Trappola is an early 16th-century Venetian trick-taking card game which spread to most parts of Central Europe and survived, in various forms and under various names like Trapulka and Hundertspiel until the middle of the 20th century. It was played with a special pack of Italian-suited cards and last reported to have been manufactured in Prague in 1944. Piatnik has reprinted their old Trappola deck for collectors; the original Venetian version played without trumps or bidding. It is the earliest known trick-taking game where the ace has been promoted above the king and played with a stripped deck. From the 17th to 19th centuries, the game became popular in Central Europe after it declined in its homeland. In the 18th century, Central Europeans created versions that included three or four players, partnerships and bidding. Trappola's focus on winning the last trick with a low card influenced other card games such as Tapp-Tarock. Other forms of Trappola, like Špady and Šestadvacet, were popular in the Czechoslovakia before World War II when the last Trappola cards were produced.
Trappola is to be the first card game encountered by Greeks as the Greek word for playing card is "Τράπουλα", a transliteration of Trappola. It may have entered into the Greek language from the Venetian-occupied Ionian Islands during the 16th century. In Corfu, Aspioti-ELKA produced Venetian pattern cards until 1940. A genuine Trappola game the only known survivor of the Trappola group is the game Stovkahra known as Brčko, played by the Czechs of Romania in the village of Șumița, situated in the Banat region of Romania. In the absence of available Trappola cards, players there have resorted to using a 32-card German-suited deck; the reverse game, name applied to various negative point trick games in Italy is reported to be played in Trieste. The earliest standard pattern associated with this game dates to the mid-17th century, it may have been inspired by the cards used in Trento which lay between Austria. Trappola cards are among the first to become double-ended in the 18th century. Trappola packs have only 36 cards, lacking numerals from three to six, using the Italian suits of swords, batons and coins.
It uses the Italian face cards of King and Foot-soldier. The names of the suits, called Denáry, Kopy, Špády and Baštony in Czech language, are loan words borrowed from their Italian counterparts; the earliest surviving rules were recorded by Gerolamo Cardano in his 1564 Liber de Ludo Aleae. Trappola, in its original form, is a game for 2 players, the dealer and an opponent, with 9 cards dealt to each player in batches of four and five; the opponent, if not satisfied with his cards, may discard them face up on the table and take in its place the first nine cards of the stock. If still not satisfied, he may do the same thing again, but must play with the last nine cards taken from the stock. If he leaves any, the dealer may exercise the same option either once or twice, depending on how many cards remain. Exposed discards may not be taken up during the play; the cards are ranked from highest to lowest: A K C J 10 9 8 7 2 in each suit. A player holding three or four Aces, Kings and Jacks, or Deuces, may declare them any time before playing one of them to a trick, provided that, having only three, he has not captured the fourth in a trick.
He needs to say no more than "three" or "four", as the case may be, unless they are Aces, when he must add "Aces" to his declaration. The appropriate scores are not made; the opponent leads to the first trick, the winner of this trick leads to the next. Suit must be followed if possible, otherwise any card may be played. A trick is taken by the highest card of the suit led. After all cards are played, the score is calculated by adding the points from melds declared at the start of the game, the points from captured cards, bonuses achieved. After scoring this hand, the opponent becomes the next dealer
King (playing card)
The king is a playing card with a picture of a king on it. The king is the highest-ranking face card. In French playing cards and tarot decks, the king outranks the queen. In Italian and Spanish playing cards, the king outranks the knight. In German and Swiss playing cards, the king outranks the Ober. In some games, the king is the highest-ranked card. Aces began outranking kings around 1500 with Trappola being the earliest known game in which the aces were highest in all four suits. In the Ace-Ten family of games such as pinochle and schnapsen, both the ace and the 10 rank higher than the king; the king card is the most universal court card. It most originated in Persian Ganjifeh where kings are depicted as seated on thrones and outranking the viceroy cards which are mounted on horses. Playing cards were transmitted to Spain via the Mamluks and Moors; the best preserved and most complete deck of Mamluk cards, the Topkapı pack, did not display human figures but just listed their rank most due to religious prohibition.
