isolation and Integration," Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 25, pp. 156-84

Babar's Museum of Art

Babar's Museum of Art was the collaborative product of Laurent de Brunhoff and his wife Phyllis Rose de Brunhoff for the Babar the Elephant series. The aim was to introduce different notable works of art found in museums around the world paintings, but including sculptures; the human subjects in these artworks were re-interpreted as elephants. As the elephants in Celesteville took to motoring, the city's train station lost its original purpose. Queen Celeste decided to convert the station into an Art museum to showcase all the artworks she and Babar had collected over the years; when the museum was opened, the adult elephants patiently explained to the young elephants different perspectives on art appreciation. The conversion of the Celesteville's obsolete train station into a museum of art in the story is inspired by the conversion of Gare d'Orsay to the now famous Musée d'Orsay; the design of the station in the story bears striking resemblance to the actual Gare d'Orsay, including the large clock at the facade of the station.

In real life, the cause of obsolescence of Gare d'Orsay was its platforms became too short as longer trains came into service. Gare d'Orsay had been built in 1900 to serve as terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans, it served only suburban rail services. The decision to convert it to a museum was announced in 1977. Listed as a historical monument in 1978, it re-opened as Musée d'Orsay in 1986. A number of artworks featured in the story were inspired by actual artworks found in Musée d'Orsay; the following is a list of the real artworks inspiring the illustrations in the book. The page numbers cited refer to the UK edition titled Babar's Gallery. Page 14: Peter Paul Rubens, his wife Helena Fourment, their son Peter Paul. Page 14: Édouard Manet, The Balcony. Page 14: Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa. Page 15: Raffaello "Raphael" Sanzio, St. Michael. Page 15: Anthony van Dyck, Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria with Charles, Prince of Wales and Princess Mary. Page 17: Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas.

Page 18: Francisco Goya, Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zuñiga. Page 19: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters. Pages 20–21: Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People. Page 22: Titian, Concert Champêtre. Page 23: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer. Pages 24–25: Georges-Pierre Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Page 26: Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, The Creation of Adam. Page 27: Paul Cézanne, The Cardplayers. Page 28: Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait. Page 29: Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Portrait. Pages 30–31: Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus. Page 32: Henri Julien Félix Rousseau, The Dream. Page 33: Salvador Dalí, Apparition of a Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach page 34: Edvard Munch, The Scream. Page 34: Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Page 35: René Magritte, The Human Condition. Page 36: Unknown, Venus de Milo. Page 36: Joel Shapiro, Untitled. Page 37: Edgar Degas, La Petite Danseuse de Quatorze Ans page 36-37: Aristide Maillol, female figure.

Page 37: Unknown, Ganesh. Page 37: Auguste Rodin, Monument to Balzac. Page 38: John Singer Sargent, Portrait of Madame X. page 38: Mary Stevenson Cassatt and Child. Page 38: James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist's Mother. Page 39: Édouard Manet, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe. Pages 40–41: Unknown, Temple of Dendur. Pages 42–43: Hans Namuth, Jackson Pollock at work. Pages 42–43: Jackson Pollock, One: Number 31, 1950. Page 44: Johannes Vermeer, Girl with a Red Hat. Babar's Gallery, 2003