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Itasca County, Minnesota

Itasca County is a county located in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 45,058, its county seat is Grand Rapids. The county is named after Lake Itasca, in turn a shortened version of the Latin words veritas caput, meaning'truth' and'head', a reference to the source of the Mississippi River. Portions of the Bois Forte and Leech Lake Indian reservations are in the county. Itasca County was first formed upon the creation of the Minnesota Territory, it was a much larger county, which covered many of today's northeastern Minnesota counties. The original Itasca County stretched over Cook, Saint Louis, eastern Lake of the Woods, eastern Beltrami, northern Aitkin, northern Carlton counties, today in Minnesota. Itasca County was named for Lake Itasca, determined to be the true source of the Mississippi River. After many disputes over finding the source of the Mississippi River, Henry Schoolcraft set out to find its true source in 1832. Once he came upon its true source, he decided to name this'Lake Itasca.'

The Mississippi River flows from its small beginnings at Lake Itasca, where it can be crossed on foot. It flows past Bemidji, through Itasca County, continues to the Gulf of Mexico; the terrain of Itasca County is hilly wooded, studded with lakes and ponds. It slopes to the east, with its highest areas on its upper west border, at 1,437' ASL; the county has a total area of 2,928 square miles, of which 2,668 square miles is land and 260 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in Minnesota by land area; the landscape in Itasca County varies greatly. The low plains, rolling hills, wetlands occur where there was glacial activity in the past; this area is known for being forested, has been for centuries. The different forests are made up of trees such as pines, hardwoods and tamarack; the many large forests in the area make logging major sectors in the economy. In Itasca County there are many different bodies of water from big lakes, to small creeks, to major rivers. Over 1400 lakes are located within the county.

These bodies of water help support many different wildlife species such as different birds and small mammals. Major bodies of water in the county include Lake Winnibigoshish, Pokegama Lake, Deer Lake, the Mississippi River, Bowstring Lake, the Blandin Paper Mill Reservoir; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 43,992 people, 17,789 households, 12,381 families in the county. The population density was 16.5/sqmi. There were 24,528 housing units at an average density of 9.19/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 94.64% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 3.40% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. 0.60 % of the population were Latino of any race. 25.6% were of German, 13.8% Norwegian, 7.7% Finnish, 7.2% Swedish, 6.2% Irish, 5.0% United States or American and 5.0% English ancestry. There were 17,789 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families.

26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.91. The county population contained 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,234, the median income for a family was $44,025. Males had a median income of $37,066 versus $22,327 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,717. About 7.70% of families and 10.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. Ball Club Inger Itasca County voters had tended to vote Democratic since the Great Depression; the county selected the Democratic Party candidate in every Presidential election between 1932 and 2012, as with neighbouring St. Louis County, Carlton County and Lake County.

However, in 2016 Donald Trump became the first Republican Presidential candidate to win the county since Herbert Hoover. National Register of Historic Places listings in Itasca County, Minnesota Itasca County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Itasca County

Smelly socks

Smelly socks are socks that have acquired a strong odour due to prolonged wearing. Their odour, complex and remains the object of study, is a mixture of ammonia, fatty acids, lactic acid. Odorous socks are a strong attractant including dogs and mosquitos, they have proven useful in controlling the behavior of these animals. Although the odour of smelly socks is associated with feet, it arises independently of contact with human feet in various foodstuffs such as dairy products, cheeses and fish sauce, is present in several plants; the smell has been noted in building and automotive air treatment systems, where it is described as "jock socks odor" or "dirty socks syndrome". Several technologies have been developed to incorporate materials into sock textiles which reduce or eliminate the strong smell. Compounds which cause socks to smell intensively include: butyric acid, which smells like rancid butter dimethyl disulphide, which smells like onions dimethyl trisulphide 2-heptanone, which smells like bananas 2-nonanone, which smells like fat, fruit or flowers 2-octanone, which smells like apples The intense odor of smelly socks results from bacterial action upon sweat which accumulates due to confining footwear.

The odor has presented itself as a problem among users of prosthetics. Smelly socks may be a source of air contamination in aircraft and dwellings, their distinctive odour is used as a reference. A 1996 Popular Mechanics article describes "jock socks odor" complaints as one of the magazine's most frequent queries with regard to automotive air conditioning systems, attributing the odor to fungal growth within the auto; the term "Dirty Sock Syndrome" is used to describe unpleasant odors that arise in building heating and cooling systems. High-efficiency heat pumps in the southeastern US have been noted as frequent offenders; the odor is a diagnostic feature of Isovaleric acidemia. A widespread consumer perception of the odor in the medication metformin used to treat Type 2 diabetes, may have contributed to patient refusals of the treatment. A test of olfactory abilities deemed useful in Japan employs detection of "sweaty socks" odor, along with two other odors, as a useful metric of these abilities.

