Italian hip hop started in the 1980s. One of the first hip hop crews to catch the attention of the Italian mainstream was Milan's Articolo 31 and still today produced by Franco Godi, who had written the soundtrack to the animated TV series Signor Rossi in the 1970s; the European Music Office's report on Music in Europe claimed that, in general, hip hop from the south of Italy tends to be harder than that from the north. In the early 1980s, hip hop spread to Italy through Posse cuts, which were popular in centri sociali, alternative centers where several left-wing young people met, where the influential Italian hardcore punk scene was flourishing, from which the Italian Posse Cut movement inherited its social conscious; the first star to emerge from this scene was Jovanotti, who would rap in otherwise standard Italian pop. While Jovanotti was discovered by the famous producer Claudio Cecchetto and reached fame, in the underground Radical Stuff published the first Italian hip hop street video Let's Get Dizzy featuring lo Greco Bros in 1989.
That year Marko Von Schoenberg of Stone Castle Records in Italy produced Dre' n OG along with Andre Herring and Nathaniel Goodwin, with songs such as AK-47, Got Damn, Do Beat, Spread Your Legs. In 1991 the Posse Cut movement produced its first underground rap in the Italian language, with tracks such as Stop al Panico by Isola Posse All Star, a track against murders and violence in the streets. Articolo 31, who started out as a East Coast rap inspired hip hop duo, rapped in two commercials in 1993; the duo had always been criticized for their connection to the Italian pop-music market. In 1996, as they started their performance at Venice's hip hop festival, the others rappers left the stage as a symbolic protest against them. In the next few years a dissing battle started between the Zero Stress Crew. Other important crews and rappers included Bologna's Porzione Massiccia Crew, Sangue Misto, with their 1994 album SXM, which has influenced all subsequent Italian hip hop. In Italy after the 90's the hip-hop was abandoned because the majors no longer focused on rappers and various rappers and producers such as Lou x and Fritz da Cat have retired from the rap scene.
But however many groups are continued to rapping. In 2004 the rap group Cor Veleno was signed by Sony Music, in 2005 Mondo Marcio was signed by EMI and in 2006 the rapper Fabri Fibra signed with Universal. With his album Tradimento he made rap known to a wider audience. In 2007 the group Sacre Scuole was signed by Virgin Records and in 2008 Marracash was signed by Universal; the most important albums in this decade were: Mr. Simpatia in 2004 and Tradimento in 2006 by Fabri Fibra, "Napolimanicomio" by Clementino in 2006, "Marracash" by Marracash and "Ministero dell'Inferno" by Truceklan. Among the most popular Italian rappers are Kaos One, Colle der Fomento, Sacre Scuole, Gué Pequeno, Sfera Ebbasta, Fabri Fibra, Inokiness, Noyz Narcos and Caparezza. More two young rappers have become more well known: Fedez and Emis Killa. Stokes, Martin. "Ethnicity and Race". In John Shepherd. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 1: Media and Society. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-6321-5. Joe Sciorra's site about Italian Hip Hop Zero-plastica's site hip hop underground from Italy genova Italian-based hip hop site supplying international exclusives Italian Hip Hop Portal which includes a large database of Italian as well as International artists Brief overview of Italian Hip Hop Hip Hop Selection - Daily news and links about Italian and international Hip Hop List of Italian rapper
The IBM 308X was a line of mainframe computers, the first model of which, the Model 3081 Processor Complex, was introduced November 12, 1980. It consisted of a 3081 Processor Unit with supporting units. Models in the series were the 3083 and the 3084; the 3083 was announced March 31 and the 3084 on September 3, both in 1982. The IBM 308X line introduced the System/370 Extended Architecture. All three 308X systems, which IBM had marketed as "System/370-Compatibles," were withdrawn August 4, 1987; the initial 3081 offered, the 3081D, was a 5 MIPS machine. The next offering, the 3081K, was a 7 MIPS machine. Last came the 3081G; the 3081D was announced Nov 12, 1980. Some key technological features of the 3081, compared to the previous most powerful processor, the 3033, were the following: About 800,000 circuits implemented in large scale integration, using up to 704 logic circuits per chip, which provided the required performance and serviceability that were design goals "Elimination of one complete level of packaging, the card level" Water cooling, which provides heat removal from chips beyond the ability of conventional air cooling A machine cycle time of 26 nanoseconds Reduced power consumption, 23 kilowatts for a 3081-D16 versus 68 kilowatts for a 3033-U16 Approximately double the instruction-execution rate of the 3033 Two central processor componentsBoth central processors have access to channels, main memory.
