Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, San Marino and Vatican City, it has an official minority status in western Istria. It had official status in Albania, Monaco and Greece, is understood in Corsica and Savoie, it used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both other regional languages. Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe.
It is the fourth most spoken first language in the European Union with 67 million native speakers and it is spoken as a second language by 13.4 million EU citizens. Including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is 85 million. Italian is the main working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera, its influence is widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken by the upper class of Florentine society, its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent, by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, Latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were literate in Latin. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian; as in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive and, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. All native Italian words and syllables finish with pure vowels, a factor that makes Italian words easy to use in rhyming. Italian has a 7 vowel sound system. During the Middle Ages, the established written language in Europe was Latin, though the great majority of people were illiterate, only a handful were well versed in the language. In the Italian peninsula, as in most of Europe, most would instead speak a local vernacular; these dialects, as they are referred to, evolved from Vulgar Latin over the course of centuries, unaffected by formal standards and teachings. They are not in any sense "dialects" of standard Italian, which itself started off as one of these local tongues, but sister languages of Italian.
Mutual intelligibility with Italian varies as it does with Romance languages in general. The Romance dialects of Italy can differ from Italian at all levels and are classified typologically as distinct languages; the standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the writings of Tuscan writers of the 12th century, though the grammar and core lexicon are unchanged from those used in Florence in the 13th century, the modern standard of the language was shaped by recent events. However, Romance vernacular as language spoken in the Apennine peninsula has a longer history. In fact, the earliest surviving texts that can be called vernacular are legal formulae known as the Placiti Cassinesi from the Province of Benevento that date from 960–963, although the Veronese Riddle from the 8th or early 9th century, contains a late form of Vulgar Latin that can be seen as a early sample of a vernacular dialect of Italy; the language that came to be thought of as Italian developed in central Tuscany and was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine.
Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio affixed the title Divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language. In addition to the widespread exposure gained through literatu
Macroderma godthelpi is species of bat known from fossil material found in Australia, one of the larger carnivorous megadermatid family of the Chiroptera order. They resembled the modern species Macroderma gigas, known as a false vampire or ghost bat, although smaller than any other species of Macroderma; the description of Macroderma godthelpi was published in 1985 by the palaeontologist Suzanne Hand, separating Miocene fossil material discovered at the Riversleigh World Heritage Area as a new species of Macroderma. The type material was selected from Gag site at Riversleigh, which were examined with other specimens obtained at a nearby named as the Microsite; the holotype is part of a right maxillary. The specific epithet honour a fellow researcher of the author, Henk Godthelp, who had noticed the first evidence of the fossil deposits containing the diverse and numerous bats that would be discovered at Riversleigh. A species of the Megadermatidae family, predators with dentition that assists in the capture and consumption of insects or vertebrate animals.
Macroderma godthelpi was discovered in an area of northwest Queensland, dominated by rainforest during the early Miocene, overlying a karst system that provided roosting opportunities for a diverse array of bat species. The Riversleigh fauna is represented by megadermatid species and others of the Chiroptera order creating well preserved fossil depositions at the floor of limestone caves; the sites of former bat eyries at Riversleigh included the remains of themselves and prey selected from the local fauna, with butchered parts and defecated fragments becoming preserved in conditions ideal for fossilisation. A depiction of the species by Peter Schouten was published in 1983, two years before the formal description; the illustration gave a reconstruction of the animal, based on the ongoing research into fossil specimens, that showed it clasping a small bird, a passerine species of the Riversleigh fauna whose remains have been found beneath their feeding roost
Kim Kuzma is a Canadian musician. Her award-winning debut CD Contradictions received positive reviews from critics and held the No. 1 spot on the HMV Vancouver indie sales charts for over seven and a half months. Walt Grealis, founder of the Canadian Juno Awards, called Contradictions "pretty powerful stuff". Contradictions It's Christmas, cd single Who You Are A Walk On the Clouds, cd single from the full-length CD entitled Les Allumeurs de Reves by Samuel Sixto featuring Kim Kuzma Meant To Fly, Official Anthem of the 2007 Vancouver BG Triathlon World Cup Guardian Angels, cd maxi-single I Am Alive, ep Acustico Voted Canada's Best Independent Artist in 2001 by fans at http://canadian-music.com, Kuzma continued to build on her career by collaborating with other artists on the studio album, Who You Are released in Fall 2005. Interlaced with the strong, soaring vocals that she is best known for, Who You Are was a bold release from Kuzma. A pulsing collection of remixed pop songs and original dance music, this new album features a remix of Bagdad Café's hit "Calling you", The Beach Boys’ "God only knows" and Kim's originals "I’d Miss You", "Come Along", "Price You Pay".
Recorded at Aureus Studios in San Francisco, by Composer & Producer, Steven Marc Trier, Kuzma explores a side of herself in this album that her fans get to experience during her live shows. Kuzma has performed solo shows at the Plush Room and Martuni’s, opened the show for legendary singer Harry Belafonte in the Wine Country and shared the stage of the Palace of Fine Arts and The Castro Theatre with the renowned San Francisco Gay Men's Chorus. Mister Marcus from the Bay Area Reporter called Kuzma "an absolute hit with the audience", encouraged his readers to "keep an eye on this name!" Kuzma has performed live in the PRIDE parade in San Francisco and Vancouver. She headlines PRIDE and community concerts in her native Canada. Kim has performed for five years as a headliner of the TD Canada Trust Music Davie Day Community Concert in Vancouver. In 2001, Kim won the West Coast Music Award for "Best Independent Release" for her debut CD Contradictions. Kim received five nominations that same year including Artist of the Year.
Kim’s debut CD Contradictions held the No.1 spot on the top of HMV Robson Street’s independent chart for 7.5 months Within only 3 days of its release, Contradictions charted as the No.2 top selling CD on the major charts at HMV, Robson Street, Vancouver The CD stayed in the Top 10 for 3 weeks and the Top 50 for 5 weeks Kim’s in-store performance at HMV Robson Street, drew a record in-store crowd and sold a record number of CD’s for an in-store performance by an independent artist Contradictions was the No. 1 top selling independent CD at HMV Robson Street, Vancouver for 1999 and 2000. The first pressing of Kim’s Contradictions CD sold within the first two weeks of its release. Canada: National Post newspaper profile of Kim's five award nominations for West Coast Music Awards RPM Weekly industry magazine Shared Vision magazine The Georgia Straight newspaper West Ender newspaper The Province newspaper USA: Bay Area Reporter San Francisco NapaNews Ventura County Reporter In press Kim's debut CD has received rave reviews and some of these include: "Pretty powerful stuff!"
- Walt Grealis, Editor, RPM Weekly Magazine. - Dugg Simpson, Vancouver Folk Music Fest "I love this woman's voice!… There's a certain girl-next-door warmness wrapped around her multi-octave voice-a believability that brings each song a little closer to the heart." - John Beaudin, Shared Vision Magazine. "4 out of 5 stars... Kuzma has produced one of the year's strongest and most engaging indie-Vancouver albums." - Tom Zillich, West Ender