It is not secure if the Topkapı pack was representative of all Mamluk decks as it was a custom-made luxury item used for display. A fragment of what may be a seated king card was recovered in Egypt which may explain why the poses of court cards in Europe resemble those in Persia and India. Seated kings were common throughout Europe. During the 15th century, the Spanish started producing standing kings; the French used Spanish cards before developing their regional deck patterns. Many Spanish court designs were reused when the French invented their own suit-system around 1480; the English imported their cards from Rouen until the early 17th century when foreign card imports were banned. The king of hearts is sometimes called the "suicide king" because he appears to be sticking his sword into his head; this is a result of centuries of bad copying by English card makers where the king's axe head has disappeared. Starting in the 15th century, French manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology.
This practice survives only in the Paris pattern which ousted all its rivals, including the Rouen pattern around 1780. The names for the kings in the Paris pattern are: Most French-suited continental European patterns are descended from the Paris pattern but they have dropped the names associated with each card. Kings from French playing cards: Kings from Italian playing cards: Kings from Spanish playing cards: Kings from German playing cards: List of poker hand nicknames
Bergamo is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy 40 km northeast of Milan, about 30 km from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps begin north of the city. With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo; the metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people; the city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta, nestled within a system of hills, the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017. Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Turin, Verona and Trieste.
The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia and Cividale del Friuli: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165.
The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. 1250, but he returned to Bergamo in the 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would lead to the Imperial Thurn und Taxis dynasty credited with organizing the first modern postal service. After a short period under the House of Malatesta starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the Duchy of Milan to the Republic of Venice in the context of the Wars in Lombardy and the aftermath of the 1427 Battle of Maclodio. Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the Italian Wars, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire; the wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains.
As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire. The Treaty of Campo Formio formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the Cisalpine Republic, a "sister republic" of the French First Republic, superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Bergamo was assigned to the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire; the visit of Ferdinand I in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station, inaugurated in 1857. The Austrian rule was at first welcomed, but challenged by Italian independentist insurrections in 1848. Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Bergamo in 1859, during the Second Italian War of Independence; as a result, the city was incorporated into the newly founded Kingdom of Italy.
For its contribution to the Italian unification movement, Bergamo is known as Città dei Mille, because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his expedition against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came from Bergamo and its environs. During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas. In 1907, Marcello Piacentini devised a new urban master plan, implemented between 1912 and 1927, in a style reminiscent of Novecento Italiano and Modernist Rationalism; the 2017 43rd G7 summit on agriculture was held in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in Taormina. The "Charter of Bergamo" is an international commitment, signed during the summit, to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, ensure price transparency; the town has two centres: Città alta, a hilltop medieval town, surrounded by 16th-century defensive walls, the Città bassa. The two parts of the town are connected by funicular and footpaths.
The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, forms the historic centre of Bergamo. Walking along the narrow medieval streets, you can visi
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
French playing cards
French playing cards are cards that use the French suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques. Each suit contains three face cards. Aside from these aspects, decks can include a wide variety of regional and national patterns which have different deck sizes. In comparison to Spanish, Italian and Swiss playing cards, French cards are the most widespread due to the geopolitical and cultural influence of France and the United Kingdom in the past two centuries. Other reasons for their popularity were the simplicity of the suit insignia, which simplifies mass production, the popularity of whist and contract bridge. Playing cards arrived in Europe from Mamluk Egypt around 1370 and were reported in France in 1377; the French suit insignia was derived from German suits around 1480. Between the transition from the suit of bells to tiles there was a suit of crescents. One of the most distinguishing features of the French cards is the queen. Mamluk cards and their derivatives, the Latin suited and German suited cards, all have three male face cards.
Queens began appearing in Italian tarot decks in the mid-15th century and some German decks replaced two kings with queens. While other decks abandoned the queen in non-tarot decks, the French kept them and dropped the knight as the middle face card. Face card design was influenced by Spanish cards that used to circulate in France. One of the most obvious traits inherited from Spain are the standing kings. Spanish-suited cards are still used in France in Northern Catalonia, Brittany and the Vendée with the latter two using the archaic Aluette cards. In the 19th century, corner indices and rounded corners were added and cards became reversible, relieving players from having to flip face cards right side up; the index for aces and face cards follow the local language but many decks of the Paris pattern use the numeral "1" for aces. The French suited deck has spawned many regional variations known as standard patterns based on their artwork and deck size; the Paris pattern was exported throughout continental Europe, why most French-suited patterns share a similar appearance.
