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Italian occupation of France

Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by the Kingdom of Italy in two stages during World War II. The occupation lasted from June 1940 until the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces in September 1943, when Italian troops on French soil retreated under pressure from the Germans; the initial Italian occupation of France territory occurred in June 1940. The German offensive against the Low Countries and France began on 10 May and by the middle of May German forces were on French soil. By the start of June, British forces were evacuating from the pocket in Northern France. On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war against the British. Ten days the Italian army invaded France. On 24 June 1940, after the Fall of France and France signed the Franco-Italian Armistice, two days after the cessation of hostilities between France and Germany, agreeing upon an Italian zone of occupation; this initial zone of occupation annexed to the Kingdom of Italy was 832 square kilometres and contained 28,500 inhabitants.

The largest town contained within the initial Italian zone of occupation was Menton. The main city inside the "demilitarized zone" of 50 km from the former border with the Italian Alpine Wall was Nice. In November 1942, in conjunction with Case Anton, the German occupation of most of Vichy France, the Royal Italian Army expanded its occupation zone. Italian forces took control of Toulon and all of Provence up to the river Rhône, with the island of Corsica. Nice and Corsica were to be annexed to Italy, in order to fulfil the aspirations of Italian irredentists, but this was not completed because of the Italian surrender to the Allies in September 1943 when the Germans took over the Italian occupation zones. The area of south-east France occupied by the Italians has been disputed. A study of the postal history of the region has cast new light on the part of France controlled by the Italians and the Germans.. By studying mail, censored by the occupying power, this study showed that the Italians occupied the eastern part up to a "line" joining Toulon - Gap - Grenoble - Chambéry - Annecy - Geneva.

Places occupied by the Italians west of this were transitory. The Italian Army of occupation in southern France in November 1942 was made up of four infantry divisions with 136,000 soldiers and 6,000 officers, while in Corsica there were 66,000 soldiers with 3,000 officers. There was no guerrilla war against the Italians in France until summer 1943 and they faced no opposition from the Vichy Army. Instead, The Vichy regime that controlled southern France was friendly toward Italy, seeking concessions of the sort Germany would never make in its occupation zone. Many thousands of Jews moved to the Italian zone of occupation to escape Nazi persecution in Vichy France. Nearly 80% of the remaining 300,000 French Jews took refuge there after November 1942; the book Robert O. Paxton's Vichy France, Old Guard, New Order describes how the Italian zone acted as a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Vichy France during the occupation; the Italian Jewish banker Angelo Donati had an important role in convincing the Italian civil and military authorities to protect the Jews from French persecution.

In January 1943 the Italians refused to cooperate with the Nazis in rounding up the Jews living in the occupied zone of France under their control and in March prevented the Nazis from deporting Jews in their zone. German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop complained to Mussolini that "Italian military circles... lack a proper understanding of the Jewish question."However, when the Italians signed the armistice with the Allies, German troops invaded the former Italian zone on 8 September 1943 and initiated brutal raids. Alois Brunner, the SS official for Jewish affairs, was placed at the head of units formed to search out Jews. Within five months, 5,000 Jews deported. In August 1940, the Italian Royal Navy established a submarine base at Bordeaux, outside Italian-occupied France. Operating from Bordeaux Sommergibile as it was known, thirty-two Italian submarines participated in the Battle of the Atlantic; these submarines sank 109 Allied merchant ships and 18 warships up to September 1943.

Eleven of these submarines were lost. In addition to Nice/Nizza and Corsica, the Italians projected further territorial claims for the defeated France. In 1940, The Italian Armistice Commission produced two detailed plans concerning the future of the occupied French territories. Plan'A' presented an Italian military occupation all the way to the river Rhone, in which France would maintain its territorial integrity except for Corsica and Nizza. Plan'B' encompassed the Italian annexation of the Alpes Maritimes and parts of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Hautes Alpes and Savoie; the territory would be administrated as the new Italian region of Alpi Occidentali with the town of Briançon acting as the provincial capital. The 2017 film A Bag of Marbles features scenes of Jewish life under Italian occupation; the BBC sit-com'Allo,'Allo, set in WW2 occupied France, portrays a fictitious Italian army officer Captain Bertorelli, in addition to German Wehrmacht officers. Italian invasion of France France–Italy relations Alpine Wall Alpine Line Military history of Italy during World War II Italian-occupied Corsica Ghetti, Walter.