When fresh, alkyl nitrites or "poppers", smell fruity, but when stale their aroma seems like smelly socks. There are various products designed to handle the problem of smelly socks, by containing the smell or eliminating it. In a police station in Brighton England, the police installed a stinkproof locker to keep prisoners' smelly socks in while they are in custody. Several technologies have been developed to address the problem by modifying the composition of sock materials. In February 1997, The Daily Mirror reported that a new fabric had been invented by British scientists to eliminate smelly socks. Disinfectant treatments such as silver nanoparticles may be applied to socks to prevent them from smelling; the United States Air Force Academy issued a 2009 request to vendors that included socks incorporating antimicrobial silver yarn technology. This technology has encountered some opposition. In 2000, the University of California announced a joint venture with private companies to develop socks that would reduce the problem by incorporating halamine compounds, a stable form of chlorine.

In 2005 Dow Corning proposed the incorporation of alkoxysilanes as a preventive measure. Researchers reported, in 2011, on a technique to permanently block the development of pathogenic germs, which can cause odor in socks and other clothing. A team led by Jason Lockli of the University of Georgia reported in the American Chemical Society's Applied Materials and Interfaces that the anti-microbial treatment of "smelly socks" could "offer low cost protection for healthcare facilities, such as hospitals." In a study of the odours most to attract mosquitos, smelly socks were found to be the most effective, topping the list along with Limburger cheese. Their strong odour will attract other dangerous wild animals such as bear; because this smell is so effective at attracting mosquitos, its use has been explored for mosquito control in places where malaria is prevalent. An imitation foot odour has been synthesised at the University of Wageningen; the synthetic odour is used to bait traps which attract the mosquitos and so divert them from biting people.

The synthetic mixture of ammonia, fatty acids, lactic acid is effective but not as good as real sweaty socks. The composition of the authentic smell is still being analysed to determine the remaining active ingredients. A project in Kenya funded by Grand Challenges Canada and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation involves harvesting smelly sock odour with cotton pads that are used to bait traps; the East African jumping spider or vampire spider preys upon mosquitos. It is attracted to the same smell for this reason and this has been demonstrated using an olfactometer, loaded alternately with clean and smelly socks. Dogs are attracted to the scent of socks that have been worn by humans, they may self-medicate themselves during attacks of separation anxiety by focusing on these items. The attraction is used in dog training, where the odorous socks may serve as a distractant or as a lure during crate training. Smelly socks have been used to repel deer. Benefits include they are cheap and accessible, require little effort to put out each morning, are quite effective at keeping deer out of your flower garden.

The smell of dirty s

N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase

N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase EC 3.5.1.- is a member of the choloylglycine hydrolase family, a subset of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. NAAA has a molecular weight of 31 kDa; the activation and inhibition of its catalytic site is of medical interest as a potential treatment for obesity and chronic pain. While it was discovered within the last decade, its structural similarity to the more familiar acid ceramidase and functional similarity to fatty acid amide hydrolase allow it to be studied extensively; the overall enzyme mechanism involves cleavage into two chains, one of which contains the catalytic nucleophile, believed to be a cysteine residue. Unlike FAAH, which operates in basic conditions, this enzyme must operate under acidic conditions, is inactivated at a pH of 8. Selective inhibitors of NAAA are ester and amide compounds, such as N-cyclohexanecarbonylpentadecylamine. NAAA is cleaved proteolytically at residue Cys-126. NAAA cleaves C-N non-peptide bonds in linear amides ethanolamides.

Its mechanism is quite similar to that of AC, further supported by AC's ability to cleave N-acylethanolamines, albeit at far lower rates and with different specificities. While mechanistic details are not well known, catalytic activity of NAAA is thought to be activated by Cys-126 and Asp-145. There is little information about NAAA's tertiary structure, due to its low homology to any of the other enzymes in the choloylglycine hydrolase family for which there is significant 3-dimensional structural information. In humans, this enzyme contains 359 residues. NAAA's primary structure is nearly identical to that of acid ceramidase, whose only difference is the substitution of Leu at the 334th residue, for phenylalanine; the enzyme must be N-glycosylated at six sites in order for the enzyme to operate at its maximum activity level, all of which have the peptide sequence, Asn-Xxx-Ser/Thr. Unlike AC, NAAA does not form a heterodimer through disulfide bonds, but rather remains active as two separate cleaved peptides following hydrolysis.

