click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Italian colonization of Libya

The history of Libya as an Italian colony began in the 1910s and lasted until February 1947, when Italy lost all the colonies of the former Italian Empire. It can be divided in two periods: the first from 1911 to 1934 called "Italian colonization" and the second from 1934 called "Italian Libya"; the Italian colonization of Libya started in 1910. On 3 October 1911, Italy attacked Tripoli, claiming to be liberating the Ottoman Wilayats from Istanbul's rule. Despite a major revolt by the Arabs, the Ottoman sultan ceded Libya to the Italians by signing the 1912 Treaty of Lausanne. Tripoli was under Italian control by 1914, but both Cyrenaica and the Fezzan were home to rebellions led by the Senussi. On 25 October 1920, the Italian government recognized Sheikh Sidi Idris as the hereditary head of the nomadic Senussi, with wide authority in Kufra and other oases, as Emir of Cyrenaica, a new title extended by the British at the close of World War I; the Emir would become King of the free Libyan state after World War II.

The Italians made extensive use of the Savari, colonial cavalry troops raised in December 1912: these units were recruited from the Arab-Berber population of Libya following the initial Italian occupation in 1911-12. The Savari, like the Spahi or mounted Libyan police, formed part of the Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali della Libia. Several reorganizations of the colonial authority were made necessary, in the face of armed Arab opposition in Cyrenaica. From 1919 to 1929, the Italian government maintained the two traditional provinces, with separate colonial administrations. A system of controlled local assemblies with limited local authority was set up, but was revoked on 9 March 1927. In 1929, Tripoli and Cyrenaica were united as one colonial province. In 1934, as Italy wanted to achieve imperial status, the classical name "Libya" was revived as the official name of the colony; the newly created "Libya" was split administratively into four provinces, Misrata and Derna. The Fezzan area was administered militarily.

The Italian colonization of the Ottoman provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica was not successful and it was not until the early 1930s that the Kingdom of Italy took full control of the area. Fighting intensified after the accession to power in Italy of the dictator Benito Mussolini; the Emir Muhammad Idris fled to Egypt in 1922. From 1931 to 1932, Italian forces under General Badoglio waged a punitive pacification campaign. Badoglio's successor in the field, General Rodolfo Graziani, accepted the commission from Mussolini on the condition that he was allowed to crush Libyan resistance unencumbered by the restraints of either Italian or international law. Mussolini agreed and Graziani intensified the oppression; some Libyans continued to defend themselves, with the strongest voices of dissent coming from the Cyrenaica. Omar Mukhtar, a Senussi sheikh, became the leader of the uprising. After a much-disputed truce, the Italian policy in Libya reached the level of full-scale war. A barbed wire fence was built from the Mediterranean to the oasis of Jaghbub to sever lines critical to the resistance.

Soon afterwards, the colonial administration began the wholesale deportation of the people of the Jebel Akhdar to deny the resistance the support of the local population. The forced migration of more than 100,000 people ended in concentration camps in Suluq and El Agheila, where thousands died in squalid conditions, it is estimated by Arab historians that the number of Libyans who died, killed in the fighting or through starvation and disease is a minimum of 80,000 people, up to one third of the Cyrenaican population. Fascist historian Giovanni Gentile claimed that this amount was excessive, only a few thousands died of disease and starvation. After Al-Mukhtar's capture September 15, 1931 and his execution in Benghazi, the resistance petered out. Limited resistance to the Italian occupation crystallized round the person of Sheik Idris, the Emir of Cyrenaica. By 1934, Libya was pacified; the new Italian governor Italo Balbo created the political entity called Italian Libya in the summer of that year.

In March 1937 Mussolini made a state visit to Libya, where he opened a new military highway running the entire length of the colony. For propaganda reasons he had himself declared Protector of Islam and was presented with a symbolic sword. Mussolini's publicized encouragement of the Arab nationalist movement suited his wider policies of confronting Britain and France, he sought to colonise Libya, introducing 30,000 Italian colonists which brought their numbers to more than 100,000. These colonists were shipped to Sahel al-Jefara in Tripolitania and the Jebel Akhdar in Cyrenaica, given land from which the indigenous inhabitants had been removed during the colonial war in the 1920s. At the time of the 1939 census, the Italian population in Libya numbered 108,419, concentrated on the coast around the city of Tripoli and Benghazi; the 22,000 Libyan Jews were allowed to integrate in the society of the "Fourth Shore. On January 9, 1939, the colony was incorporated into metropolitan Italy and thereafter considered by Italy to be an integral part of their state.

