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Italian invasion of Libya

The Invasion of Libya by Italy happened in 1911, when Italian troops invaded the Turkish province of Libya and started the Italo-Turkish War. As result, Italian Tripolitania and Italian Cyrenaica were established unified in the colony of Italian Libya; the claims of Italy over Libya dated back to verbal discussions after the Congress of Berlin, in which France and Great Britain had agreed for the occupation of Tunisia and Cyprus both part of the ailing Ottoman Empire. When Italian diplomats hinted about a possible opposition of their government, the French replied that Tripoli would have been a counterpart for Italy. In 1902 Italy and France had signed a secret treaty which accorded freedom of intervention in Tripolitania and Morocco. However, the Italian government did little to put in practice the opportunity, knowledge of the Libyan territory and resources remained scarce in the following years; the Italian press began a massive lobbying campaign in favour of an invasion of Libya, at the end of March 1911.

It was fancifully depicted as rich of minerals, full of water, defended by only 4,000 Ottoman troops. The population was considered hostile to the Ottoman Empire and friendly to the Italians; the future invasion was described as little more than a "military walk". The Italian government showed hesitant, but in the summer the preparations for the invasion were carried out, Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti began to probe the other European major powers about their reactions of a possible invasion of Libya; the Socialist party had strong influence over the public opinion. However, it was in opposition and divided on the issue, it acted ineffectively against the military intervention. An ultimatum was presented to the Ottoman government of CUP, in the night of 26 – September 27; the CUP, through the Austrian intermediation, replied with the proposal of handing over control over Libya without warring, maintaining a formal Ottoman suzerainty. This suggestion was comparable to the situation in Egypt, under formal Ottoman suzerainty, but was controlled by the United Kingdom.

Giolitti refused, war was declared on September 29, 1911. In spite of the time it had had to prepare the invasion, the Italian Army was prepared when the war broke out because of some opposition to the war in Italy. Italy's Military Plans and the Ottoman Lack of Response: The initial plans laid by the Italian General Staff called for an invasion force composed of 34,000 troops 6,300 horses and cavalry 1,050 troop carriers 48 artillery pieces 34 mountain artillery piecesThese initial plans were amended to increase Italian troop strength to 100,000 and include biplanes in the invasion force. Facing this force were 4,800 Ottoman regulars with a mixture of antiquated guns and artillery; the defense of Libya would be hastily prepared and fall on the shoulders of the indigenous population with a few hundred Ottoman officers providing leadership and guidance from 1911. Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu, the capital of Italian Somaliland, served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the Italo-Turkish War.

Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. The Italian fleet had appeared off Tripoli in the evening of September 28, but started to bomb the port only on October 3; the city was conquered by 1,500 sailors, much to the enthusiasm of the interventionist minority in Italy. Another last proposal of a friendly settlement was rejected by the Italians, the Turks determined therefore to defend the province until the last bullet but with a guerrilla war; the first disembarkment of troops happened on October 10, under the command of general Carlo Caneva, soon Tripoli, Benghazi and Tobruk were occupied. The Italian contingent of 20,000 troops was deemed sufficient to the accomplishment of the conquest at the time. Tobruk, Derna and Al-Khums were conquered, but the same was not the case for Benghazi; the city of Tripoli and surroundings -after a destructive bombing of the Turkish fortifications- were conquered by 1,500 Italian sailors, welcomed by the population who started to collaborate with the Italian authoritiesThe first partial setback for the Italian troops happened on October 23 in the Sciara Sciat massacre, when the bad placement of the Italian troops near Tripoli led to their complete encirclement by more mobile Libyan cavalry, backed by some Turk regular unit and by local civilians.

