A supercar — called exotic car — is a loosely defined description of certain high-performance street-legal sportscars. Since the 1990s or 2000s, the term hypercar has come into use for the highest performing supercars. In the United States in the 1940s and 1990s, the term was used at times for technologies that were expected to appear on cars in the near future. An early usage for the term super-car was in an advertisement in The Motor magazine dated 3 November 1920 which claimed an unnamed car to be "the Supreme development of the British super-car". Shortly after, an advertisement for the'Ensign 6' appeared in The Times newspaper on 11 November 1920 with the phrase "If you are interested in a supercar, you cannot afford to ignore the claims of the Ensign 6"; the Lamborghini Miura, produced from 1966–1973, is said to be the first supercar alongside Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale. By the 1970s and 1980s the term was in regular use, if not defined. One interpretation up until the 1990s was to use it for mid-engine two-seat cars with at least eight cylinders, a power output of at least 400 bhp and a top speed of at least 180 mph.
Other interpretations state that "it must be fast, with sporting handling to match", "it should be sleek and eye-catching" and its price should be "one in a rarefied atmosphere of its own". or regard exclusivity as an important characteristic. It is claimed that the definition of a supercar has always been subjective and a matter of blind prejudice. An early usage of the term supercar was a 1944 book forecasting the upcoming changes in car design; the term "supercar" was used to describe predicted future automobiles incorporating advances in design and technology such as rear-engine layouts and automatic transmissions. During the 1960s, cars that are now considered to be muscle cars were referred to as supercars; the term was spelled with a capital S. In 1966 the sixties supercar became an official industry trend. For example, the May 1965 issue of the American magazine Car Life includes multiple references to supercars and "the supercar club" and a 1968 issue of Car & Driver magazine refers to "the Supercar street racer gang" market segment.
In the model name of the AMC S/C Rambler, the "S/C" is an abbreviation for "SuperCar". Since the decline of the muscle car in the 1970s, the word supercar came to mean a car in the mold of a Lamborghini or Ferrari. Other interpretations of the term are for limited-production models produced by small manufacturers for enthusiasts, standard-looking cars modified for increased performance; the 1993–2001 Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a research and development program by the U. S. Department of Commerce to develop an 80 mpg‑US family-sized sedan, was unofficially known as the "supercar" program. A more recent term for high-performance sportscars is "hypercar", sometimes used to describe the highest performing supercars; as per supercars, there is no set definition for. One interpretation is a limited-production, range-topping model priced above US$1,000,000; some people consider the 1993 McLaren F1 to be the first hypercar, while others believe the 2005 Bugatti Veyron was the first hypercar.
Many recent hypercars use a hybrid drivetrain, a trend started in 2013 by the McLaren P1, Porsche 918 Spyder and Ferrari LaFerrari. The Automobili Pininfarina Battista is a luxury hypercar. List of sports car manufacturers List of fastest production cars Supercar Season
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna. The Maserati tagline is "Luxury and style cast in exclusive cars", the brand's mission statement is to "Build ultra-luxury performance automobiles with timeless Italian style, accommodating bespoke interiors, effortless, signature sounding power"; the company's headquarters are now in Modena, its emblem is a trident. It has been owned by the Italian-American car giant Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and FCA's Italian predecessor Fiat S.p. A. since 1993. Maserati was associated with Ferrari S.p. A., owned by FCA until being spun off in 2015, but more it has become part of the sports car group including Alfa Romeo and Abarth. In May 2014, due to ambitious plans and product launches, Maserati sold a record of over 3,000 cars in one month; this caused them to increase production of the Ghibli models. In addition to the Ghibli and Quattroporte, Maserati offers the Maserati GranTurismo, the GranTurismo Convertible, has confirmed that it will be offering the Maserati Levante, the first Maserati SUV, in 2016, the Maserati Alfieri, a new 2+2 in 2016.
Maserati is placing a production output cap at 75,000 vehicles globally. The Maserati brothers, Bindo, Carlo and Ernesto, were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto. In 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio. Maserati began making race cars with 4, 6, 8, 16 cylinders; the trident logo of the Maserati car company is based on the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna's Piazza Maggiore. In 1920, one of the Maserati brothers, artist Mario, used this symbol in the logo at the suggestion of family friend Marquis Diego de Sterlich, it was considered appropriate for the sports car company due to fact that Neptune represents strength and vigour. Alfieri Maserati died in 1932, but three other brothers, Bindo and Ettore, kept the firm going, building cars that won races.
