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London Institution

The London Institution was an educational institution founded in London in 1806. It preceded the University of London in making scientific education available in the capital to people such as the Dissenters who adhered to non-orthodox religious beliefs and were barred from attending Oxford University or Cambridge University; the Institution moved into premises at Finsbury Circus in 1815 and was noted for the teaching of chemistry. It closed in 1912 and the buildings were used for the University of London until their demolition in 1936; the first recorded meeting to discuss the idea of an Institution was arranged by Sam Woods on 27 March 1805, held at Mr Bodley's house in Lombard Street A further meeting was held the following month at the George & Vulture Tavern in George Yard, Lombard Street, when Sir Francis Baring took the chair and at this meeting it was agreed to send an introductory letter signed by William Haseldine Pepys to a number of potential patrons London bankers and merchants.

A more formal meeting took place at 12 noon on 23 May 1805, at the London Tavern, again chaired by Sir Francis Baring, to discuss the practical details that would be involved in setting up a proper "London Institution". The philosophical aim of the London Institution was "to promote the diffusion of Science and the Arts", the objects were to provide – A Library to contain Works of Intrinsic Value – Lectures for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge – Reading Rooms for the Daily Papers, Periodical Publications, interesting Pamphlets, Foreign Journals; the Institution was to consist of a limited number of Annual Subscribers. It was agreed that the motto of the Institution would be Studio fallente laborem and that its purpose would be to procure "the advancement of literature and the diffusion of useful knowledge"; the Institution was established on 18 January 1806, in the house of Sir William Clayton, at 8 Old Jewry in the City of London at an annual rent of £350. It was modelled on the Royal Institution in London's West End.

By 21 January 1807, a Royal Charter for the "London Institution for the Promotion of Literature and Useful Knowledge" had been drafted listing the following officers, President Sir Francis Baring Bt, Banker and founder of BaringsVice-Presidents Sir Richard Neave, 1st Baronet, West Indies merchant and Governor of the Bank of England Beeston Long, West Indies merchant and Governor of the Bank of England George Hibbert West Indies merchant and book collector John Julius Angerstein, West Indies merchant and art collectorManagers Richard Clarke Matthew Raine, Headmaster of Charterhouse School Richard Sharp Banker, Member of Parliament and conversationalist John Smith MP Banker and Member of Parliament Henry Thornton Banker, Member of Parliament and AbolitionistRichard Porson and scholar, was unanimously chosen as the first Librarian of the London Institution at a meeting on 22 April 1806. With the position went a salary of £200 per annum, a servant and rent-free accommodation. Thomas Campbell, the Scottish poet, had come to London to be considered for the position and had been'well received' but rejected.

A man of Porson's eminence seemed a coup for the Institution and shortly afterwards the governors were able to buy the library of the Marquis of Lansdowne. However Porson turned out to be unsuited for the post because of his heavy untidy ways; as his responsibilities grew in proportion to the Institution's increasing collection of valuable books he failed to meet the challenge. Before any action needed to be taken, he died in September 1808 shortly after a fit of'apoplexy' in the street that had led to him being anonymously committed to St Martin's Lane workhouse. William Maltby was chosen as librarian in 1809 to replace him. Maltby carried out the duties of Librarian for the next twenty-five years. During the years 1806–11 more than £36,000 was spent on books and equipment and it was reported in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1811 that the Institution had collected..."at a large expense, some of the rarest and most splendid specimens of Typography in the kingdom."In his Biographical Index of the current House of Commons, J. Wilson cites Richard Sharp as an important figure in the history of this institution and claims that it was "...chiefly owing to his influences and exertions that the London Institute for the improvement of Science and Literature has been established."

Many of those who supported the idea of such an educational institution for London were fellow Dissenters who were forbidden to attend Oxford or Cambridge universities because of their religious beliefs. The Institution was short of space at Old Jewry and larger premises were needed. After considering a group of seven houses at 16–22 Token House Yard, belonging to the Bank of England, the Institution moved in 1812 to a "capacious house" in King's Arm Yard, Coleman St, at a modest annual rent of only £40; this soon proved to be inadequate to cope with the Institution's rapid growth and so plans were made to move to purpose-built accommodation at Finsbury Circus. The architect of the elegant stone structure was William Brooks and the contract to build it was awarded to Thomas Cubitt, it being his first large-scale project in London; the Institution's new building was completed in 1815 and contained a library, reading-rooms, a lecture-room capable of containing 750 people, a laboratory and other amenities.

The opening was marked by a colourful procession through the streets of London conducted by the Lord Mayor. The construction of Cubitt's new building cost £31,00

Garfield Avenue station

Garfield Avenue is a station on the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail in the Claremont section of Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey. Located between the grade crossing at Randolph Avenue and the bridge at Garfield Avenue, the station in a double side platform and two track structure; the station is on the West Side Avenue branch of the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail, which goes from West Side Avenue station to Tonnelle Avenue station in North Bergen. The station is accessible for handicapped people as per the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. An elevator is present to get people from Garfield Avenue to track level and the platforms are with the train cars; the station opened to the public on April 17, 2000 as part of the original operating segment of the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail. Garfield Avenue station is a block east of the former Arlington Avenue stop of the Newark and New York Railroad, a branch of the Central Railroad of New Jersey; this branch went from the Lafayette Street Terminal in Newark to the junction at Communipaw station in Jersey City, where it met up with the main line to Communipaw Terminal.

Service on the line began on July 23, 1869. The station depot westbound at Arlington Avenue was built in 1889 and the eastbound station in 1910. Service to Newark ended abruptly on February 3, 1946 when a steamship knocked two spans of the bridge over the Hackensack River into the water below. Passenger service at Arlington Avenue ended on May 6, 1948; the station opened on April 17, 2000. In early 2019, it was announced that the West Side Avenue, Martin Luther King Drive, Garfield Avenue stations on the West Side Branch would close for nine months starting in June 2019 for repairs to a sewer line running along he right-of-way. During that time, replacement service would be provided by NJ Transit shuttle buses; the station is at the eastern end of a railroad cut excavated in Bergen Hill in 1869 for the Central Railroad of New Jersey Newark and New York Railroad Branch. Garfield Avenue named for assassinated president James A. Garfield, was once part of Bergen Point Plank Road, which itself had once been a major colonial post road.

A decorative theme for the station is two dimensional "cut-outs" of adults and children, some of whom are playing. Bernhart, Benjamin L.. Historic Journeys By Rail: Central Railroad of New Jersey Stations, Structures & Marine Equipment. Outer Station Project. ISBN 1891402072. Urquhart, Frank J.. A History of the city of Newark, New Jersey, Volume 1. Altenmünster, Germany: Jazzybee Verlag Jürgen Beck. ISBN 9783849649906. Retrieved November 1, 2019. Garfield Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Randolph Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View Pedestrian Crossing & Exit to Garfield Avenue from Google Maps Street View