Fatty acid ethanolamines perform several physiological functions, most notably serving as messengers for pain and inflammation. NAAA's are found in the lysosomal compartment of macrophages, in line with most inflammation-related proteins; the gene that codes for the protein is 4q21.1. There, they perform FAE hydrolysis, the final step in the signaling cascade for pain and inflammation, yielding an ethanolamine and a fatty acid. While it processes the cleavage of many different substrates, NAAA is most active with the substrate N-palmitoylethanolamine, suggesting that this is one of the key messengers of pain. NAAA activity in rats is highest in the lungs, while in humans it is highest in the liver, so there is cross-species variability in the enzyme's selective activity. Recent studies suggest that NAAA has significance in two widespread human conditions: chronic pain and obesity. Current research focuses on inhibiting the NAAA hydrolytic active site in order to control inflammation, it is still ambiguous as to.

ARN077, a β-lactone, has been one of the most intensely tested NAAA inhibitors, with the strongest promise of inhibition, as it blocks the catalytic cysteine via a thioester bond. The lack of homology between NAAA and FAAH makes NAAA-specific targeting drugs far more feasible. However, because the fatty acid concentration circulating throughout one's bloodstream is positively correlated with obesity, decreased NAAA activity is thought to be correlated with obesity. While no drugs targeting NAAA have entered the market yet, there is substantial research being done on the activation, specific targeting and inhibition of NAAA. Activation of NAAA is spurred by the addition of phospholipids, targeted inhibition by different buffers. Findings in these areas may be able to develop drugs to combat chronic obesity. While NAAA operates much like fatty acid amide hydrolase, the two enzymes are not homolgous. On the othe rhand, NAAA is homologous to acid ceramidase, sharing 30% sequence identity at the amino acid level in humans ENSEMBL.

NAAA was discovered in 2007 as an alternative source of anandamide hydrolysis. FAAH was the only known enzyme to be responsible for the degradation of these endocannabinoids, functioning in a pH range of 8.5-10. NAAA's discovery served as an explanation for endocannabinoids and anti-inflammatory ethanolamines in acidic environments, as its peak functionality is found at a pH ~4.5-5. Because of its functional role similar to FAAH, it offers another option for drug development. ^ Kazuhito Tsuboi, Naoko Takezaki & Natsuo Ueda. "The N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase". Chemistry & Biodiversity. 4: 1914–1925. Doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790159. PMID 17712833. ^ Yong-Xin Sun, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Li-Ying Zhao, Yasuo Okamoto, Didier M. Lambert & Natsuo Ueda. "Involvement of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase in the degradation of anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines in macrophages". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1736: 211–220. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2005.08.010. PMID 16154384.

CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ^ Kazuhito Tsuboi, Yong-Xin Sun, Yasuo Okamoto, Nobukazu Araki, Takeharu Tonai & Natsuo Ueda. "Molecular characterization of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, a novel member of the choloylglycine hydrolase family with structural and functional similarity to acid ceramidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280: 11082–11092. Doi:10.1074/jbc. M413473200. PMID 15655246. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ^ Martin Kaczocha, Sherrye

Don Wildman

Don Wildman is the current host and narrator of Off Limits, Mysteries at the Museum, Monumental Mysteries on the Travel Channel. He hosted and narrated Weird Travels on the Travel Channel. Wildman was raised in Pitman, New Jersey, is a 1979 graduate of Westtown School, a Quaker boarding school located in Chester County, Pennsylvania, he wanted to follow in his father's footsteps and become a school teacher. However, after joining Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, he chose a different path and decided to pursue a career in acting, he trained as an actor at The Drama Studio in England. This list includes both television credits. Don Wildman hosts Travel Channel's'Mysteries at the Museum.' According to an article published by travel channel, "Don Wildman is fast becoming one the most recognizable faces in documentary television." Mysteries at the Museum is sitting at an impressive 8.1/10 rating on IMDb. Don Wildman on IMDb Meet Don Wildman


The genus Pauxi consists of the three species of helmeted curassows, terrestrial black fowl with ornamental casque on their heads. All are found in South America; this genus contains 3 species As indicated by analysis of mt and nDNA sequences and calibrated with geological data, this genus' ancestors diverged from those of Mitu, their closest living relatives, in the Tortonian, some 8–7.4 mya. How the present distribution in 4 small areas quite distant from each other came to be is not known. Given that helmeted curassows are birds of the foothills and uplands, it might be that the ancestral Pauxi population became fragmented by the uplift of the Andes, which in their area of distribution took place during the Late Miocene, around the Pauxi-Mitu divergence and some time after.. Pereira & Baker reported an interesting find: in the mtDNA phylogeny, Pauxi was paraphyletic, with P. unicornis being resolved as the sister species of Mitu tuberosa. This, of course, does not automatically imply that they are related or that the genera are invalid.