In 1937, the remaining Maserati brothers sold their shares in the company to the Adolfo Orsi family, who in 1940, relocated the company headquarters to their home town of Modena, where it remains to this day. The brothers continued in engineering roles with the company. Racing successes continued against the giants of German racing, Auto Union and Mercedes. In back-to-back wins in 1939 and 1940, an 8CTF won the Indianapolis 500, the only Italian manufacturer to do so; the war intervened and Maserati abandoned car making to produce components for the Italian war effort. During this time, Maserati worked in fierce competition to construct a V16 town car for Benito Mussolini before Ferry Porsche of Volkswagen built one for Adolf Hitler; this failed, the plans were scrapped. Once peace was restored, Maserati returned to making cars. Key people joined the Maserati team. Alberto Massimino, a former Fiat engineer with both Alfa Romeo and Ferrari experience, oversaw the design of all racing models for the next ten years.
With him joined engineers Giulio Alfieri, Vittorio Bellentani, Gioacchino Colombo. The focus was on the best chassis to succeed in car racing; these new projects saw the last contributions of the Maserati brothers, who after their 10-year contract with Orsi expired went on to form O. S. C. A.. This new team at Maserati worked on several projects: the 4CLT, the A6 series, the 8CLT, pivotally for the future success of the company, the A6GCS; the famous Argentinian driver Juan-Manuel Fangio raced for Maserati for a number of years in the 1950s, producing a number of stunning victories including winning the world championship in 1957 in the 250F. Other racing projects in the 1950s were the 200S, 300S, 350S, 450S, followed in 1961 by the famous Tipo 61. Maserati retired from factory racing participation because of the Guidizzolo tragedy during the 1957 Mille Miglia, though they continued to build cars for privateers. Maserati became more focused on building road-going grand tourers; the 1957 3500 GT marked a turning point in the marque's history, as its first ground-up grand tourer design and first series produced car.
Production jumped from a dozen to a few hundreds cars a year. Chief engineer Giulio Alfieri took charge of the project, turned the 3.5 L inline six from the 350S into a road-going engine. Launched with a Carrozzeria Touring 2+2 coupé aluminium body over superleggera structure, a steel-bodied short wheelbase Vignale 3500 GT Convertibile open top version followed in 1960; the 3500 GT's success, with over 2200 made, was critical to Maserati's survival in the years following withdrawal from racing. The 3500 GT provided the underpinnings for the small-volume V8-engined 5000 GT, another seminal car for Maserati. Born from the Shah of Persia's whim of owning a road car powered by the Maserati 450S racing engine, it became one of the fastest and most expensive cars of its days; the third to the thirty-fourth and last example produced were powered by Maserati's first purely road-going V8 engine design. In 1962, the 3500 GT evolved into the Sebring, bodied by Vignale and based on the Convertibile chassis.
Next came the two-seater Mistral coupé in 1963 and Spider in 1964, both six-cylinder powered and styled by Pietro Frua. In 1963, the company's first saloon arrived, the Quattroporte styled by Frua. If the 500
The Ferrari F430 is a sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009 as a successor to the Ferrari 360. The car is an update to the 360 with notable performance changes, it was unveiled at the 2004 Paris Motor Show. The F430 was succeeded by the 458, unveiled on 28 July 2009. Designed by Pininfarina, under the guidance of Frank Stephenson, the body styling of the F430 was revised from its predecessor, the Ferrari 360, to improve its aerodynamic efficiency. Although the drag coefficient remained the same, downforce was enhanced. Despite sharing the same basic Alcoa Aluminium chassis, roof line and glass, the car looked different from the 360. A great extent of Ferrari heritage was included in the exterior design. At the rear, the Enzo's tail lights and engine cover vents were added; the car's name was etched on the Testarossa-styled driver's side mirror. The large oval openings in the front bumper are reminiscent of Ferrari racing models from the 60s the 156 "sharknose" Formula One car and 250 TR61 Le Mans cars of Phil Hill.