By 1939, the Italians had built 400 km of new railroads and 4,000 km of new roads

Melrose Township, Stearns County, Minnesota

Melrose Township is a township in Stearns County, United States. The population was 759 at the 2010 census; the township includes the northern two-thirds of the City of Melrose. Melrose Township was organized in 1866; the township's name is the names of two local pioneer women. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 40.0 square miles. Melrose Township is located in Township 126 North of the Arkansas Base Line and Range 33 West of the 5th Principal Meridian. At the 2000 census, there were 255 households and 207 families residing in the township; the population density was 19.5 per square mile. There were 281 housing units at an average density of 7.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.09% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 0.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population. There were 255 households of which 42.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.3% were married couples living together, 2.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.8% were non-families.

14.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.41. Age distribution was 31.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.2 males. The median household income was $42,589, the median family income was $45,865. Males had a median income of $28,571 versus $22,396 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,462. About 3.9% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over

Lee Yeoung-sup

Lee Yeoung-sup spelled Lee Young-sup, is a South Korean artist best known as a sculptor. Lee has been praised for his trademark technique of burying his naturally-themed works to allow for natural weathering and "excavating" the finished sculptures, his workshop is located in the county of Yangpyeong within Gyeonggi Province. Lee Yeoung-sup was born in Gyeonggi-do, his workshop is located at the archeological site of the Godal Temple in Gyeonggi-do. Much of Lee's work is characterized by natural materials, such as carved stone. Sedimentary sections, pottery shards, the like are a part of his deliberately rustic works. Lee's process consists of his using natural materials to loosely sculpt a piece and burying the piece to add natural weathering and wear, he "excavates" the noticeably rougher finished sculpture. Critic Choi Tae-man explains the process in detail: " first prepares a drawing of the object he etches a second drawing using while China clay into the earth of the courtyard of his studio, fills like a mold the inside the etching with cement, sand and fragments of terra cotta.

The resulting molded form, solid and rough, reminds us of a clay statuette or small mummy."The prevalent theme of "time" present in Lee's technique and sculptures has been praised as one of the most prominent facets of his work. Professor Lee Jinkyung of the Seoul National University of Technology has praised both Lee Yeoung-sup's "excavation" technique of creating sculptures and the resulting artwork, stating that the artist "excavates life, encapsulated in time." Additionally, Professor Lee notes that "Lee Yeoung-sup who likes simple, uncomplicated figures creates an uncanny sense of time", that the artist's works are a sort of "realism... not imbued with tension, but one that gives comfort and warmth with a hint of humor."Art critic Choi Tae-man praises Lee's process and resulting work: "Lee Yeoung-sup's creative process demonstrates that what has disappeared has not disappeared, but just been forgotten. His simple, unfashionable ford are in the image of archeological remains." Choi notes the uniqueness of Lee's technique and artwork as a "difficult and creative style founded on his desire to pour into his work the continuity of time that he has witnessed and admired at the foot of the archeological site of the Godal Temple, in which his studio is located.

He shows us that time is not lost, but rediscovered."As of 2016, Lee's works are still on display worldwide in both group and private exhibitions. Korean art

List of Mount Everest expeditions

This is a list of expeditions to Mount Everest. Many of these are mountaineering expeditions for exploration, science or fundraising. There have been many expeditions throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the amount increased in the late 20th century; the first expedition was a reconnaissance expedition in 1921, after a few decades an expedition in 1953 reached the top of Everest. Everest expeditions in the late 1900s had a certain grandiose reputation, because they were such large undertakings; the 1953 expedition had 320 porters. The 1963 American expedition had over 900 porters that carried over 25 tons of supplies, supporting a climbing crew of dozens. 1921 British reconnaissance 1922 British 1924 British 1933 British 1935 British reconnaissance 1936 British 1938 British 1951 British reconnaissance. 1952 Swiss 1953 British First successful ExpeditionIn 1953, a ninth British expedition was led by John Hunt and organized and financed by the Joint Himalayan Committee. Using conventional open-circuit oxygen sets, the summit was reached at 11:30 a.m. local time on May 29, 1953 by the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali, climbing the South Col route.