Rather, the authors point out, given the distinct and peculiar morphology of the two genera, incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization between ancestral individuals of the two species is a more explanation. According to their data, there must have been some extent of gene flow between Mitu tuberosa and P. unicornis around 2 mya. The authors do not provide subspecific identification of their single P. unicornis specimen. In any case, they took care to exclude captive hybridization in their choice of samples, as it is known to occur in curassows and would have confounded the analysis. Altogether, what can be said with certainty is that there seems to have been some extent of hybridization between at least one population of the southern helmeted curassow and female razor-billed curassows at the end of the Pliocene. Pereira, Sérgio Luiz & Baker, Allan J.: Vicariant speciation of curassows: a hypothesis based on mitochondrial DNA phylogeny. Auk 121: 682–694. DOI:10.1642/0004-80381212.0. CO. Systematic Biology 51: 946–958.

Doi:10.1080/10635150290102519 PMID 12554460 PDF fulltext

Renee Rabinowitz

Renee Ginsberg Rabinowitz is a Belgian-born American-Israeli Holocaust survivor and lawyer. She grew up in New York City, she earned a doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Chicago and a law degree at Notre Dame University. She taught psychology at Indiana University and served as in-house legal counsel at Colorado College. In 2016, Rabinowitz was included in the BBC 100 Women list of most influential women. In 2017, she sued El Al after the airline forced her to move her seat on a Newark–Tel Aviv flight at the request of a Haredi Jewish man who refused to sit beside her due to his religious beliefs. Renee Ginsberg was born in 1934 in Belgium, she is a survivor of the Holocaust. She was raised in New York City as an Orthodox Jew, she attended the University of Chicago where she earned a Master of Arts and doctorate in educational psychology. Her 1969 Master's thesis was titled The perceived locus of control of reinforcements among sixth-grade Negro children, her 1974 dissertation was titled Personal Causation, Role-Taking, Effectiveness with Peers: A Study of Social Competence in Elementary School Children.

She earned a law degree from Notre Dame Law School. Rabinowitz taught psychology at Indiana University, she worked at Colorado College where she served in-house legal counsel. She is a professional volunteer at the Israel Center for the Treatment of Psychotrauma; as of 2016, Rabinowitz is a retired lawyer. In December 2015, Rabinowitz was flying business class on an El Al flight from Newark, New Jersey, US to Tel Aviv, Israel, she was seated next to a Haredi Jewish man, who complained to an onboard flight attendant that he did not want to sit next to a woman because of his religious beliefs. As a result, Rabinowitz had to move seats. After speaking to Anat Hoffman, director of the Israel Religious Action Center, the organization filed a court case on her behalf for unlawful discrimination. IRAC represented Rabinowitz at the trial. In June 2017, Rabinowitz was awarded 6,500 shekels; the trial declared it unlawful for El Al to force women to move seats for religious reasons, in violation of the Prohibition of Discrimination in Products law.

The ruling required El Al to update its policy within six months to comply with Israeli discrimination law. After the verdict, IRAC lawyer Riki Shapira Rosenberg said they expected this to be extended to other airlines. In 2018, the Israel Religious Action Center attempted to run an advertising campaign reminding Israeli women that they were not required to change seats at the request of men; the proposed advertisements were blocked by the authorities. In the same year, NICE Ltd. CEO Barak Eilam criticised El Al. Speaking about the incident, IRAC said that the incident was a violation of Rabinowitz's court decision. Rabinowitz has three children from her first marriage, she was divorced from her first husband in 1986 and married Rabbi Stanley M. Wagner of Denver, Colorado in November 1990, she gained two stepchildren through her marriage to Wagner. Rabinowitz and Wagner made Aliyah to Israel in 2006 but visits the United States; as of 2017, Rabinowitz lives in an assisted-living facility in Jerusalem.

In 2016, Rabinowitz was included in the BBC 100 Women list of most influential women. Rabinowitz, Renee G.. "Internal-External Control Expectancies in Black Children of Differing Socioeconomic Status". Psychological Reports. 42: 1339–1345. Doi:10.2466/pr0.1978.42.3c.1339. Rabinowitz, Renee G.. "Applicability of the Freedom of Information Act's Disclosure Requirements to Intellectual Property". Notre Dame Law Review. 57