The F430 features a 4,308 cc V8 petrol engine of the "Ferrari-Maserati" F136 family. This new power plant was a significant departure for Ferrari, as all previous Ferrari V8's were descendants of the Dino racing program of the 1950s; this fifty-year development cycle came to an end with the new 4.3L engine used in the F430, the architecture of, expected to replace the Dino-derived V12 in most other Ferrari cars. The engine's output specifications are: 490 PS, at 8,500 rpm and 465 N⋅m of torque at 5,250 rpm, 80% of, available below 3,500 rpm. Despite a 20% increase in displacement, engine weight grew by only 4 kg along with a decrease in diameter for easier packaging; the connecting rods and crankshaft were all new, while the 4-valve cylinder head and intake trumpets were directly retained from Formula 1 engines, for ideal volumetric efficiency. The F430 has a top speed in excess of 196 mph and can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.6 seconds, 0.6 seconds quicker than the old model. The brakes on the F430 were developed in close cooperation with Brembo and Bosch, resulting in a new cast-iron alloy for the discs.
The new alloy includes molybdenum. The F430 was available with the optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brake package. Ferrari claims the carbon ceramic brakes will not fade after 300-360 laps at their test track; the F430 featured the E-Diff, a computer-controlled limited slip active differential which can vary the distribution of torque based on inputs such as steering angle and lateral acceleration. Other notable features include the first application of Ferrari's manettino steering wheel-mounted control knob. Drivers can select from five different settings which modify the vehicle's ESC system, "Skyhook" electronic suspension, transmission behavior, throttle response, E-Diff; the feature is similar to Land Rover's "Terrain Response" system. The Ferrari F430 was available with exclusive Goodyear Eagle F1 GSD3 EMT tires, which have a V-shaped tread design, run-flat capability, OneTRED technology. In the US, the company requested an exemption from the airbag design requirements, granted, allowing the car to continue to be sold in the US.
The MSRP for a Ferrari F430 was $186,925 to $217,318 in the United States, £119,500 in the United Kingdom €175,000 in the European Union, $379,000 for the base model to $450,000 for the Spider in Australia and New Zealand. The F430 Spider is the convertible version based on the coupé, it was unveiled at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show. The car was designed by Pininfarina with aerodynamic simulation programs used for Formula 1 cars; the conversion from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action, the roof panel automatically folds away inside a space above the engine bay. The interior and performance of the Spider is identical to that of the coupé with increase in the weight and decrease in the top speed by 3 mph; the F430 Challenge is the track version of the F430, designed for the Ferrari Challenge. The engine remained untouched but the vehicle's weight was reduced, resulting in a top speed of 202 mph; the production model was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January, 2005.
Serving as the successor to the Ferrari 360 Challenge Stradale, the 430 Scuderia was unveiled by Michael Schumacher at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. Aimed to compete with cars like the Porsche RS-models and the Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera, it is lighter and more powerful than the standard F430. Increased power comes from a revised intake, an ion-sensing knock-detection system that allows for a higher compression ratio] in the engine, thus the weight-to-power ratio is reduced from 2.96 kg/hp to 2.5 kg/hp. In addition to the weight saving measures, the Scuderia semi-automatic transmission gained improved "Superfast", known as "Superfast2", software for faster 60 millisecond shift times. A new traction control system combined the F1-Trac traction from the 599 GTB and stability control with the E-Diff electronic differential; the Ferrari 430 Scuderia accelerates with a top speed of 198 mph. Although the 430 Scuderia was not available with a manual transmission, a Texas based t
The Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup is the international motor racing series supporting the FIA Formula One World Championship organized by Porsche AG. Porsche Supercup drivers compete in identical Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. On average, 24 race cars take part in each race. Most circuits visited by the series are European, although circuits in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Mexico have been included in the calendar as well. Since 1993 the Porsche Michelin Supercup has run as support to the FIA Formula 1 World Championship; the number of races has grown from the original nine to total 13 in 2006, although decreasing to 11 in 2017. For the inaugural 1993 Porsche Supercup season the 964 Cup based on the 964 Carrera RS was the vehicle of choice. Compared to the road car the Cup race car features a stripped-out interior and retains the catalytic converter, 18 inch magnesium wheels and ABS but was lowered by 20mm, featured a full roll cage and no passenger seat. Based on the 993 Carrera 2 and used in the Porsche Supercup for seasons 1994–1997.