This was the first time a man reach the top of Mount Everest 1956 Swiss ExpeditionIn 1956, a second Swiss expedition, led by Albert Eggler on May 23, 1956 four summitters reached on the top of the Mount Everest Ernst Schmied, Jurg Marmet, Dolf Reist and Hansruedi von Gunten 1960 Chinese. In 1960, 1960 Chinese, led by Shih Cahn-chun on May 25, 1960 three summitters reached on the top of the Mount Everest Wang Fu-chou, Konbu aka Gonpa and Chu Ying-hua 1963 U. S. National Geographic Expedition First ascent by an American: Jim Whittaker, accompanied by Nawang Gombu Sherpa who went on to become the first man to climb Everest twice in 1965. Hornbein and Unsoeld descended by the South Col, making the ascent the first traverse of Everest.. Lute Jerstad and Barry Bishop are the another summiteers. A total of six persons reach the summit, five Americans and one sherpa 1965 Indian Everest ExpeditionIndia became the fourth country to scale the Mount Everest, it was on May 1965 that Lt Col Avatar. S. Cheema,Navang Gombu Sherpa,Sonam Gyatso,Sonam Wangyal, C. P. Vohra,Ang Kami Sherpa, H. P. S. Ahluwalia, H. C. S. Rawat,and Phu Dorjee Sherpa made the summit.

This was Nawang Gombus second time and he became the first man climb everest twice. A total number of 9 summitters reach on the summit and it was record unbeatable for 20 years. 1970 Japanese Alpine Club Mount Everest Expedition. 1973 Italian Everest Expedition 1973 Japanese RCCⅡ Everest Expedition 1975 Japanese Women's Everest ExpeditionJunko Tabei: became the first woman to reach the summit of Everest on 5/16/75 via the South-East Ridge route.. 1975 Chinese Mount Everest expedition - North Col- North East Ridge 1975 British SW Face 1976 British and Nepalese Army expedition 1976 American Expedition - South East Ridge 1977 South Korean Expedition - South East Ridge 1978 Austrian Expedition - South East Ridge 1978 Franco-German Expedition headed by Dr. Karl Herrligkoffer 1979 Yugoslav Expedition along the West Ridge led by Tone Škarja 1979 German Expedition led by Gerhard Schmatz 1980 Polish National Expedition - South East Ridge. 1980 Japanese Alpine Club Expedition - North East Ridge 1980 Spanish Expedition - South East Ridge 1980 Reinhold Messner- Solo!

- North Col/North Face. First to ascend alone and without supplementary oxygen – from base camp to summit - during the monsoon, he established a new route on the North Face. 1981 American Medical Expedition - South Pillar/South East Ridge 1982 Russian Expedition - South West Pillar 1982 Canadian Mount Everest Expedition 1982 Japanese Japanese Winter Expedition - South East Ridge 1983 German/American Expedition - South East Ridge 1983 American Expedition - East Face/South East Ridge 1983 Japanese Sangak-udoshikai Expedition - South East Ridge 1983 Japanese Yeti Dojin Expedition - South East Ridge 1983 Japanese Kamoshika Dojin Expedition - South East Ridge 1984 Bulgarian Expedition by the West Ridge 1984 Indian Everest Expedition 1984This expedition led by Darshan Kumar Khullar recorded a total of 5 ascents by Indians including Ms. Bachendri Pal the first woman summitter from India 1984 Australian Expedition - North Face/Norton Couloir 1984 Slovak Expedition - South Pillar, but descending the South east ridge 1984 Czechoslovak Expedition by South Pillar 1984 American Expedition - North Col/North Face 1985 Norwegian Expedition - South East Ridge 1985 Spanish Segunda Expedición caja de Barcelona al Everest Expedition - North East Ridge 1985 Japanese Uemura Filming Expedition - South East Ridge 1986 Canadian Expedition - West Ridge.