The elimination of a layer of packaging was achieved through the development of the Thermal Conduction Module, a flat ceramic module containing about 30,000 logic circuits on up to 118 chips. The TTL chips were joined face-down to the TCM with an array of 11 × 11 solder pads; the TCM contains 33 metalized layers. "A module is connected to the next level of packaging through 1800 pins." The module is fitted with a helium-filled metal cap. A water-cooled cold plate is attached to the cap; this arrangement provides cooling of the module heat flux on the order of 105 watts per square meter, about a tenfold increase over the 3033 processor. The internal code name of the 3081 was Adirondack; the IBM 3083 was described by an IBMer as "never intended to be built," adding that the 308X was to only be the 3081 and 3084, that the 3083 was aimed at "the ACP/TPF market" which wanted a "fast... uniprocessor."Of the various 3083 models listed by IBM in their announcement, the CX has the slowest instruction execution rate.
Next in speed are the E and EX, followed by B and BX. The J and JX are the fastest 3083s. IBM's information sheet says: The 3083 Model CX has an instruction execution rate of about 0.75 times that of a 3083 Model EX. The 3083 Models B and BX have an instruction execution rate ranging from 1.4 to 1.5 times the 3083 Models E and EX, respectively. The 3083 Models J and JX have an instruction execution rate ranging from 1.8 to 2.0 times the 3083 Models E and EX, respectively. Collectively, the fastest is 2.667 times the performance of the slowest. Announced September 3, 1982 and withdrawn August 4, 1987, it could be configured with 48 or 64 million bytes of main memory. A 3084 was "available only as an upgrade from a 3081 Model Group K" with 32 MB. "The 3084 was two 3081 tied together to make a 4-way SMP." ( IBM System/360 IBM System/370 IBM 303X IBM 3090 Prasad, N. S.. IBM Mainframes: Architecture and Design. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070506868. — Chapter 9 describes the 308X. IBM 3081 IBM 3083 IBM 3084
Juliette Bonkoungou is the ambassador from Burkina Faso to Canada and one of many female Burkinabé politicians. She has worked as a judge, as president of the Economic and Social Council, she is a member of the same party as her country's president Blaise Compaore, the Congress for Democracy and Progress. She is known informally in Burkina Faso as Julie of her native town. Juliette Bonkoungou was born in Yameogo in Koudougou, Burkina Faso on 14 May 1954, the eldest of eight children, her father, Mr. Joseph Yameogo, a prince of Burkina Nabe Yiri, served as a policeman in the town of Bobo Dioulasso for two years and returned to his hometown, where he worked as a police officer, her mother was Madeleine Yameogo. She met her husband Pascal Bonkoungou in 1981 in France, her husband is a doctor specializing in diseases of the stomach and abdomen and the couple have a daughter and two sons. Juliette Bonkoungou is a economist. After obtaining a master's degree in civil law and a DEA, she obtained with distinction a diploma from the Ecole Nationale de la Magistrature.
This was followed by a further postgraduate diploma in industrial purchasing management from the Institute of Business and Administration in Bordeaux, France. She successfully completed full professional training in legal practice at the civil court of Bordeaux, she speaks French, English and Dioula. Mrs Bonkoungou had a permanent academic appointment lecturing in the Law of Work and Social Security at the National School of Administration and Magistracy from September 1979 to June 1981, following which she taught Law of Work and Social Security in the faculty of Law and Political Sciences of the University of Ouagadougou from September 1985 to July 1987, she was a judge at the Ouagadougou Palace of Justice from November 1984 to December 1985 and until December 1987 presided over the Ouagadougou Tribunal of Work. From December 1987 to July 1989, she was the director general of the National Television of Burkina Faso; as a minister, Mrs Bonkoungou took on responsibility for public employment.
She wrote proposals for the redefinition of the role and missions of the state and carried out an organizational and functional audit of the country's ministries and state organisations. Her dissertation at the School of Commerce in Paris was on the opportunities for using solar power in Burkina Faso, she was head of the National Expert Group of the United Nations in the matter of public administration and finance in August 1995 with responsibility for the session preparation specialist of ONU on the public administration of development in December 1995 and was its member since October 1993. She has presented papers and led sessions at seminars and workshops on the questions of institutional reforms and of good governance in Burkina Faso, she has been honorary president and member of many associations working for the interests of women and children. She was a founder member of the association of women lawyers of Burkina Faso; as a member of the Congress for Democracy and Progress she was elected as a Member of the National Assembly in May 1997.
She was a municipal councillor of her home city Koudougou, the third largest city in Burkina Faso. She served for seven years as minister of Administrative Modernization. In 1997 she was appointed president of the Economic and Social Council where she served for three years before being appointed as ambassador of Burkina Faso in Canada. In her position of ambassador, Mrs. Bonkoungou has organized some traditional celebrations of Burkina Faso in Canada, which allows people from other countries to know more about her country, as well as being a reminder of home, for people from Burkina Faso living abroad. To her, many people when they hear "Africa" automatically think about famine. Disappointed by this, one of her many wishes is to change this negative image of Africa and to promote the realities of Africa to Canadians. On 23 August 2003 the population of Koudougou received 26 tons of cereals from her, an act she describes as her contribution to the fight against famine in her native town, she is the patron of many associations.
She has been named officer of national order of Burkina Faso.