Updated in 1995 with aero parts from the new Carrera RS, followed by a five-horsepower increase to 315 PS at 6,200 rpm in 1996. 216 units were produced in total. Raced in the Porsche Supercup seasons 1998–2001. Basis for the upcoming 996 GT3 road car, featuring a 3.6 litre boxer engine on basis of the GT1 block. For the 1999 season the engine output was increased to 272 kW and 370 N⋅m at 6,250 rpm; the car managed the 0-100 km/h sprint with a top speed of 286 km/h. For the 2001 season the GT3 Cup received modified aerodynamics including an enlarged rear wing and improved cooling. Raced in the Porsche Supercup seasons 2002–2004. For 2002 the GT3 Cup received several changes based on the 996.2 Carrera and Turbo models, including Turbo-style headlights. The new body improves aerodynamics and cooling. Engine output is increased to 280 kW and 380 N⋅m, further changes include improved transmission cooling, a lightened exhaust system and other light-weighing measures across the car. For the 2004 season the car received further upgrades.
Engine output is once again increased to 287 kW at 7,200 rpm and 390 N⋅m at 6,500 rpm. Gear ratios of fourth and sixth gears have been shortened. An 89-litre fuel cell improves endurance racing capabilities. In the interior changes are made to enable the use of the HANS device. Raced in the Porsche Supercup seasons 2005–2009; the 997-based Cup car features improved aerodynamics and lightweight CFRP parts, including doors, rear body panels, engine deck lid and rear wing. Parts of the suspension are adopted from the GT3 RSR. Raced in the Porsche Supercup seasons 2010–2012. Based on 997.2 GT3 RS, the car features a new 3.8 litre engine, an enlarged rear wing adopted from 911 GT3 Cup S measuring 1.70 m, additional Unibal joints on the track control arms and front and rear sword-shaped anti-roll bars with seven position settings each and a steering wheel mounted Info Display with 6 switches. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and deliveries began in the same year; the base MSRP of the European model was €149,850.
Based on the Porsche 911 GT3 type 991, this 911 GT3 Cup was used in the Porsche Supercup for the seasons 2013–2016. Raced in the Porsche Supercup since the 2017 season. Based on the latest 911 GT3 road car it features a larger 4.0-litre flat-six boxer engine, improved aerodynamics and an enlarged escape-hatch in the roof and is priced at 189,900 Euro excluding taxes. Two sets of slick tyres may be used per weekend; the number of wet tyres is unlimited. The tyres are identical for all competitors and are not permitted to be pre-warmed or chemically treated. Points are assigned to the first 15 finishers of all races count. To receive points a driver must compete in multiple races per season. Since 2008, there have been two bonus points awarded for the driver who secures pole position in qualifying; the points of the two best drivers of each team are added up. At the end of the season Porsche rewards the three best placed teams with prize money. In 2006 and 2007, Porsche AG pays around 820,000 euros to teams.
Per race the winner receives 9,000 euros, the runner-up 7,500 euros and the third placed driver 6,500 euros. For a 15th place 1,400 euros are paid. Additionally, the 2006 or 2007 champion receives a Porsche road car; the driver with the fastest laps will be given a premium watch from Porsche Design. In 2015, Porsche says it pays "more than 730,000 Euros in prize money to teams. In addition, the overall winner receives a special prize; the winner of the rookie classification receives an additional prize of 30,000 Euros providing he/she reregisters for the following year’s Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup." Dutch driver Patrick Huisman is the most successful driver in the series, having won four straight titles between 1997 and 2000, followed by René Rast with three titles and Jeroen Bleekemolen and Richard Westbrook with two titles each. The reigning champion is the German driver Michael Ammermüller, who has won back-to-back titles the championship in 2017 and 2018. At the Grand Prix circuits during 2006 an average of 125,000 spectators witnessed the action from the grandstands at each round.
According to Porsche AG races attracted 22 million TV viewers worldwide, most of them in Europe where Eurosport provides regular coverage. Porsche runs many regional and national one-make series around the globe; the Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup website Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup Online MagazineCarrera CupThe
The Ferrari Challenge is a single-marque motorsport championship, created in 1993 for owners of the 348 Berlinetta who wanted to become involved in racing. It now encompasses three official championships in the United States, Asia-Pacific, Europe. Competitors from each series are brought together at the annual World Finals event. From 2007-10, the Ferrari Challenge used the Ferrari F430 model. 2011 saw the introduction of the 458 Challenge with the 458 Challenge Evoluzione following in 2014. In 2018 Ferrari introduced the 488 Challenge. There are three distinct series, but in 2001, the number of championships peaked at five, with three in Europe, one in the United States, one in Japan. Since 2001, the Ferrari Challenge is managed by Ferrari's Corse Clienti department; the now defunct Ferrari Challenge Italy used a two-class format in which distinguished between professional competition drivers in the Trofeo Pirelli and amateur "gentleman drivers" in the Coppa Shell. This format has now been transferred to the Europe Challenge series.