However, the Italians were able to defeat the Libyan forces in a few hours. The attack was portrayed as a simple "revolt" by the Italian press, but resulted in the annihilation of much of the Italian expeditionary corps. Which was enlarged, until it amounted to 100,000 men, who had to face 20,000 Arab and 8,000 Turks, all badly armed; the war turned into a position one, the first use of aviation in a modern war scored little result. On November 2 there was a tentative counterattack by the Ottoman forces in the small battle at Tobruk, but here the city remained under Italian occupation. Meanwhile, 1,500 Libyan volunteers attacked Italian troops who were building trenches near occupied Derna; the Italians, who were outnumbered, but had superior weaponry, held the line. A lack of coordination between the Italian units sent from Derna as reinforcements and the intervention of Turkish artillery threatened the Italian line, the Arabs attempted to surround the Italian troops. Further Italian reinforcements, were able to stabilize the situation

Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary

Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary is a protected natural area located in the region of Tumbes, Peru. Established in 1988, it protects the largest area of mangrove forest in Peru; this protected area is located in Zarumilla Province, Tumbes. With an area of 29.72 square kilometres, it harbors the largest mangrove forest in Peru. Five species of mangrove dominate the area: black mangrove, white mangrove, button mangrove and two species of red mangrove. Seasonally dry forest and scrubland can be found in some parts of the sanctuary. Prosopis pallida, Capparis scabrida. Crotalaria sp. Tephrosia cinerea, Cyperus sp. Scirpus sp. Distichlis spicata, Antephora hermaphrodita, Paspalum racemosum, Ipomoea sp. Bidens pilosa, among others; the sanctuary protects 148 species of birds, being some of them the yellow-crowned night heron, the rufous-necked wood rail, the American yellow warbler and the American white ibis. The sanctuary protects 105 fish species, plus some other 40 migrant species. Mammals found in the area include the crab-eating raccoon, the silky anteater and the neotropical otter.

33 snail species, 34 crustacean species, 24 bivalve species and 9 reptile species are found in the sanctuary. It is possible to navigate, by kayak or canoe, the waterways inside the mangrove forest in the zone accessible to tourists. In this area activities like walking on beaches and observation of the use of the mangrove ecosystem by the locals are allowed. Scientific research has been a constant activity since the creation of the sanctuary; the clearance of mangrove forests and nearby seasonally dry forests to open land for shrimp farming and agriculture has an enormous impact on local ecosystems. Shrimp farms capture and grow larva of local shrimp species from the mangrove forests with help of local inhabitants; these farms and agricultural lands pollute the area with industrial waste and agricultural runoff. Illegal extraction of edible crustaceans and bivalves. Introduced plant species like Tephrosia purpurea, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Eragrostis cilianensis and Brachiaria mutica are found growing inside this protected area.

The American crocodile is no longer present in the area, rendering this species as one of the most threatened in the country. Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary. Profile at protectedplanet.net

Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)

Victor IV was elected as a Ghibelline antipope in 1159, following the death of Pope Adrian IV and the election of Alexander III. His election was supported by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, he took the name Victor IV, not accounting for Antipope Victor IV of 1138, whose holding of the papal office was deemed illegitimate. Octaviano Monticelli belonged to one of the most powerful Counts of Tusculum, he was appointed as rector of Benevento in May 1137, cardinal priest of San Nicola in Carcere in 1138. In 1151 Octaviano became cardinal priest of Santa Cecilia, he was described by John of Salisbury as eloquent and refined, but parsimonious. When he was sent with Cardinal Jordan of Santa Susanna as a papal legate to summon Conrad III of Germany to Italy to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, he quarreled with his co-legate and, in John of Salisbury's words, "made the Church a laughingstock". In Germany, he met Frederick, duke of Swabia, who would soon become the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Following the death of Pope Adrian IV, the College of Cardinals gathered to elect a new pope.

During the Papal election of 4–7 September 1159 they elected the chancellor Rolando, who assumed the title of Alexander III. However, five cardinals, the clergy of St. Peter's, the Roman populace refused to recognize him and elected their own candidate Octaviano on 7 September 1159, he was popular on account of his liberality and splendour of living. He was considered a great friend of the Germans, rested his hopes on the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, yet it is not to be assumed that the emperor, busy with the Siege of Crema, had desired his election. Victor IV was consecrated on 4 October in the abbey of Farfa by Cardinal-Bishop Imar of Tusculum, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Ubaldo, bishop of Ferentino and Riccardo, bishop of Melfi. With the armed assistance of Otto von Wittelsbach and his own armed groups in short time he took control over the City of Rome and the Patrimony of St. Peter, while Alexander III took refuge in the territory of the Kingdom of Sicily, in France.