1986 Franco/Swiss Expedition - North Face/Hornbein Couloir 1987 South Korean Expedition - South East Ridge. 1988 Joint China-Japan-Nepal Expedition. 1988 American Expedition - East Face/South Col 1988 The Australian Bicentennial Everest Expedition 1988 French Expedition - South East Ridge 1988 South Korean Expedition - South Pillar 1988 Spanish Expedition - South East Ridge 1988 New Zealand Expedition led by Rob Hall - South East Ridge 1988 Czechoslovak Expedition by Southwest Face, repeating the route of 1975 British Expedition without supplemental oxygen 1989 International Expedition - South East Ridge. 1989 American Expedition - South East Ridge 1989 Polish Expedition - West Ridge/Hornbein Couloir 1989 Japanese Expedition - South East Ridge 1989 Mexican Expedition - South East Ridge 1989 South Korean Expedition - West Ridge 1990 Royal Nepalese Army Expedition - South East

Tanmay Mishra

Tanmay Mishra is a former Kenyan cricketer. He is a right-handed aggressive middle-order batsman and made his One Day International debut for Kenya in 2006 against Zimbabwe at Bulawayo. In 2007, Tanmay enrolled himself in an Indian University, this prevented him from making any appearances for the Kenyan national side for the next three years, he returned to the national team in 2010 October. Mishra was bought by the Deccan Chargers ahead of IPL 5, he has been signed as an'Indian' as he has an Indian passport. In the 2014 IPL players auction, he was bought by the Royal Challengers Bangalore for Rs. 10 lakhs. In the domestic circle, he scored his first List A century in 2019, 13 years after he had played his first domestic one-day match, his ton came in Tripura's 2019–20 Vijay Hazare Trophy match against Madhya Pradesh.he plyaed in world cup 2011 from kenyan side. Tanmay Mishra at ESPNcricinfo Tanmay Mishra on Twitter From playing World Cup for Kenya to piling runs for Tripura - Tanmay Mishra Story by Bastab K Parida

United Asian Debating Championships

The United Asian Debating Championship is an annual debating tournament for teams from universities in Asia. It is the largest inter-varsity Parliamentary Debate tournament in Asia, with over 600 participants; the UADC holds debates in the Asian 3-on-3 format Parliamentary Debating. The 1st UADC was hosted by Assumption University, Bangkok in 2010; the UADC was created after a decision to merge the two separate championships that were held after the Asian Debating community split in 2005 - the Asian Universities Debating Championship and the All-Asian Intervarsity Debating Championships. The decision to unite the two competing tournaments, thus, create a single debate championship for Asia was taken at the last Asian Universities Debating Championships in 2009. Arising out of a unification of the Asian Universities Debating Championship as well as the All-Asian Intervarsity Debating Championships, UADC represents the results of efforts to bridge the schism that emerged in Asian debating. Institutions who were unhappy about aspects of the organisation of the All-Asian Intervarsity Debating Championships established the Asian Universities Debating Championship in 2005 as an alternative to the All-Asians Championship.

Since many universities in Asia with strong debating traditions – most notably universities from the Philippines and Singapore, including all except one of the institutions who won the All-Asian championships up to 2004 – had chosen not to participate in the All-Asian Intervarsity Championships and have instead entered teams in the Asian Universities Debating Championship. While not intended to be a rival tournament, the last three AUDCs coincided with the schedule of the All-Asian Championship, which made it impractical for teams to attend both tournaments. After many overtures, including a proposal to have an Asian Unity Tournament in Multimedia University, not accepted by the AUDC Council, it was agreed that the All-Asian Universities would attend the AUDC Championships held in 2009 in Dhaka hosted by East West University, it was decided here in Council that the two tournaments would unite in the next edition, the name of this new tournament would be the United Asian Debating Championships.

The Union that decided the unification was chaired by Estelle Osorio from De La Salle University. The next chair, Vikram Balasubramanian of Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, was elected in the same union meeting; the 1st United Asians Debate Championship was hosted by Thailand. Dino de Leon of De La Salle University chaired the Union meetings as acting chair. Sharmila Parmanand of Ateneo de Manila University was elected as the chair for year 2010-2011; the UADC, like the AUDC and the All-Asians, is held annually in May, but was transferred in June due to the academic calendar change. The competition involves eight preliminary rounds, which become power-paired as the tournament progresses, matching the strongest-performing teams against each other; the preliminary rounds are followed by a "break" announcement, at which the teams proceeding to elimination rounds are announced. Separate breaks are announced for English as Foreign language team competition. 16 teams proceed to octo-finals.

While preliminary rounds are judged by up to three judges, break rounds are judged by panels of five or seven, the finals by a panel of nine. 2020 – Bali, Indonesia All UADC motions here