Storia della Marina Italiana nella seconda guerra mondiale

Manitoba Campaign to Ban Landmines

The Manitoba Campaign to Ban Landmines was Canada's only provincial campaign to ban landmines. It was a registered non-profit organization in the province of Manitoba; the MBCBL was a member of the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize co-laureate International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Mines Action Canada, the Cluster Munition Coalition. The MBCBL was launched on 1 March 2002 at a ceremony at the Manitoba Legislature in Winnipeg. Premier Gary Doer and Deputy Premier Jean Friesen attended the ceremony and were joined by students from a number of Winnipeg area schools; the main goals of the MBCBL were to raise awareness in Manitoba of the global landmine crisis and to encourage Manitobans to take action to help solve that problem. Much of the MBCBL's outreach work was focused on engaging with schools throughout Manitoba. In early 2005, the MBCBL launched a fundraising campaign for the One Love Project in Rwanda which raised nearly $40,000; the One Love Project builds and repairs prostheses and orthoses for landmine survivors and other disabled people.

Its orthopedic workshop is based in Kigali, its mobile clinic travels to all of Rwanda's twelve provinces. In 2007, the One Love Project began to expand its operations into neighbouring Burundi. In 2008, the MBCBL added the National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation in Jordan to its fundraising efforts. In 2014, the MBCBL underwent a change in focus and was rebranded as Manitobans Against Indiscriminate Weapons; the new non-profit organization continues to focus on the landmine issue but has added cluster munitions and other indiscriminate weapons to its mandate

Band-tailed barbthroat

The band-tailed barbthroat is a medium-sized hummingbird, a resident breeder from southeastern Guatemala and Belize to western Ecuador and western Venezuela. This hermit species inhabits the understory of woodland edges and old second growth, it occurs in the lowlands up to an elevation of 800 m, although young birds may wander higher. The nest is a cup of plant fibres attached 2–4 m high on the underside of a Heliconia or sometimes a banana leaf; the female alone incubates the two white eggs. The band-tailed barbthroat is 10.2–11 cm long and weighs 5–5.8 g. it has a long decurved bill, and, as with other hermit hummingbirds, the sexes are similar. The adult has a dark ear patch and dusky malar stripe; the chest is rusty-orange and the underparts are otherwise grey. Young birds have buff feather tips; the southern subspecies T. r. venezuelensis is somewhat duller on the breast than the nominate northern race. The band-tailed barbthroat has a high thin tseep call, the male's song, given alone or at a lek, is a didiDIT dew dew in the Caribbean lowlands, but on the Pacific side the song is longer and includes trills and warbles.

Like other hermits, this barbthroat visits separated flowers including: Heliconia and bananas, the male is less aggressively territorial than other male hummingbirds. Hilty, Birds of Venezuela, ISBN 0-7136-6418-5 Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4 Band-tailed Barbthroat photo.

Sonnet 1

Sonnet 1 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a procreation sonnet within the Fair Youth sequence. Sonnet 1 is the first in a series of 154 sonnets written by William Shakespeare and published in 1609 by Thomas Thorpe. Nineteenth-century critics thought Thorpe might have published the poems without Shakespeare's consent, but modern scholars don't agree and consider that Thorpe maintained a good reputation. Sonnet 1 is the first of the "Fair Youth" sonnets, in which an unnamed young man is being addressed by the speaker. Patrick Cheney comments on this: "Beginning with a putatively male speaker imploring a beautiful young man to reproduce, concluding with a series of poems – the dark lady poems – that affiliate consummated heterosexual passion with incurable disease, Shakespeare's Sonnets radically and deliberately disrupt the conventional narrative of erotic courtship". Sonnet 1 serves as being a kind of introduction to the rest of the sonnets, may have been written than the ones that follow.

The "procreation sonnets" urge this youth to not reproduce. Joseph Pequigney notes: "the opening movement give expression to one compelling case... The first mode of preservation entertained is procreation, urged without letup in the first fourteen poems and twice again"; the identity of the "Fair Youth" is not known. H.” mentioned in the dedication of the 1609 quarto: "Henry Wriothesley, third earl of Southampton, or William Herbert, third earl of Pembroke". Both were patrons of Shakespeare but at different times – Wriothesley in the 1590s and Herbert in the 1600s. Though the idea that the Fair Youth and the W. H. are the same person has been doubted, it is considered possible that the Fair Youth may be based on one person in the first 17 sonnets and based on another person in other sonnets. See: Identity of "Mr. W. H." In Sonnet 1 the speaker engages in an argument with the youth regarding procreation. Scholar Helen Vendler sums up Sonnet 1: "The different rhetorical moments of this sonnet are permeable to one another's metaphors, so that the rose of philosophical reflection yields the bud of direct address, the famine of address yields the glutton who, in epigram, eats the world's due".