Both popes sent their legates to the Catholic kingdoms. As a matter of fact the emperor was at first neutral and called upon the bishops not to take sides. Being the chief protector of the Church, Victor convoked a synod at Pavia in February 1160; the emperor, after the sacking of Crema the previous month, demanded that Alexander appear before the emperor at Pavia and to accept the imperial decree. Alexander III declined. Emperor Frederick I declared himself in favour of Victor IV, the synod decided, as was to be expected, for Victor, pronounced an anathema upon Alexander. On February 11, 1160, the council ended with a procession to Pavia Cathedral. Here Victor was received by the emperor, who, as a sign of humility, helped him to get off the horse and took him by the hand and led him to the altar and kissed his feet. Most of the episcopate of the Empire followed the decision of the synod. However, this attempt to secure Victor's recognition was never successful in Germany, since Bishop Eberhard of Salzburg was his principal opponent.

In response, Alexander on his side excommunicated both Frederick I and Victor IV. King Valdemar I of Denmark gave his support to Victor IV, but the primate of Denmark archbishop Eskil of Lund became a partisan of Alexander III, it seems that Poland supported Victor IV. Alexander was able to gain the support of the rest of western Europe, because since the days of Hildebrand the power of the pope over the church in the various countries had increased so that the kings of France and of England could not view with indifference a revival of such imperial control of the papacy as had been exercised by the Emperor Henry III. Therefore, England, Sweden, Scotland, Hungary and the Crusader states in Outremer recognized Alexander III as true pope if in some of these countries there were a significant Victorine minorities in episcopates or among feudal rulers; the papal schism in Europe was now a fact. In 1162, King Louis VII of France wavered once more. Frederick attempted to convoke a joint council at Saint-Jean-de-Losne with Louis VII to decide the issue of who should be pope.

Louis neared the meeting site, but when he became aware that Frederick had stacked the votes for Alexander, Louis decided not to attend the council. As a result, the issue was not resolved at that time; this disastrous meeting had as its result that the king held to the obedience of Alexander. During the years 1162–1165 Alexander lived in France, from 1163 the pope exerted himself to gain more of Germany for his cause. All uncertainty came to an end on 20 April 1164; that day, while traveling with Rainald of Dassel, Victor IV died at Lucca. When Pope Alexander III learned of the death of his rival, he wept, reprimanded his cardinals when they showed inappropriate delight; the clergy of the Lucca Cathedral and San Frediano would not allow Victor IV buried there because of his excommunication. Therefore, he was buried in a local monastery; when miracles were reported at his tomb, it was destroyed by order of Pope Gregory VIII in December 1187. Victor's successor was Paschal III. Papal selection before 1059 Papal conclave Barlow, F..

"The English and French Councils called to deal with

Francisco Pradilla Ortiz

Francisco Pradilla Ortiz was a prolific Spanish painter famous for creating historical scenes. He began his studies in Zaragoza, he transferred to the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and the "Academia de Acuarelistas" in Madrid. In 1873, he became one of the first students chosen to study at the new Spanish Academy in Rome. From there he studied the old masters. In 1878 he submitted his painting Doña Joanna the Mad or to the National Exhibition of Fine Arts and was awarded the Medal of Honor. In 1879, the Spanish Senate commissioned him to create La Rendición de Granada, that took him three years to complete. In 1881 he became the Director of the Spanish Fine Arts Academy in Rome, but resigned from this post after two years, he traveled in Italy, portraying local themes and people. In 1897 he returned to Madrid as the director of the Museo del Prado, he held this position only and focused again on painting. His total output is well over 1,000 paintings showing his interest in a variety of subjects and styles without regard of the current fashion.