The English pattern, based on the extinct Rouennais pattern, is the most well known pattern in the world. Note that patterns do not factor in Jokers as they are a recent addition which leads to every manufacturer making their own trademarked depiction of this card. All 52-card packs produced in the present will contain at least two jokers unless otherwise noted; the Paris pattern became known as the portrait officiel. From the 19th century to 1945, the appearance of the cards used for domestic consumption was regulated by the French government. All cards were produced on watermarked paper made by the state to show payment of the stamp tax; the most common deck sold in France is the 32-card deck with the 2 to 6 removed and 1s as the index for aces. 52-card decks are popular. The French have a unique habit of associating their face cards with historic or mythical personages which survives only in the portrait officiel; the Belgian-Genoese pattern is similar to its Parisian parent and is an export version not subject to France's domestic stamp tax.
The jack of clubs has a triangular shield bearing the coat of arms of the former Spanish Netherlands, face cards are unnamed, blue is replaced with green in the portraits. The diagonal dividing line lacks the beads; when the Ottoman Empire relaxed the ban against playing cards, Belgian type cards flooded their territory and is now found throughout the Balkans, North Africa, the Middle East. They are commonly found in France's former colonies. Within Belgium, the Francophone Walloons are the primary users of this pattern, the Flemish prefer the Dutch pattern; this is the second most common pattern in the world after the English pattern. Belgian decks come in either 52 cards like in France. Genoese type cards lack corner indices, they come in 40, or 52 card decks. The Piedmontese pattern is similar to the Genoese packs but its face cards have a horizontal instead of diagonal dividing line and the aces are found in a decorative garland, they come in the same number of cards as Genoese ones. The Piedmontese pattern was once used in neighboring Savoy as both were united until France annexed the latter in 1860.
A 78 card tarot version of the Piedmontese pattern, complete with knights, the fool, a suit of trumps depicting flowers, corner indices, was printed in 1902 for Savoyard players. It was discontinued some time after 1910 but reproductions have been in print since 1984; the Chambéry rules that come with the deck are similar to Piedmontese tarot games but the ace ranked between the jack and the 10 like in Triomphe. It should not be confused with the Italian-suited Piedmontese tarot. A Parisian variant appeared in Bavaria in the mid-18th century where the king of diamonds wore a turban; this originates from the German-suited Old Bavarian pattern. The king of spades, who used to represent David, no longer holds a harp; this group is associated with animal tarots. The Russian pattern created during the early 19th-century is based on a Baltic version of a Bavarian derivative; the current appearance was finalized by Adolf Charlemagne. It contains 52 or 36 cards, the latter lacking ranks 2 to 5; the stripped deck is used to play Durak.
They can be found in many countries that were once part of the Russian Soviet Union. Adler-Ceg
Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies immediately south and east of the city, it is located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin and Germanic cultures. In 2018, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia; the metropolitan population of Trieste is 410,000, with the city comprising about 240,000 inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport; as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and music.
Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. The original pre-Roman name of the city, with the -est- suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market". Roman authors transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek: Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech: Terst. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia; the city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. Built on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea; the karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level.
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation; the average temperatures are 24.1 °C in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are pleasantly low, while only two months receive less than 60 mm of precipitation. Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total. Snow occurs on average 0 – 2 days per year. Temperatures are mild—lows below zero are somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C aren't as common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are lower than with quite high minima. Two basic weather patterns interchange—sunny, sometimes windy but very cold days connected to an occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days with temperatures about 6 to 11 °C. Summer is warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, with the hot nights being influenced by the warm sea water.
The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is 38.0 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −7.9 °C in 1996. The Trieste area is divided into 8a–10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; the climate can be affected by the Bora, a dry and cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for some days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h on the piers of the port, thus sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city. Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts: Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello · Prosecco · Santa Croce Altipiano Est: Banne · Basovizza · Gropada · Opicina · Padriciano · Trebiciano Barcola · Cologna · Conconello · Gretta · Grignano · Guardiella · Miramare · Roiano · Scorcola Barriera Nuova · Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi · Sant'Andrea · Cavana Barriera Vecchia · San Giacomo · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore Cattinara · Chiadino · San Luigi · Guardiella · Longera · San Giovanni · Rozzol · Melara Chiarbola · Coloncovez · Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore · Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore · Servola · Poggi Paese · Poggi Sant'Anna · Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San SergioThe iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, between the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many narrow and crooked streets.
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. An Illy