Shakespeare's sonnets do not follow the sonnet form established by the Italian poet Petrarch. According to Robert Matz, "Shakespeare transforms the sonnet convention". Shakespeare brings in themes that were unusual at the time. Shakespeare's audience would have interpreted such an aggressive tone as improper encouragement of procreation. In fact, the other sonnets of the time revered chastity. However, Shakespeare "does not engage in stock exaltation of the chastity of the beloved, but instead accuses the young man of gluttonous self-consumption in his refusal to produce a'tender heir' who would continue his beauty beyond the inexorable decay of aging". Sonnets are about romantic love between the speaker and the beloved but Shakespeare does not do this. Instead, Shakespeare urges the young man to have procreate with a woman in marriage; this sonnet is the first one of the collection of sonnets published in the 1609 quarto. According to Helen Vendler, this sonnet can be “as an index to the rest of the sonnets" because it brings "into play such a plethora of conceptual material.

Vendler says that because of the "sheer abundance of values and concepts important in the sequence which are called into play" and "the number of significant words brought to our attention" in this sonnet, that it may have been composed late in the writing process, placed first "as a'preface' to the others". Philip Martin says that Sonnet 1 is important to the rest because it "states the themes for the sonnets following and for the sequence at large". To him, the themes are announced in this sonnet and the ones develop those themes. Joseph Pequigney says that Sonnet 1 may be "a befitting way to begin the least conventional of Renaissance love-sonnet sequences", it provides a "production of metaphorical motifs that will recur in the upcoming sonnets in the next fourteen or so. Donald A. Stauffer says that the sonnets "may not be in an order, correct but no one can deny that they are related and that they do show some development some'story' if incomplete and unsatisfactory". Sonnet 1 has the traditional characteristics of a Shakespearean sonnet—three quatrains and a couplet written in iambic pentameter with an ABAB CDCD EFEF GG rhyme scheme.

Many of Shakespeare's sonnets reflect the two-part structure of the Italian Petrarchan Sonnet. In this type of sonnet "the first eight lines are logically or metaphorically set against the last six an octave-generalization will be followed by a particular sestet-application, an octave question will be followed by a sestet answer or at least a quatrain answer before the summarizing couplet". In lines one through four of this sonnet, Shakespeare writes about references memory. Here, Shakespeare chooses to rhyme "increase" and "decease", "die" and "memory" and proceeds to use "eyes" and "lies", "fuel" and "cruel" as rhymes in the second quatrain. In lines five through twelve, Shakespeare sh

Eugenio Duarte

Eugenio Duarte is an ordained minister and 37th General Superintendent in the Church of the Nazarene. Born in Cape Verde, Duarte was the first African and the first non-North American elected to the General Superintendency in the Church of the Nazarene, his election occurred in the centenary year of the denomination. Duarte was elected June 2009 at the 27th General Assembly of the Church of the Nazarene. Duarte was born on the island of one of the Cape Verde Islands. Upon his completion of high school in the city of Mindelo, he was chosen by the Portuguese, who governed the Cape Verde Islands at that time, to be secretary to the administrator on the island of May. While there, he was active in the work of the Church of the Nazarene, he met and married Maria Teresa, serving as postmaster on the island. When Cape Verde received its independence from Portugal, the new government asked Duarte to go to Moscow to study electrical engineering, he began to preach. Duarte holds two master's degrees. One in leadership from California's Azusa Pacific University.

And another one in Business Administration from Northwest Nazarene University. He received an honorary Doctorate degree in 2009 from Africa Nazarene University, in Nairobi Kenya. Dr. Duarte speaks several languages, including English and three African languages, he was ordained at the Cape Verde District Assembly in 1981 by general superintendent Orville Jenkins. He has served the Church of the Nazarene in various ministry capacities, including pastor, district treasurer, district superintendent, field strategy coordinator, most as director of the church's Africa Region. Eugenio Duarte and his wife, Maria Teresa, have three sons, Sergio and Richard, they live in Lenexa, Kansas, USA. Bio and testimony of Eugenio Duarte

Susan Harper (diplomat)

Susan Harper is a senior Canadian diplomat with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. She served as Canadian Ambassador to Uruguay from 2001 to 2004, she served as Chair of the Arctic Council from 2014 - 2015. Harper joined Foreign Affairs Canada in 1983, she has been on posting to Yaoundé, Washington D. C. and Buenos Aires. She served as President of the Professional Association of Foreign Service Officers, the organization that represents Canada's professional diplomats. Harper is an alumna of Queen's University and Ivey School of Business at University of Western Ontario, where she obtained an MBA in 1983, she is a polyglot and speaks English and Spanish. In January 2016, Harper was appointed as Consul General of Canada in Miami, Florida