He is recognized for his historical paintings, the last one completed in 1910 carries one of the longer titles of a major painting, Cortejo del bautizo del Príncipe Don Juan, hijo de los Reyes Católicos, por las calles de Sevilla. Much more common, are costumbristas—often romanticized studies that show local customs or manners—and landscapes that are sketchy, with impressionistic influences. Financial duress. Pradilla y Ortiz in the Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa Media related to Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz at Wikimedia Commons

Alabama Concerto

Alabama Concerto is an album by composer John Benson Brooks featuring saxophonist Cannonball Adderley and trumpeter Art Farmer. For Brooks, it was "an outgrowth of an assignment he had to transcribe for a book some folk recordings made in Alabama by Harold Courlander". Critic John S. Wilson, in a contemporaneous review, observed of the composer: "Working from several rural folk themes, he develops his Concerto through ensembles, written solos and improvised solos played by a quartet". Concluding in a negative vein, Wilson stated that the album "lacks movement and explicit development the work becomes lost in monotony long before the two full LP sides have been completed." The Allmusic site awarded the album 3 stars with the review by Scott Yanow stating, "Although not essential, the music is thought-provoking, quite melodic, looks backwards toward folk music of the 1800's while giving the pieces a 1950's jazz sensibility". All compositions by John Benson Brooks First Movement: THEMES: "The Henry John Story" / "Green, Green Rocky Road" / "Job's Red Wagon" - 4:49 First Movement: "The Henry John Story" / "Green, Green Rocky Road" - 3:17 First Movement: "Job's Red Wagon" - 3:07 Second Movement: THEMES: "Trampin'" / "The Loop" / "Trampin'" - 7:54 Second Movement: "The Loop" - 2:25 Third Movement: THEME: "Little John Shoes" - 3:09 Third Movement: THEME: "Milord's Calling" / "Little John Shoes" / "Milord's Callin'" - 5:06 Fourth Movement: THEMES: "Blues for Christmas" / "Rufus Playboy" / "Grandma's Coffin" / "Blues for Christmas" - 7:33 Fourth Movement: "Grandma's Coffin" / "Rufus Playboy" / "Grandma's Coffin" - 5:07 John Benson Brooks - piano, arranger Cannonball Adderley - alto saxophone Art Farmer - trumpet Barry Galbraith - guitar Milt Hinton - bass

Loughton incinerator thefts

The Loughton incinerator thefts occurred between 1988 and 1992 at the Bank of England's incinerator plant in Loughton, Essex – four employees of the plant stole more than GB£600,000 in a series of regular thefts. The four participants and their spouses were arrested in 1992, with only one being prosecuted in criminal court. In a civil suit, the remaining members of the group were ordered to repay half a million pounds to the bank; the story of the case has been adapted into two feature-length films. Between 1988 and 1992, four employees of the Bank of England's incinerator plant in Loughton conspired to steal in a series of thefts more than £600,000 worth of banknotes that were due to be destroyed. One participant, Christine Gibson, smuggled the notes out of the plant by stuffing them into her underwear. Gibson worked in collaboration with just two other employees, Kenneth Longman and Michael Nairne, before the trio were approached and joined by a fourth individual, Kevin Winwright, who acted as their "look-out" and distracted the guards.

During this time, the group and their spouses lived a "life of Riley", spending their gains on expensive cars and jewellery. The group was brought to the attention of the police after Gibson's husband, attempted to make a deposit of £100,000 at the Ilford branch of the Reliance Mutual Insurance Society in 20- and 50-pound notes – soon after, Nairne attempted to make a deposit of £30,000 at the same branch. All four colleagues and their respective partners were soon arrested, but only Winwright was prosecuted – he admitted to stealing £170,000 from the plant and received an 18-month prison sentence; the six remaining participants were sued by the Bank of England at the High Court of Justice in April 1994. The case, Bank of England v Gibson, was overseen by Judge Norman Rudd, with Winwright giving evidence on behalf of the bank. After a two-week trial, Rudd delivered his judgment on 26 April 1994, ordering the three families to repay more than half a million pounds to the bank; as no witnesses who had given evidence in the High Court were willing to speak to the police, all three couples escaped criminal convictions.

The story of the thefts was adapted into two films: first in 2001 as Hot Money, a television movie made for ITV starring Caroline Quentin again as Mad Money, a 2008 film based on ITV's production, starring Diane Keaton. A plot of criminals conspiring to steal banknotes about to be destroyed was featured in the long-running German television series Cobra 11. A similar crime was committed in 2000, when two bank clerks stole 110 sacks of notes valued at £23,000 that were due to be incinerated – the two participants were sent to prison for six and nine months. Bank of England v Gibson at Law Index Pro