It was launched in 1993, with backing from Pirelli. Its popularity has resulted in a 2007 entry list of ten teams represented by 37 drivers; the Challenge Italy series is now merged with the European Challenge-series. Like the Challenge Italy, the European series is a two-class championship. For the 2012 calendar it contains 7 races, with 4 of them being held on Italian circuits; this is done in sync with the Italian series now merged into the European. The remaining 3 races are held at Hungaroring, Spa-Francorchamps, Silverstone; the European Challenge is by far the largest series, with between 50–55 entrants for the 2012 season. The North American features the Trofeo Pirelli and Coppa Shell class system; this championship was inaugurated in 1994. It is organized by Ferrari North America and sanctioned by IMSA; the 2012 season consists of 7 events in the Canada. The 2012 grid of the FCNA includes 20 drivers, making it the smallest Challenge-series worldwide in terms of entrants; the Asia-Pacific is the most recent of the Challenge series since the 2011 season, inaugurated in combination with the growing interest and sales for Ferrari in Asia.
The season encompasses events in Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. The Asia-Pacific features the Trofeo Pirelli and Coppa Shell class system. Grid is made up of 35 to 40 drivers for the 2012 season; the Ferrari Challenge has inspired other national club-level championships that are not affiliated with Ferrari S.p. A. itself. The'Ferrari Scandinavia Challenge' is an unofficial championship with events in Sweden, Denmark, it was created in 2001 and is not exclusive to the latest Challenge cars, with many classes so that models all the way back to the 348 are eligible for entry. The UK has a similar unofficial series comprising three championships for older cars, organised by the Ferrari Owners' Club. In recent years, a club championship open to all Challenge cars har been organized in the US under the name of Ferrari Club Racing Championship/Association as an alternative to the Ferrari Challenge North America, which many competitors felt was too expensive; the FCRA hosts 6 rounds during a season.
A brand new 458 Challenge will cost around $300,000 in the US. The only options available on the car is the size of the passenger seat. All new 458C's come delivered on rain tyres. Racing in the Ferrari Challenge North America series will cost around $15,000–$20,000 per race weekend if the car is run by a dealer team, which they in most cases are; this includes crew support, a fee to Ferrari North America and living costs plus additional spares. The fee to FNA is $2,000–$3,000 which gives the competitors fuel and tires. Privateer entries can be run at a smaller cost as there will be no dealer fee included; the Ferrari Challenge uses a single model from the manufacturer's road car range, suitably modified to make them safe for competition use. The lineage began with the 348 Berlinetta in 1993, followed by its successor, the F355 Berlinetta, the 360 Modena was introduced in 2000; the F355 remained eligible during 2000 and 2001. The 360CS version was the first competition-orientated version to be marketed to the public.
The F430 Challenge was phased in during a transitional year in 2006, with the same being the case for the 458 Challenge in 2011. The F430 introduced carbon-ceramic brake discs for the first time and gained 80bhp over the 360CS, which has reduced lap times to three seconds shy of the F430 GT2; the current 458 Challenge is the first to have driver controlled aids such as traction control, stability management and adjustable ABS brakes. The 488 Challenge is the most recent in a line of Ferraris used in the Ferrari Challenge series; the lineage is as follows: Ferrari 348 Challenge Ferrari F355 Challenge Ferrari 360 Challenge Ferrari F430 Challenge Ferrari 458 Challenge Ferrari 488 Challenge All the cars used in the series are track only, although some 360 Challenges have been made road legal in Australia, with extensive modifications. However, due to new legislation, this is not possible anymore; the 360 Challenge used in the series should not be confused with the 360 Challenge Stradale, a road-legal, track day oriented version of the 360, similar to the F430 Scuderia.
In 1999, Sega's producer Yu Suzuki created Ferrari F355 Challenge: Passione Rossa, a video game based on the Ferrari F355 Challenge series. In 2008, System 3's Mark Cale created Ferrari Challenge: Trofeo Pirelli, the official game of the Ferrari Challenge featuring the licensed Ferrari F430 Challeng
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree